Nervous 2Peripheral Nervous System<br />McKinley and O’Laughlin<br />Chapter 15&16<br />
I<br />II<br />IV<br />III<br />V<br />VII<br />VI<br />VIII<br />IX<br />XI<br />X<br />XII<br />C1<br />
Cranial Nerves<br />What openings in the skull transmit the first cranial nerve?<br />Foramina of the cribriform plate of ...
What openings in the skull transmit the second cranial nerve?<br />Optic foramen (or optic canal)<br />
Oculomotor (CN III)<br />What is the function of the third cranial nerve?<br />Somatic motor: 4 extrinsic eye muscles and ...
Which cranial nerves innervate eye muscles?<br />
Superior view showing action of superior oblique muscle (down & out)<br />
Trigeminal<br />What are the functions of the fifth cranial nerve?<br />Sensory:<br />Ophthalmic: cornea, nose, forehead, ...
Cranial Nerves<br />What openings in the skull transmit the fifth cranial nerve?<br />Ophthalmic: superior orbital fissure...
Cranial Nerves<br />What is the function of the seventh cranial nerve?<br />Sensory: anterior 2/3 tongue<br />Somatic moto...
Cranial Nerves<br />What openings in the skull transmit the seventh cranial nerve?<br />Internal auditory canal (internal ...
CN VII (Facial)<br />Passes through the parotid gland. Does it innervate it??<br />
Tell me about vestibulocochlear nerve<br />
Cranial Nerve IX<br />What is the name of the ninth cranial nerve?<br />What are its functions?<br />Sensory: posterior 1/...
Note the carotid sinus. . . Remember Master Long?<br />
CN X<br />Let’s talk about the vagabond.<br />
Cranial Nerves<br />What is the function of the tenth cranial nerve?<br />Sensory: pharynx, larynx, thoracic and abdominal...
Cranial Nerves<br />What is the function of the eleventh cranial nerve?<br />Somatic motor:<br />Cranial root: pharynx (wi...
Cranial Nerves<br />What is the function of the twelfth cranial nerve?<br />Somatic motor: intrinsic and extrinsic tongue ...
Spinal Cord and Nerves<br />What are the 2 functions of the spinal cord?<br />Pathway for motor impulses<br />Reflexes<br />
Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />What is the general shape of the spinal cord in cross-section?<br />Dorsoventrally compress...
Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />What depressions lie on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the spinal cord?<br />Anteri...
Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />Where does the spinal cord end in an adult?<br />Extends from foramen magnum to L1<br />Spi...
Gross Anatomy<br />List the regions of the spinal cord.<br />Cervical<br />Thoracic<br />Lumbar<br />Sacral<br />Coccygeal...
Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />What is the cauda equina?<br />“Horse’s tail”<br />Spinal nerves extending from end of the ...
Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?<br />31<br />List regions and associated spinal ...
Spinal Cord Meninges<br />From superficial to deep list the spaces and structures surrounding the spinal cord.<br />
Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />Within the spinal cord, where is the gray matter located and how is it shaped?<br />
Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />Within the spinal cord, what are the anterior masses of gray matter that contain the ce...
Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />What horizontal bar of gray matter surrounds the central canal within the spinal cord?<...
Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />Within the regions of the spinal cord’s gray matter what are the various functional gro...
Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />Where does the white matter of the spinal cord lie in relation to the gray matter?<br /...
Spinal Nerves<br />Anteriorly and posteriorly what are the small attachments of a spinal nerve to the spinal cord?<br />Th...
Spinal Nerves<br />The cell bodies of sensory neurons associated with the spinal cord are in what structures?<br />The cel...
Spinal Nerves<br />What are the 2 main branches of a spinal nerve?<br />Anterior and posterior rami<br />Which is larger?<...
Spinal Nerves<br />What is a specific segment of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve?<br />Dermatome<br />
Note face<br />Which areas are innervated by cauda equina nerves?<br />
Intercostal Nerves<br />The anterior rami of T1-T11 travel in intercostal spaces. What are these nerves called?<br />Inter...
Intercostal Nerves<br />In general, what do intercostal nerves innervate?<br />Intercostal muscles<br />Abdominal muscles<...
A “plexus” is a combined set of spinal nerves that are going to the same area<br />What is a network of interweaving anter...
Cervical Plexus<br />What regions of the body does the cervical plexus innervate?<br />Anterior neck muscles<br />Skin of ...
Brachial Plexus<br />What regions of the body does the brachial plexus innervate?<br />Pectoral girdle<br />Upper limbs<br />
Brachial Plexus<br />The brachial plexus arises from what spinal nerves?<br />C5-T1<br />Where is the brachial plexus loca...
