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Muscles 2

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Muscles of the appendicular skeleton in the upper extremity. Includes pictures & descriptions of origins, insertions, and actions.

Muscles of the appendicular skeleton in the upper extremity. Includes pictures & descriptions of origins, insertions, and actions.

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  • 1. Muscles 2 McKinley and O’Laughlin Chapter 12
  • 2. Introduction
    • Muscles of the pectoral girdle and upper extremity may be classified into what 5 groups?
      • Muscles that move the:
        • Pectoral girdle
        • Glenohumeral joint
        • Elbow/forearm
        • Wrist, hand, fingers
      • Intrinsic muscles of the hand
  • 3. Move the Pectoral Girdle
    • Name: Pectoralis minor
    • Origin: ribs 3-5 (sternal ends)
    • Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula
    • Action: Pulls scapula forward and down (protracts and depresses)
  • 4.  
  • 5. Move the Pectoral Girdle
    • Name: Serratus anterior
    • Origin: (External surfaces of) lateral parts of ribs 1-8/9 (upper and middle)
    • Insertion: Anterior vertebral border of scapula
    • Action: Pulls scapula forward and down (protracts and depresses)
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9. Move the Pectoral Girdle
    • Name: Levator scapulae
    • Origin: (Posterior tubercle of) transverse process of C1-C4
    • Insertion: Superior vertebral border (near superior angle) of scapula
    • Action: Elevates scapula. Rotates glenoid inferiorly.
  • 10.  
  • 11. Move the Pectoral Girdle
    • Name: Rhomboid major
    • Origin: Spinous process of T2-T5
    • Insertion: Vertebral border (from rhomboid minor to inferior angle) of scapula
    • Action: Adducts (retracts) and elevates scapula. Rotates glenoid inferiorly.
  • 12.  
  • 13. Move the Pectoral Girdle
    • Name: Rhomboid minor
    • Origin: Spinous process of C7-T1
    • Insertion: Vertebral border (just below spine) of scapula
    • Action: Adducts (retracts) and elevates scapula. Rotates glenoid inferiorly.
  • 14.  
  • 15. Move the Pectoral Girdle
    • Name: Trapezius
    • Origin: Medial superior nuchal line. External occipital protuberance. Nuchal ligament. Spines of C7-T12.
    • Insertion: Acromial end of clavicle. Acromion. Spine of scapula.
  • 16.  
  • 17. Move the Pectoral Girdle
    • Name: Trapezius
    • Action:
      • Superior fibers: Elevate scapula
      • Middle fibers: Retract (adduct) scapula
      • Inferior fibers: Depress scapula
      • Sup and Inf: Rotate glenoid superiorly
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Latissimus dorsi
    • Origin: Spines of sacral, lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae (thoracolumbar fascia). Iliac crest. Lower 4 ribs.
    • Insertion: Intertubercular groove
    • Action: Extends, adducts, and rotates humerus medially. Retracts shoulder.
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Pectoralis major
    • Origin:
      • Clavicular head: Medial clavicle
      • Sternocostal head: Anterior sternum. Superior 6 costal cartilages. Aponeurosis of external obliques.
    • Insertion: Crest of greater tubercle
  • 27.  
  • 28. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Pectoralis major
    • Action:
      • Both heads: Adduct and medially rotate humerus. Draw shoulder anteriorly and inferiorly (protract and depress)
      • Clavicular head: flex humerus
      • Sternocostal head: extend humerus
  • 29. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Deltoid
    • Origin: Clavicle. Acromion. Spine of scapula.
    • Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity
    • Action:
      • Anterior: Flex and medially rotate humerus
      • Middle: Abduct humerus
      • Posterior: Extend and laterally rotate humerus
  • 30.  
  • 31. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Coracobrachialis
    • Origin: Coracoid process of scapula
    • Insertion: Medial humerus (middle 1/3)
    • Action: Flex and adduct humerus
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Teres major
    • Origin: Inferior angle and lateral (axillary) border of scapula
    • Insertion: Crest of lesser tubercle
    • Action: Medially rotate, extend, and adduct humerus
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Subscapularis
    • Origin: Subscapular fossa
    • Insertion: Lesser tubercle
    • Action: Medially rotate humerus (extend and adduct)
  • 40.  
  • 41. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Supraspinatus
    • Origin: Supraspinous fossa
    • Insertion: Greater tubercle
    • Action: Abduct and laterally rotate humerus
  • 42.  
  • 43. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Infraspinatus
    • Origin: Infraspinous fossa
    • Insertion: Greater tubercle
    • Action: Laterally rotate humerus
  • 44.  
  • 45. Move the Glenohumeral joint
    • Name: Teres minor
    • Origin: Lateral border of scapula (superior)
    • Insertion: Greater tubercle
    • Action: Laterally rotate humerus
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • What separates the limbs into compartments?
      • Deep fascia
  • 51. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • What 2 compartments occur in the brachium?
