Muscles 1
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Muscles 1

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This introduces muscles and focuses on muscles of axial skeleton. Origin, insertion, and action of axial muscles.

This introduces muscles and focuses on muscles of axial skeleton. Origin, insertion, and action of axial muscles.

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Muscles 1 Muscles 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Muscles 1 McKinley and O’Laughlin Chapter 10
  • Introduction
    • What primary tissue types make up a skeletal muscle such as the biceps brachii?
      • All 4
        • Muscle
        • Nervous
        • Epithelial
        • Connective
  • Introduction
    • Because of the tissue composition of an individual muscle, what level of organization is a muscle classified in?
      • Organ
  • Introduction
    • What is the study of muscle?
      • Myology
    • What are some areas of research that might be important in the study of muscles?
  • Properties of Muscle Tissue
    • List the 4 characteristics of muscle tissue?
      • Excitability
      • Contractility
      • Elasticity
      • Extensibility
  • Properties of Muscle Tissue
    • A muscle allowing you to extend your elbow in a controlled fashion is not getting shorter, what is it doing?
      • Resisting gravity through eccentric, as opposed to concentric contraction
        • Resistance is greater than muscle tension
  • Skeletal Muscle
    • What is another term for skeletal muscle cells?
      • Muscle fibers
  • Skeletal Muscle
    • List the 5 functions of muscle tissue.
      • Movement
      • Maintain Posture
      • Temperature regulation
      • Store and move materials
        • Sphincters
      • Support
  • Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
    • What is an expansive sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that separates individual muscles?
      • Deep fascia
  • Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
    • What layer of tissue is composed of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue that separates muscle from skin?
      • Superficial fascia
  • Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
    • What are cord-like structures that attach muscle to bone, skin, or other structures?
      • Tendons
  • Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
    • What are sheets of tissue that connect muscle to bone, skin, or other structures?
      • Aponeuroses
  • Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
    • Most skeletal muscles cross one or more joints to bring about movements in those joints. Which attachment of a muscle usually remains stationary when a muscle contracts?
      • Origin
  • Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
    • Most skeletal muscles cross one or more joints to bring about movements in those joints. Which attachment of a muscle usually moves when a muscle contracts?
      • Insertion
  • Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
    • What is the enlarged, fleshy portion of a muscle?
      • Belly
  • Actions of Skeletal Muscle
    • What is a muscle producing a particular movement called?
      • Agonist
      • Prime mover
  • Actions of Skeletal Muscle
    • What is a muscle whose actions oppose those of the prime mover?
      • Antagonist
  • Actions of Skeletal Muscle
    • What is a muscle that assists the prime mover in its action?
      • Synergist
  • Naming of Skeletal Muscle
    • What are the six criteria listed by McKinley and O’Loughlin for the naming of muscles?
      • Action
      • Region
      • Attachment
      • Orientation (of fibers)
      • Shape and Size
      • Head # (tendons of origin)
  • Axial Muscles
    • Define axial muscles.
      • Origin and Insertion on axial skeleton
  • Muscles of Facial Expression
    • Identify the sphincter muscle originating medially on the bones of the orbit and inserting on the tissue of the eyelids. It permits blinking, winking, and squinting.
      • Orbicularis oculi
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  • Muscles of Facial Expression
    • Identify the muscle located in the ocular region, but not attached to the eyeball. Arises from the under surface of the small wing of the sphenoid. Inserts on the eyelid and acts to raise it.
      • Levator palpabrae superioris
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  • Muscles of Facial Expression
    • Identify the complicated, multilayered muscle with most of its fibers running circularly from the facial node. Its fibers insert in skin, mucosa of the lips, and muscles around the orifice of the oral cavity. It closes the lips and aids in pursing the lips as in kissing.
      • Orbicularis oris
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  • Muscles of Facial Expression
    • What is the thin, superficial, sheet-like muscle originating on the fascia of the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles and inserting on the lower border of the mandible and the corners of the mouth? It draws the corners of the mouth downward and may assist in opening the mouth.
      • Platysma