Brachial Plexus<br />List the 5 (major) nerves that innervate the upper extremity.<br />Axillary nerve<br />Median nerve<b...
Brachial Plexus: Axillary Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the axillary nerve?<br />Deltoid<br />Teres minor<br...
Brachial Plexus: Median Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the median nerve?<br />Most anterior antebrachial musc...
Median nerve & carpal tunnel<br />
Brachial Plexus: Musculocutaneous<br />What is the motor innervation of the musculocutaneous nerve?<br />Anterior brachial...
Brachial Plexus: Radial Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the radial nerve?<br />Posterior brachial muscles (tri...
Brachial Plexus: Radial Nerve<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the radial nerve?<br />Posterior brachium<br />Pos...
Wrist Drop<br />The radial nerve can be damaged if the humerus (the bone of the arm) is broken, because it runs through th...
Brachial Plexus: Ulnar Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the ulnar nerve?<br />Anterior antebrachial muscles (1/...
Brachial Plexus: Ulnar Nerve<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the ulnar nerve?<br />All of medial 1.5 digits and ...
Remember your “funny bone?”<br />
Lumbar Plexus<br />The lumbar plexus arises from the anterior rami of what spinal nerves?<br />L1-L4<br />We will learn tw...
Lumbar Plexus: Femoral Nerve<br />What is the main nerve of the posterior division of the lumbar plexus?<br />Femoral nerv...
Lumbar Plexus: Femoral Nerve<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the femoral nerve?<br />Anterior thigh<br />Inferom...
Femoral nerve innervations<br />
Lumbar Plexus: Obturator nerve<br />What is the main nerve of the anterior division of the lumbar plexus?<br />Obturator n...
Lumbar Plexus: Obturator Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the obturator nerve?<br />Medial thigh muscles (adduc...
Lumbar Plexus: Other Branches<br />What other regions of the body do small branches of the lumbar plexus innervate?<br />A...
Sacral Plexus<br />The anterior rami of what spinal nerves form the sacral plexus?<br />L4-S4<br />Nerves emerging from th...
Sacral Plexus<br />What are the 2 main divisions of the sacral plexus?<br />Anterior and posterior divisions<br />Nerves o...
Sacral Plexus<br />Nerves of the sacral plexus arising from the posterior division tend to innervate what muscles?<br />Mu...
Sacral Plexus: Sciatic Nerve-anterior<br />What is the largest and longest nerve in the body?<br />Sciatic nerve<br />What...
Sacral Plexus: Sciatic Nerve: Tibial<br />What division of what nerve innervates the hamstrings?<br />Tibial division of t...
Sacral Plexus: Sciatic Nerve: Fibular<br />What nerve is formed from the posterior division of the sciatic nerve?<br />Com...
Sacral Plexus<br />What are the 2 main divisions of the common fibular nerve?<br />Deep fibular nerve<br />Superficial fib...
Sacral Plexus: Sciatic: Deep Fibular<br />What is the motor innervation of the deep fibular nerve?<br />Anterior leg muscl...
Sacral Plexus: Sciatic: Superficial Fibular<br />What is the motor innervation of the superficial fibular nerve?<br />Late...
