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Central Nervous System
 

Central Nervous System

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Overview of the anatomy of the Central Nervous System.

Overview of the anatomy of the Central Nervous System.

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    Central Nervous System Central Nervous System Presentation Transcript

    • Central Nervous System
    • Organization
      What are the 3 general functions of the CNS and PNS?
      Collect information (receptors)
      Process and Evaluate Information
      Respond to information
      How do neurons communicate with each other?
      action potential propagation and neurotransmitter release
    • Sensory Division
      List and define the 2 subdivisions of he sensory division of the nervous system?
      Somatic sensory
      touch, pain, pressure, vibration, temperature, proprioception, and special senses
      Visceral sensory
      blood vessels and viscera-temperature and stretch
      Is “visceral sensory” part of autonomic system? Why or why not?
    • Motor Division
      List and define the 2 subdivisions of he motor division of the nervous system?
      Somatic motor
      CNS to skeletal muscles
      Voluntary
      Autonomic motor
      CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
      Involuntary
    • We see the posterior root is sensory & anterior root is motor. Do they stay separate like this?
    • Nervous tissue cells of the CNS
      Flash cards only give us the following:
      Glial cells, which are supportive
      Neurons, which are excitable
    • Relate these structures
    • 3-week old embryo
      This process of forming a nervous system is called “_____”
      The nervous system arises from which germ layer?
    • Do you recall?
      In order for neurulation to occur there must already be 3 germ layers. Do you recall what the process was for making 3 germ layers?
      Gastrulation! It resulted in ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
    • Development
      During the development of the nervous system, what longitudinal indentation forms from the neural plate?
      Neural groove
      During the development of the nervous system, what hollow structure is formed as the neural folds meet?
      Neural tube
    • Development
      What is the thickened portion of tissue over the notochord called?
      Neural plate
    • What becomes of the notochord?
    • Side note (not in flash cards)
      Neurons grow until they reach their target organ and form a synapse. If they don’t reach the target they die (apoptosis). Even after neuromuscular connections are made, some are eliminated until each muscle fiber is innervated by only one motor neuron. For example, 20,000 motor neurons are formed in the spinal cord of the chick but ~half die.
    • How many neurons make up the CNS?
      100 billion (mostly in brain)
      What is the average volume of the human brain?
      1200 cc
      Size matters not—you are ALL brilliant and possess the most complex machine in the known universe
    • Brain Tissue Organization
      What is the superficial sheet of gray matter covering most of the adult brain?
      Cortex
      Cerebral and Cerebellar
      Within the interior of the brain, what are clusters of gray matter?
      Cerebral nuclei
    • Discuss the dural septa
    • Name passages between ventricles
      How does CSF leave the brain?
      How is CSF drained?
    • Cerebrum
      What are the functions of the cerebrum?
      Intelligence
      Reasoning
      Sensory perception
      Thought
      Memory
      Judgment
      Voluntary motor, visual, and auditory fcns
    • Cerebral Hemispheres
      3 points about the cerebral hemispheres
      1) it is usually difficult to assign a precise function to a specific region
      2) Usually the hemisphere receives information from and sends motor commands to the opposite side of the body
      3) The hemispheres display functional differences (lateralization)
    • Lobes of the Cerebrum
      List the primary functions of the frontal lobe.
      Voluntary motor functions
      Concentration
      Verbal communication
      Decision making
      Planning
      Personality
    • Lobes of the Cerebrum
      What are the functions of the lobe of the cerebrum that forms the superoposterior part of each cerebral hemisphere (Parietal)?
      General sensory functions
      E.g. evaluating shape and texture
      Understanding language
      Shares Wernike’s with Temporal lobe
    • Lobes of the Cerebrum
      What are the functions of the lobe of the cerebrum that lies inferior to the lateral sulcus (Temporal)?
      Hearing and smell
      Interpretation and storage
    • Lobes of the Cerebrum
      What are the functions of the lobe of the cerebrum that forms the most posterior region of each cerebral hemisphere (Occipital)?
      Perceive visual information
      Store and use visual memories
    • Lobes of the Cerebrum
      What are the apparent functions of the small, deep lobe of each cerebral hemisphere lies deep to the lateral sulcus (Insula)?
      Memory
      Taste interpretation
    • Functional Areas of the Cerebrum
      The primary motor cortex is located within what structure of the brain?
      Precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe
    • Note motor speech area & frontal eye field in the frontal lobe
    • Functional Areas of the Cerebrum
      What is the function of the association areas within the cerebrum?
      Integrate new sensory inputs with memories
    • Note auditory association area & visual association area
    • Cerebral White Matter
      What are bundles of myelinated axons that lie deep to the cerebral cortex?
      Tracts
      Projection (linking cerebrum to lower brain structures)
      Association (linking multiple places in cerebrum, but on one side or the other)
      Commissural (linking similar parts on the two hemispheres)
    • Association tracts stay within a hemisphere
    • Note nuclei also
    • Diencephalon
      What part of the brain is composed of the epithalamus, right and left thalami, and the hypothalamus?
      Diencephalon
    • Diencephalon
      What is the function of the thalamus?
      Final relay for sensory information projected to the primary sensory cortex
      Filter sensory information
      Inform cerebrum where sensory information is coming from
    • Diencephalon
      What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
      Master control of ANS
      Master control of endocrine system
      Regulate temperature
      Control emotional behavior
      Control food intake
      Control water intake
      Regulate sleep/wake cycles
    • Oxytocin
      ADH
    • Brainstem
      What 3 regions form the brainstem?
      Midbrain
      Pons
      Medulla oblongata
    • Mesencephalon
      Within the midbrain what are the motor tracts located on the anterolateral surfaces?
      Cerebral peduncles
      Within the midbrain what is the “body of 4 twins”?
      Corpora quadrigemina
    • Mesencephalon
      What are the “visual reflex centers” of the midbrain?
      Superior colliculi
      What are the “auditory reflex centers” of the midbrain?
      Inferior colliculi
    • Cerebellum
      What is the function of the cerebellum?
      Coordinate (and fine tune) skeletal muscle movements
      Maintain equilibrium and posture
    • Cerebellum
      What thick tracts connect the cerebellum to the brainstem?
      Cerebellar peduncles
      Superior to mesencephalon
      Middle to pons
      Inferior to medulla oblongata