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  • Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye
    • Later
  • Muscles of Mastication
    • Name: Temporalis
    • Origin: Temporal fossa
    • Insertion: Coronoid process of mandible
    • Action: Elevate mandible
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  • Muscles of Mastication
    • Name: Masseter
    • Origin: Zygomatic arch
    • Insertion: Lateral ramus of the mandible
    • Action: Elevate and protract mandible
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  • Muscles of Mastication
    • Name: Medial pterygoid
    • Origin: Medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate and pyramidal process of palatine bone. Tuberosity of Maxilla
    • Insertion: Medial ramus of the mandible
    • Action: Elevates and protract mandible. Move mandible medially.
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  • Muscles of Mastication
    • Name: Lateral pterygoid
    • Origin: Infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid bone . Lateral surface of Lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid
    • Insertion: (anterior side of) condyloid process of mandible
    • Action: Protract mandible.
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  • Muscles That Move the Tongue
    • Well skip these, but
    • Intrinsic : those whose origin and insertion are both within the structure under consideration
    • Extrinsic : those who have their origin outside of the structure under consideration
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  • Muscles of the Pharynx
    • We’ll skip these too.
  • Muscles of the Anterior Neck
    • Name: Digastric
    • Origin:
      • Anterior belly: digastric fossa of the mandible
      • Posterior belly: mastoid groove or notch of temporal bone
    • Insertion: Hyoid bone
    • Action: Depress mandible, elevate hyoid bone
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  • Anterolateral Neck Muscles
    • Name: Sternocleidomastoid
    • Origin:
      • Sternal head: Ventral manubrium
      • Clavicular head: Superomedial clavicle
    • Insertion: Mastoid process and superior nuchal line
    • Action:
      • Unilateral: Turn head
      • Bilateral: Flex neck and head
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  • Anterolateral Neck Muscles
    • Name: Scalenes
    • Origin: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: 1st and 2nd ribs
    • Action:
      • Unilateral: Laterally flex neck.
      • Bilateral: Flex neck. Elevate rib cage.
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  • Muscles of the Vertebral Column
    • Name: Erector spinae
    • A massive extensor consisting of 3 groups that are found from the sacrum to the skull and work to extend the spine or, if only one side contracts, to bring about lateral flexion.
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  • Muscles of the Vertebral Column
    • Name: Quadratus lumborum
    • Origin: Iliac crest. Iliolumbar ligament.
    • Insertion: Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae. 12th rib.
    • Action:
      • Unilateral: Laterally flex spine
      • Bilateral: Extend vertebral column
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  • Muscles of Respiration
    • Name: External Intercostals
    • Origin: Inferior border of superior rib
    • Insertion: Superior border of inferior rib
    • Action: Elevate ribs during inspiration
  • Muscles of Respiration
    • Name: Internal Intercostals
    • Origin: Superior border of inferior rib
    • Insertion: Inferior border of superior rib
    • Action:
      • Interchondral: Elevate ribs during inspiration
      • Interosseous: Depress ribs during expiration
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  • Muscles of Respiration
    • Name: Diaphragm
    • Origin: Xiphoid. Costal cartilages of last 6 ribs (lower ribs). Lumbar vertebrae.
    • Insertion: Central tendon
    • Action: Pulls central tendon inferiorly
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  • Muscles of Abdominal Wall
    • Name: External abdominal oblique
    • Origin: Lower 8 ribs
    • Insertion: Linea alba. Iliac crest.
    • Action: Compress abdominal wall. Flex and rotate trunk.
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  • Muscles of Abdominal Wall
    • Name: Internal abdominal oblique
    • Origin: Lumbar fascia. Inguinal ligament. Iliac crest.
    • Insertion: Linea alba. Pubic crest. Last 4 ribs and costal cartilages.
    • Action: Compress abdominal wall. Flex and rotate trunk.
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  • Muscles of Abdominal Wall
    • Name: Transversus abdominis
    • Origin: Lumbar fascia. Inguinal ligament. Iliac crest. Costal cartilages of lower 6 ribs.
    • Insertion: Linea alba. Pubic crest. Xiphoid process.
    • Action: Compress abdominal wall. Flex and rotate trunk.
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  • Muscles of Abdominal Wall
    • Name: Rectus abdominis
    • Origin: Superior pubis (pubic crest/symphysis)
    • Insertion: Xiphoid process. Costal cartilages 5-7.
    • Action: Compress abdominal wall. Flex vertebral column.
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  • Muscles of Pelvic Floor
    • Nope.