Wow! That’s the End!<br />Now on to Autonomic Nervous System!<br />
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Peripheral Nervous System

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Overview of the human anatomy of the peripheral nervous system

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Peripheral Nervous System

  1. 1. Nervous 2Peripheral Nervous System<br />McKinley and O’Laughlin<br />Chapter 15&16<br />
  2. 2. I<br />II<br />IV<br />III<br />V<br />VII<br />VI<br />VIII<br />IX<br />XI<br />X<br />XII<br />C1<br />
  3. 3. Cranial Nerves<br />What openings in the skull transmit the first cranial nerve?<br />Foramina of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. What openings in the skull transmit the second cranial nerve?<br />Optic foramen (or optic canal)<br />
  6. 6. Oculomotor (CN III)<br />What is the function of the third cranial nerve?<br />Somatic motor: 4 extrinsic eye muscles and levator palpebrae superioris<br />Parasympathetic motor: pupil (iris) and ciliary muscle<br />
  7. 7. Which cranial nerves innervate eye muscles?<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Superior view showing action of superior oblique muscle (down & out)<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Trigeminal<br />What are the functions of the fifth cranial nerve?<br />Sensory:<br />Ophthalmic: cornea, nose, forehead, anterior scalp<br />Maxillary: nasal mucosa, palate, gums, cheek, upper teeth<br />Mandibular: anterior 2/3 of tongue, skin of chin, lower jaw and teeth, part of auricle<br />Somatic motor: muscles of mastication and others of lower face<br />
  12. 12. Cranial Nerves<br />What openings in the skull transmit the fifth cranial nerve?<br />Ophthalmic: superior orbital fissure<br />Maxillary: foramen rotundum<br />Mandibular: foramen ovale<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Cranial Nerves<br />What is the function of the seventh cranial nerve?<br />Sensory: anterior 2/3 tongue<br />Somatic motor: muscles of facial expression and others (e.g. digastric and stapedius)<br />Parasympathetic motor: submandibular and sublingual glands and lacrimal gland<br />
  15. 15. Cranial Nerves<br />What openings in the skull transmit the seventh cranial nerve?<br />Internal auditory canal (internal acoustic meatus). It takes a tortuous course to finally exit the:<br />Stylomastoid foramen<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. CN VII (Facial)<br />Passes through the parotid gland. Does it innervate it??<br />
  18. 18. Tell me about vestibulocochlear nerve<br />
  19. 19. Cranial Nerve IX<br />What is the name of the ninth cranial nerve?<br />What are its functions?<br />Sensory: posterior 1/3 of tongue, carotid sinus (blood pressure and chemistry)<br />Somatic motor: a muscle of the pharynx<br />Parasympathetic motor: parotid gland<br />What opening in the skull transmits this nerve?<br />
  20. 20. Note the carotid sinus. . . Remember Master Long?<br />
  21. 21. CN X<br />Let’s talk about the vagabond.<br />
  22. 22. Cranial Nerves<br />What is the function of the tenth cranial nerve?<br />Sensory: pharynx, larynx, thoracic and abdominal viscera, external auditory canal, tympanum<br />Somatic motor: pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles<br />Parasympathetic motor: myocardium, smooth muscle and glands of viscera<br />
  23. 23. Cranial Nerves<br />What is the function of the eleventh cranial nerve?<br />Somatic motor:<br />Cranial root: pharynx (with vagus nerve)<br />Spinal root: trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Cranial Nerves<br />What is the function of the twelfth cranial nerve?<br />Somatic motor: intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Spinal Cord and Nerves<br />What are the 2 functions of the spinal cord?<br />Pathway for motor impulses<br />Reflexes<br />
  28. 28. Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />What is the general shape of the spinal cord in cross-section?<br />Dorsoventrally compressed cylinder<br />
  29. 29. Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />What depressions lie on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the spinal cord?<br />Anterior median fissure (wider)<br />Posterior median sulcus<br />
  30. 30. Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />Where does the spinal cord end in an adult?<br />Extends from foramen magnum to L1<br />Spine grows more than cord<br />
  31. 31. Gross Anatomy<br />List the regions of the spinal cord.<br />Cervical<br />Thoracic<br />Lumbar<br />Sacral<br />Coccygeal<br />
  32. 32. Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />What is the cauda equina?<br />“Horse’s tail”<br />Spinal nerves extending from end of the spinal cord travel through vertebral canal and exit at each of the lower levels<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy<br />How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?<br />31<br />List regions and associated spinal nerves.<br />C1-C8<br />T1-T12<br />L1-L5<br />S1-S5<br />Co1<br />
  35. 35. Spinal Cord Meninges<br />From superficial to deep list the spaces and structures surrounding the spinal cord.<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />Within the spinal cord, where is the gray matter located and how is it shaped?<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />Within the spinal cord, what are the anterior masses of gray matter that contain the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons?<br />Within the spinal cord, from T1-T12, what structures contain the cell bodies of ofautonomic motor neurons?<br />Within the spinal cord, what are the posterior masses of gray matter that contain the axons of sensory neurons and the cell bodies of interneurons?<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />What horizontal bar of gray matter surrounds the central canal within the spinal cord?<br />Gray commissure<br />“commissure” just means a place where two parts join (the corners of your mouth are commissures)<br />What fills the central canal of the spinal cord?<br />CSF<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />Within the regions of the spinal cord’s gray matter what are the various functional groups of neuron cell bodies?<br />Nuclei<br />Sensory<br />Somatic motor<br />Autonomic motor<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46. Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy<br />Where does the white matter of the spinal cord lie in relation to the gray matter?<br />The white matter of the spinal cord is organized/partitioned into three regions. What is each called?<br />Funiculus (means a “slender rope” or “cord” and is referring to a bundle of nerve fibers)<br />Posterior, lateral, and anterior<br />Ascending and descending<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Spinal Nerves<br />Anteriorly and posteriorly what are the small attachments of a spinal nerve to the spinal cord?<br />The numerous small attachments of a spinal nerve to the spinal cord converge to form what structures?<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Spinal Nerves<br />The cell bodies of sensory neurons associated with the spinal cord are in what structures?<br />The cell bodies of motor neurons within the spinal cord are found in what structures?<br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52. Spinal Nerves<br />What are the 2 main branches of a spinal nerve?<br />Anterior and posterior rami<br />Which is larger?<br />What branches of a spinal nerve are associated with the autonomic nervous system?<br />Communicating rami (rami communicantes)<br />
  53. 53.