      • Anterior - (Flexors)
      • Posterior - (Extensors)
  • 52.  
  • 53. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • Name: Biceps brachii
    • Origin:
      • Short head: Coracoid process
      • Long head: Supraglenoid tubercle
    • Insertion: Radial tuberosity. Bicipital aponeurosis.
    • Action: Flex and supinate antebrachium
  • 54.  
  • 55. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • Name: Brachialis
    • Origin: Distal, anterior humerus
    • Insertion: Coronoid process (ulna)
    • Action: Flex antebrachium
  • 56.  
  • 57. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • Name: Brachioradialis
    • Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • Insertion: Distolateral radius (styloid process)
    • Action: Flex antebrachium
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60.  
  • 61.  
  • 62. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • Name: Triceps brachii
    • Origin:
      • Long head: Infraglenoid tubercle
      • Lateral head: Posterior humerus superior to radial groove
      • Medial head: Posterior humerus inferior to radial groove
    • Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna
    • Action: Extend antebrachium
      • Long head: steadies abducted humerus
  • 63.  
  • 64.  
  • 65.  
  • 66.  
  • 67.  
  • 68. Pronate/Supinate
    • Name: Pronator teres
    • Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus. Coronoid process of ulna.
    • Insertion: Lateral radius (middle)
    • Action: Pronate antebrachium
  • 69.  
  • 70. Pronate/Supinate
    • Name: Pronator quadratus
    • Origin: Distal, anterior ulna
    • Insertion: Distal, anterior radius
    • Action: Pronate hand
  • 71.  
  • 72. Pronate/Supinate
    • Name: Supinator
    • Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus. Crest of ulna.
    • Insertion: Proximolateral radius (distal to tuberosity)
    • Action: Supinate antebrachium
  • 73.  
  • 74.  
  • 75. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • Name: Flexor group
    • Origin: Medial epicondyle
      • Anterior, proximal ulna and radius, interosseus membrane
    • Insertion: Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
    • Action: Flex wrist and digits
  • 76. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • Name: Extensor group
    • Origin: Lateral epicondyle
      • Posterior ulna and radius, interosseus membrane
    • Insertion: Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
    • Action: Extend wrist and digits
  • 77.  
  • 78.  
  • 79. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • What is another name for the flexor retinaculum?
      • Transverse carpal ligament
  • 80. Move the Elbow/Antebrachium
    • The flexor retinaculum of the wrist and the arch of the carpals form what structure?
      • Carpal tunnel
  • 81. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Palmaris longus tendon (cut) Common flexor synovial sheath (a) Carpal tunnel, anterior view Flexor retinaculum covering carpal tunnel Flexor pollicis longus tendon Flexor carpi radialis tendon Trapezium Median nerve Flexor digitorum profundus tendon Flexor digitorum superficialis tendon Common flexor synovial sheath
  • 82. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (b) Carpal tunnel, transverse section Carpal tunnel Median nerve Palmaris longus tendon Anterior Common flexor synovial sheath Flexor carpi radialis tendon Flexor pollicis longus tendon Flexor digitorum profundus tendons Flexor retinaculum covering carpal tunnel Hamate Capitate Trapezoid Trapezium Posterior Flexor digitorum superficialis tendons
  • 83. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
    • What group of muscles forms the thick, fleshy mass at the base of the thumb and work to abduct, flex, and oppose the thumb?
      • Thenar group
  • 84.  
  • 85. abductor flexor opponens
  • 86. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
    • What group of muscles forms the thick, fleshy mass at the base of the 5th digit of the hand and work to abduct, flex, and oppose the 5th digit?
      • Hypothenar group
  • 87.  
  • 88. abductor flexor opponens
  • 89. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
    • Within the hand, what group of muscles lies between the 1st and 5th digits?
      • Midpalmar group
  • 90. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
    • Name: Lumbricals
    • Origin: Tendons of the flexor digitorum profundus
    • Insertion: Extensor expansions (dorsal tendons) on digits 2-5
    • Action: Flex digits at metacarpophalangeal joints and extend at interphalangeal joints
  • 91.  
  • 92.  
  • 93.  
  • 94. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
    • Name: Dorsal interossei
    • Origin: Adjacent sides of metacarpals
    • Insertion: Extensor expansions and bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2-4
    • Action: Abduct digits 2-4
      • (Extends interphalangeal joints)
  • 95.  
  • 96. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
    • Name: Palmar interossei
    • Origin: Palmar surface metacarpals 2, 4, and 5
    • Insertion: Bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2, 4, and 5
    • Action: Adduct digits 2, 4, and 5
      • (Extends interphalangeal joints)
  • 97.