ANS Essentials

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Decided to try a slideshow with audio for autonomic nervous system, so this is it.

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ANS Essentials

  1. 1. Nervous 3 Essentials of the Autonomic Nervous System This is not the complete slideshow shown in class, but contains essential points, with audio
  2. 2. The ANS affects the following: <ul><ul><li>heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respiration rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>salivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diameter of the pupils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>micturition (urination) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual arousal </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Whereas most of its actions are involuntary, some actions of the ANS, such as breathing, work in tandem with the conscious mind. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The ANS is: <ul><li>Purely motor (though some references include visceral sensory as an arm of the ANS) </li></ul><ul><li>A functional, not anatomical, division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite is the somatic nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly working beyond our conscious awareness </li></ul>
  5. 6. Autonomic vs. Somatic <ul><li>A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between the CNS and a ganglion is what type of neuron? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-ganglionic - myelinated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between a ganglion and an effector is what type of neuron? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ganglionic - unmyelinated </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Autonomic vs. Somatic
  7. 8. ANS Divisions <ul><li>What are the 2 divisions of the ANS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic division </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The parasympathetic division is sometimes referred to as “rest and digest,” but also “craniosacral” because the nerves arise from the brain stem (mainly vagus, CN X) & sacral region </li></ul><ul><li>The sympathetic division is sometimes referred to as “thoracolumbar” because of the sympathetic neurons in the spinal nerves of these regions. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons for the parasympathetic division located? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S2-S4 (lateral gray matter of spinal cord) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>Where are the ganglia of the parasympathetic division found? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal ganglia - close to target organ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intramural ganglia - within wall of target organ </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the oculomotor nerve? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliary muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupillary constrictor of iris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dilator controlled by sympathetic division </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the facial nerve? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submandibular and sublingual glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacrimal gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands of nasal cavity, mouth, and palate </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the glossopharyngeal nerve? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parotid gland </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>What specific regions of the spinal cord house the cell bodies of the parasympathetic division of the ANS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral horns </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>What nerves carry fibers of the parasympathetic division of the ANS through the pelvis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic splanchnic nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does ‘splanchnic’ mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. Parasympathetic Effects <ul><li>Increase saliva production </li></ul><ul><li>Constrict pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Constrict airways </li></ul><ul><li>Produce tears </li></ul><ul><li>Increase GI motility </li></ul><ul><li>Contract bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Erect penis/clitoris </li></ul>
  17. 23. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What is another term for the sympathetic division? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_____________ division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From what regions of the CNS does the sympathetic division arise? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T1-L2 (lateral horns of spinal cord) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What part of spinal nerves do the preganglionic sympathetic axons travel within as they leave the lateral horn of the spinal cord? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior root </li></ul></ul>
  19. 25. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What sympathetic ganglia lie on the left and right sides of the vertebral column from T1-L2? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic trunk ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paravertebral ganglia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What structure of the sympathetic division has the appearance of a pearl necklace? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic trunk (ganglia and axons) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 27. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What clusters of ganglia of the sympathetic division of the ANS lie within the neck? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the connections between spinal nerves and the sympathetic trunks? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rami communicantes </li></ul></ul>
  21. 29. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What structures carry preganglionic sympathetic axons from the T1-L2 spinal nerves to the sympathetic trunk? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White rami </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What structures carry postganglionic sympathetic axons from the sympathetic trunk to the spinal nerves? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gray rami </li></ul></ul>
  22. 32. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What structures are composed of preganglionic axons that do not synapse in a sympathetic trunk ganglion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splanchnic nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Splanchnic nerves of the sympathetic division of the ANS terminate in what structures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevertebral (collateral) ganglia </li></ul></ul>
  23. 33. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>What structures are singular rather than paired, are anterior to the vertebral column, and are located only in the abdominal cavity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevertebral ganglia </li></ul></ul>
  24. 34. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>List the 3 prevertebral ganglia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celiac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior mesenteric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior mesenteric </li></ul></ul>
  25. 37. Sympathetic Pathways <ul><li>What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if it travels through a gray ramus that is at the same level as the ganglionic neuron to innervate blood vessels or arrector pili muscles or sweat glands? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal nerve pathway </li></ul></ul>
  26. 39. Sympathetic Pathways <ul><li>What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if the preganglionic neuron synapses with a ganglionic neuron in a sympathetic trunk ganglion, but the postganglionic axon does not leave the trunk via a gray ramus , but instead extends away from the sympathetic trunk ganglion and goes directly to the effector organ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway </li></ul></ul>
  27. 41. Sympathetic Pathways <ul><li>What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if the preganglionic axon passes through the sympathetic trunk ganglia without synapsing and extends to the prevertebral ganglia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splanchnic nerve pathway </li></ul></ul>
  28. 42. Sympathetic Pathways <ul><li>What pathway is a sympathetic axon within if it goes to the adrenal medulla? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal medulla pathway </li></ul></ul>
  29. 44. Sympathetic Effects <ul><li>Pupil dilation </li></ul><ul><li>Airway dilation </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat production </li></ul><ul><li>Mass activation response to stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and depth, dilate pupils, stimulate RAS </li></ul></ul>
  30. 45. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Usually both divisions of the ANS innervate organs. Where does this dual innervation not occur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutaneous region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes peripheral blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic only </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 46. Autonomic Plexuses <ul><li>What are collections of sympathetic postganglionic axons, parasympathetic preganglionic axons, and some visceral sensory axons? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic plexuses </li></ul></ul>
  32. 47. Autonomic Plexuses <ul><li>List the 5 autonomic plexuses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophageal plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypogastric plexus </li></ul></ul>
  33. 49. CNS Control of ANS <ul><li>What part of the CNS has the greatest control over the ANS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What part of the CNS holds nuclei which have a great deal of influence over autonomic function? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain stem </li></ul></ul>
  34. 51. CNS Control of ANS <ul><li>What division of the ANS may process and control certain functions at the level of the spinal cord without involvement of the brain? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Defecation and urination </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 53. <ul><li>How does the parasympathetic reflex for urination relate to potty training? </li></ul>
  36. 54. The End of Autonomic Nervous System 

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