  54. 54. Spinal Nerves<br />What is a specific segment of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve?<br />Dermatome<br />
  55. 55. Note face<br />Which areas are innervated by cauda equina nerves?<br />
  56. 56. Intercostal Nerves<br />The anterior rami of T1-T11 travel in intercostal spaces. What are these nerves called?<br />Intercostal nerves<br />What term is used to refer to T12 because it lies below the ribs (T12) rather than between them?<br />Subcostal nerve<br />
  57. 57. Intercostal Nerves<br />In general, what do intercostal nerves innervate?<br />Intercostal muscles<br />Abdominal muscles<br />Associated skin area<br />
  58. 58.
  59. 59. A “plexus” is a combined set of spinal nerves that are going to the same area<br />What is a network of interweaving anterior rami of spinal nerves?<br />Nerve plexus<br />The cervical plexus arises from what spinal nerves?<br />C1-C4<br />Where is the cervical plexus located?<br />Deep on each side of the neck<br />
  60. 60. Cervical Plexus<br />What regions of the body does the cervical plexus innervate?<br />Anterior neck muscles<br />Skin of neck, parts of face and head<br />What branch of the cervical plexus innervates the diaphragm?<br />Phrenic<br />C3-C5 (primarily C4)<br />Don’t damage your spinal cord above this<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62.
  63. 63. Brachial Plexus<br />What regions of the body does the brachial plexus innervate?<br />Pectoral girdle<br />Upper limbs<br />
  64. 64. Brachial Plexus<br />The brachial plexus arises from what spinal nerves?<br />C5-T1<br />Where is the brachial plexus located?<br />Superior to 1st rib (subclavicular)<br />Axilla<br />
  65. 65.
  66. 66.
  67. 67. Brachial Plexus<br />List the 5 (major) nerves that innervate the upper extremity.<br />Axillary nerve<br />Median nerve<br />Musculocutaneous nerve<br />Radial nerve<br />Ulnar nerve<br />I’m asking that you know the general innervation but be able to list at least 1 specific muscle for each nerve<br />
  68. 68.
  69. 69. Brachial Plexus: Axillary Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the axillary nerve?<br />Deltoid<br />Teres minor<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the axillary nerve?<br />Superolateral arm (deltoid region)<br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71. Brachial Plexus: Median Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the median nerve?<br />Most anterior antebrachial muscles (flexors/pronators)<br />Thenar muscles<br />Lateral 2 lumbricals<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the median nerve?<br />Palmar aspects & dorsal tips of lateral 3.5digits<br />
  72. 72.
  73. 73. Median nerve & carpal tunnel<br />
  74. 74. Brachial Plexus: Musculocutaneous<br />What is the motor innervation of the musculocutaneous nerve?<br />Anterior brachial muscles (coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis)<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the musculocutaneous nerve?<br />Lateral antebrachium<br />
  75. 75.
  76. 76. Brachial Plexus: Radial Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the radial nerve?<br />Posterior brachial muscles (triceps brachii, anconeus)<br />Posterior antebrachial muscles (supinator, extensors, brachioradialis)<br />
  77. 77. Brachial Plexus: Radial Nerve<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the radial nerve?<br />Posterior brachium<br />Posterior antebrachium<br />Dorsal portion of lateral 3.5 digits<br />
  78. 78.
  79. 79. Wrist Drop<br />The radial nerve can be damaged if the humerus (the bone of the arm) is broken, because it runs through the radial groove on the lateral border of this bone<br />Can also be caused by lead poisoning<br />
  80. 80. Brachial Plexus: Ulnar Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the ulnar nerve?<br />Anterior antebrachial muscles (1/2 flexor digitorum profundus, flexor carpi ulnaris)<br />Hypothenar muscles<br />Most intrinsic muscles of the hand (interossei, adductor pollicis, medial 2 lumbricals)<br />
  81. 81. Brachial Plexus: Ulnar Nerve<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the ulnar nerve?<br />All of medial 1.5 digits and associate hand (dorsal and palmar)<br />
  82. 82.
