ANS Essentials
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Decided to try a slideshow with audio for autonomic nervous system, so this is it.

Decided to try a slideshow with audio for autonomic nervous system, so this is it.

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ANS Essentials Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Nervous 3 Essentials of the Autonomic Nervous System This is not the complete slideshow shown in class, but contains essential points, with audio
  • 2. The ANS affects the following:
      • heart rate
      • digestion
      • respiration rate
      • salivation
      • perspiration
      • diameter of the pupils
      • micturition (urination)
      • sexual arousal
  • 3.
      • Whereas most of its actions are involuntary, some actions of the ANS, such as breathing, work in tandem with the conscious mind.
  • 4. The ANS is:
    • Purely motor (though some references include visceral sensory as an arm of the ANS)
    • A functional, not anatomical, division
      • Opposite is the somatic nervous system
    • Mostly working beyond our conscious awareness
  • 5.  
  • 6. Autonomic vs. Somatic
    • A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between the CNS and a ganglion is what type of neuron?
      • Pre-ganglionic - myelinated
    • A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between a ganglion and an effector is what type of neuron?
      • Ganglionic - unmyelinated
  • 7. Autonomic vs. Somatic
  • 8. ANS Divisions
    • What are the 2 divisions of the ANS?
      • Sympathetic division
      • Parasympathetic division
  • 9.
    • The parasympathetic division is sometimes referred to as “rest and digest,” but also “craniosacral” because the nerves arise from the brain stem (mainly vagus, CN X) & sacral region
    • The sympathetic division is sometimes referred to as “thoracolumbar” because of the sympathetic neurons in the spinal nerves of these regions.
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. Parasympathetic Division
    • Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons for the parasympathetic division located?
      • Brainstem
      • S2-S4 (lateral gray matter of spinal cord)
  • 13. Parasympathetic Division
    • Where are the ganglia of the parasympathetic division found?
      • Terminal ganglia - close to target organ
      • Intramural ganglia - within wall of target organ
  • 14.  
  • 15. Parasympathetic Division
    • The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the oculomotor nerve?
      • Ciliary muscle
      • Pupillary constrictor of iris
        • Dilator controlled by sympathetic division
  • 16. Parasympathetic Division
    • The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the facial nerve?
      • Submandibular and sublingual glands
      • Lacrimal gland
      • Glands of nasal cavity, mouth, and palate
  • 17. Parasympathetic Division
    • The parasympathetic division innervates what structures through the glossopharyngeal nerve?
      • Parotid gland
  • 18.  
  • 19. Parasympathetic Division
    • What specific regions of the spinal cord house the cell bodies of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
      • Lateral horns
  • 20. Parasympathetic Division
    • What nerves carry fibers of the parasympathetic division of the ANS through the pelvis?
      • Pelvic splanchnic nerves
    • What does ‘splanchnic’ mean?
      • Visceral
  • 21.  
  • 22. Parasympathetic Effects
    • Increase saliva production
    • Constrict pupils
    • Constrict airways
    • Produce tears
    • Increase GI motility
    • Contract bladder
    • Erect penis/clitoris
  • 23. Sympathetic Division
    • What is another term for the sympathetic division?
      • _____________ division
    • From what regions of the CNS does the sympathetic division arise?
      • T1-L2 (lateral horns of spinal cord)
  • 24. Sympathetic Division
    • What part of spinal nerves do the preganglionic sympathetic axons travel within as they leave the lateral horn of the spinal cord?
      • Anterior root
  • 25. Sympathetic Division
    • What sympathetic ganglia lie on the left and right sides of the vertebral column from T1-L2?
      • Sympathetic trunk ganglia
        • Paravertebral ganglia
    • What structure of the sympathetic division has the appearance of a pearl necklace?
      • Sympathetic trunk (ganglia and axons)
  • 26.  
  • 27. Sympathetic Division
    • What clusters of ganglia of the sympathetic division of the ANS lie within the neck?
      • Cervical ganglia
    • What are the connections between spinal nerves and the sympathetic trunks?
      • Rami communicantes
  • 28.  
  • 29. Sympathetic Division
    • What structures carry preganglionic sympathetic axons from the T1-L2 spinal nerves to the sympathetic trunk?
      • White rami
    • What structures carry postganglionic sympathetic axons from the sympathetic trunk to the spinal nerves?
      • Gray rami
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32. Sympathetic Division
    • What structures are composed of preganglionic axons that do not synapse in a sympathetic trunk ganglion?
      • Splanchnic nerves
    • Splanchnic nerves of the sympathetic division of the ANS terminate in what structures?
      • Prevertebral (collateral) ganglia
  • 33. Sympathetic Division
    • What structures are singular rather than paired, are anterior to the vertebral column, and are located only in the abdominal cavity?
      • Prevertebral ganglia
  • 34. Sympathetic Division
    • List the 3 prevertebral ganglia
      • Celiac
      • Superior mesenteric
      • Inferior mesenteric
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37. Sympathetic Pathways
    • What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if it travels through a gray ramus that is at the same level as the ganglionic neuron to innervate blood vessels or arrector pili muscles or sweat glands?
      • Spinal nerve pathway
  • 38.  
  • 39. Sympathetic Pathways
    • What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if the preganglionic neuron synapses with a ganglionic neuron in a sympathetic trunk ganglion, but the postganglionic axon does not leave the trunk via a gray ramus , but instead extends away from the sympathetic trunk ganglion and goes directly to the effector organ?
      • Postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway
  • 40.  
  • 41. Sympathetic Pathways
    • What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if the preganglionic axon passes through the sympathetic trunk ganglia without synapsing and extends to the prevertebral ganglia?
      • Splanchnic nerve pathway
  • 42. Sympathetic Pathways
    • What pathway is a sympathetic axon within if it goes to the adrenal medulla?
      • Adrenal medulla pathway
  • 43.  
  • 44. Sympathetic Effects
    • Pupil dilation
    • Airway dilation
    • Sweat production
    • Mass activation response to stress
      • Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and depth, dilate pupils, stimulate RAS
  • 45. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Usually both divisions of the ANS innervate organs. Where does this dual innervation not occur?
      • Cutaneous region
        • Includes peripheral blood vessels
        • Sympathetic only
  • 46. Autonomic Plexuses
    • What are collections of sympathetic postganglionic axons, parasympathetic preganglionic axons, and some visceral sensory axons?
      • Autonomic plexuses
  • 47. Autonomic Plexuses
    • List the 5 autonomic plexuses
      • Cardiac plexus
      • Esophageal plexus
      • Pulmonary plexus
      • Abdominal plexus
      • Hypogastric plexus
  • 48.  
  • 49. CNS Control of ANS
    • What part of the CNS has the greatest control over the ANS?
      • Hypothalamus
    • What part of the CNS holds nuclei which have a great deal of influence over autonomic function?
      • Brain stem
  • 50.  
  • 51. CNS Control of ANS
    • What division of the ANS may process and control certain functions at the level of the spinal cord without involvement of the brain?
      • Parasympathetic
        • E.g. Defecation and urination
  • 52.  
  • 53.
    • How does the parasympathetic reflex for urination relate to potty training?
  • 54. The End of Autonomic Nervous System 