  83. 83. Remember your “funny bone?”<br />
  84. 84. Lumbar Plexus<br />The lumbar plexus arises from the anterior rami of what spinal nerves?<br />L1-L4<br />We will learn two of the nerves that branch off the lumbar plexus (there are others we won’t learn)<br />
  85. 85.
  86. 86. Lumbar Plexus: Femoral Nerve<br />What is the main nerve of the posterior division of the lumbar plexus?<br />Femoral nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the femoral nerve?<br />Anterior thigh muscles (quads, iliopsoas, sartorius)<br />Pectineus<br />
  87. 87.
  88. 88. Lumbar Plexus: Femoral Nerve<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the femoral nerve?<br />Anterior thigh<br />Inferomedial thigh<br />Medial leg<br />Medial foot<br />Basically the pathway of the great saphenous vein<br />
  89. 89. Femoral nerve innervations<br />
  90. 90. Lumbar Plexus: Obturator nerve<br />What is the main nerve of the anterior division of the lumbar plexus?<br />Obturator nerve<br />
  91. 91. Lumbar Plexus: Obturator Nerve<br />What is the motor innervation of the obturator nerve?<br />Medial thigh muscles (adductors, gracilis, pectineus*) *femoral, obturator, or both<br />Obturator externus<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the obturator nerve?<br />Superomedial thigh<br />
  92. 92.
  93. 93. Lumbar Plexus: Other Branches<br />What other regions of the body do small branches of the lumbar plexus innervate?<br />Abdominal wall<br />Scrotum/Labia<br />Inferior portions of abdominal muscles (also innervated by intercostal nerves)<br />
  94. 94. Sacral Plexus<br />The anterior rami of what spinal nerves form the sacral plexus?<br />L4-S4<br />Nerves emerging from the sacral plexus innervate what portions of the body?<br />Gluteal region<br />Pelvis<br />Perineum<br />Posterior thigh<br />Leg and Foot<br />
  95. 95.
  96. 96.
  97. 97. Sacral Plexus<br />What are the 2 main divisions of the sacral plexus?<br />Anterior and posterior divisions<br />Nerves of the sacral plexus arising from the anterior division tend to innervate what muscles?<br />Muscles that flex and plantar flex <br />Hamstrings and hamstring portion of adductor magnus<br />Posterior crural muscles<br />Plantar foot muscles<br />
  98. 98. Sacral Plexus<br />Nerves of the sacral plexus arising from the posterior division tend to innervate what muscles?<br />Muscles that extend and dorsiflex <br />We’ll discuss these for each branch of the posterior division<br />
  99. 99. Sacral Plexus: Sciatic Nerve-anterior<br />What is the largest and longest nerve in the body?<br />Sciatic nerve<br />What nerve is formed from the anterior divisions of the sciatic nerve?<br />Tibial nerve<br />
  100. 100. Sacral Plexus: Sciatic Nerve: Tibial<br />What division of what nerve innervates the hamstrings?<br />Tibial division of the sciatic nerve<br />Within the leg what nerve innervates the plantar flexors of the foot and the flexors of the toes?<br />Tibial nerve<br />
  101. 101.
  102. 102. Sacral Plexus: Sciatic Nerve: Fibular<br />What nerve is formed from the posterior division of the sciatic nerve?<br />Common fibular nerve<br />What division of what nerve innervates the short head of the biceps femoris?<br />Common fibular division of the sciatic nerve<br />
  103. 103. Sacral Plexus<br />What are the 2 main divisions of the common fibular nerve?<br />Deep fibular nerve<br />Superficial fibular nerve<br />
  104. 104. Sacral Plexus: Sciatic: Deep Fibular<br />What is the motor innervation of the deep fibular nerve?<br />Anterior leg muscles (tibialis anterior, extensors)<br />Dorsal muscles of foot (extensor brevia muscles)<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the deep fibular nerve?<br />Dorsally between digits I and II <br />
  105. 105.
  106. 106. Sacral Plexus: Sciatic: Superficial Fibular<br />What is the motor innervation of the superficial fibular nerve?<br />Lateral leg muscles (Fibularis brevis and longus)<br />What is the cutaneous innervation of the superficial fibular nerve?<br />Anteroinferior leg<br />Dorsum of foot <br />
  107. 107.
  108. 108. Wow! That’s the End!<br />Now on to Autonomic Nervous System!<br />
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