Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) <ul><li>Combination of a  hinge and gliding  joint </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced by 3 major e...
 
The  temporomandibular joint  is formed by the mandibular condyle and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. It is sup...
 
An  articular disc  separates the bones within the joint capsule.  The movement of this disc may create clicking or poppin...
The TMJ allows depression/elevation, protraction/retraction, and lateral rotary movements.
Mouth splints can prevent teeth grinding which can lead to TMJ syndrome
Close-up of mouth splint used to prevent TMJ syndrome
ACCORDING TO THE CLINICAL VIEW IN YOUR TEXT, TMJ DISORDER CAN CAUSE  WIDESPREAD  DISTRIBUTION OF PAIN IN THE HEAD.  WHY? A...
The intervertebral discs form an amphiarthrotic  symphysis  between one vertebral body and the next. The articulation betw...
The combined effect of slight movement between all the gliding joints is considerable movement of the spine.
Palpation of the  ligamentum nuchae
The  sternoclavicular joint  is formed where the clavicle articulates with the manubrium.  Depending on the reference sour...
Sternoclavicular joint has an  articular disc .
Mike Bond putting great stress on his sternoclavicular joints
Dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint
Partial dislocation of both sternoclavicular joints with bleeding
 
 
X ray of  acromioclavicular separation
Glenohumeral Joint
The  glenohumeral joint  is formed by the head of the humerus articulating with the glenoid cavity of the scapula
Master Long preparing to dislocate an opponent’s glenohumeral joint Read  clinical view  in the text
U. S. soldier learning how to dislocate opponent’s shoulder Green arrow shows direction of force
Dislocation  (luxation)  of the right shoulder  (glenohumeral joint) with subsequent anterior displacement of the head of ...
Glenohumeral dislocation
Doctor’s foot
The  glenoid labrum  deepens the concavity of the shoulder joint
Lateral view of scapula
Rotator cuff  (musculotendinous cuff) is formed by tendons of the infraspinatus, subscapularis, supraspinatus, and teres m...
The  coracohumeral ligament, glenohumeral ligaments, and the transverse humeral ligament  all help stabilize the glenohume...
There are numerous  bursae  and  tendon sheaths  associated with the shoulder (glenohumeral) joint.
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A  CORRECT  STATEMENT? A GLENOHUMERAL DISLOCATIONS (LUXATIONS)  INITIALLY OCCUR SUPERIORLY AND T...
Elbow joint
The  humeroulnar joint ( between trochlea and trochlear notch) is a hinge joint.  The  humeroradial joint ( between capitu...
Elbow joint
 
The  elbow joint  is supported by its  articular capsule  and by multiple strong ligaments:  the radial (lateral) collater...
Elbow joint : note  radial (lateral) collateral ligament  and  anular ligament
Elbow joint : note the  ulnar (medial) collateral ligament  and the  anular ligament .
Read  clinical view  about subluxation of the head of the radius in your text
Subluxation of the head of the radius
Dislocation (luxation) of the elbow  can damage the associated ligaments
The  radiocarpal (wrist) articulation  does NOT include the distal end of the ulna because the ulna is separated from the ...
Metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Hinge joints Condyloid joint No ligamentous support posteriorly!
Posterior dislocation of interphalangeal joint
Open dislocation of interphalangeal joint of finger #1
Coxal joint
Coxal (hip, acetabulofemoral) joints
A  fibrocartilage acetabular labrum  deepens the concavity of the acetabulum and helps stabilize the coxal (acetabulofemor...
Strong ligaments, a strong joint capsule, and powerful muscles help to stabilize the  acetabulofemoral joint
The  retinacular fibers  support the joint capsule and contain arteries that  supply most of the blood to the neck and hea...
Fracture of the neck of the femur Read about fracture of the femoral neck in the  clinical view  in the text
Tibiofemoral (knee) joint
The  knee joint  is composed of two separate articulations:  the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint.
Patellofemoral joint of left knee of femur
The  quadriceps femoris tendon  inserts onto the patella, which is embedded in this tendon The  patellar ligament  extends...
The  tibiofemoral joint  is stabilized by the  lateral (fibular) collateral ligament  and by the  medial (tibial) collater...
In  varus  displacement of the knee (hyperadduction of the lower leg), the distal segment (lower leg) is abnormally deviat...
The  tibiofemoral joint  is stabilized by the  lateral (fibular) collateral ligament  and by the  medial (tibial) collater...
In  valgus  displacement of the knee (hyperabduction of the lower leg), the knee is driven medially  while the lower leg i...
attached The medial collateral ligament  is attached to the medial meniscus .  This means if the MCL tears the medical men...
The  medial meniscus  and the  lateral meniscus  are made of fibrocartilage and help stabilize the knee and act as cushion...
The  menisci  help to pad and stabilize the knee
More deeply the  tibiofemoral joint  is stabilized by the  posterior cruciate ligament and by the anterior cruciate ligame...
Note that the  posterior cruciate ligament is tight  (taut) when the tibiofemoral joint is  flexed  while the  anterior cr...
Humans are bipedal animals.  An important aspect in walking and standing is the ability to  “lock” the knees .  This is po...
The  tibiofemoral joint  (knee) is very vulnerable to injury.  Read the  clinical view  in the text.
Valgus deviation of the knee  (hyperabduction of lower leg))
Valgus  stress to the knee (hyperabduction of the lower leg) can rupture the MCL, the medial meniscus, and, if enough disp...
 
 
An  allograft replacement  of the ACL uses materials from another person (cadaver)
An  autograft replacement  uses your own tissues, such as the middle portion of the patellar ligament
An  autograft replacement  can also use a portion of your hamstring tendons.  They are removed, braided, and used to repla...
 
 
There are numerous  bursae  associated with the knee.  Two of them are shown here.
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING  WOULD BE INJURED  IN THE KNEE BY HYPERABDUCTION OF THE LOWER LEG (VALGUS DEVIATION)? A MENISCUS B ...
Ankle joint
The  talocrural (ankle) joint  is a hinge joint formed by the medial and lateral malleoli and the talus
The  talocrural (ankle) joint  is surrounded by an articular capsule
Medial view Lateral view
The most common sprain of the ankle is  excessive inversion  that ruptures the  anterior talofibular ligament and the calc...
Excessive inversion of the ankle in rugby
 
 
Dislocated right ankle
Dislocated ankle joint
 
 
Excessive  eversion , which is less common, can damage the  deltoid ligament  on the medial side of the ankle
High top athletic shoes  have been statistically shown to reduce the incidence of ankle sprains, most likely by making the...
Results: The high-top  shoes were more  effective in reducing  the amount and  rate of inversion  than the low-top shoes
Sprains  are often accompanied by bleeding and inflammation of the joint capsule (synovitis). Read about ankle sprains and...
Intertarsal joints  (and tarsometatarsal joints) are planar (gliding) joints Metatarsophalangeal joints  are condyloid joi...
Active joints develop  larger and thicker capsules  and the  supporting ligaments increase in size .
Moderate exercise  is good for the joints and all parts of the human body.
Dorothy Hamill , an Olympic figure skater now suffers from osteoarthritis.
Modern fiberoptic arthroscopy
 
Knee replacement
Hip replacement
Read about the different types of arthritis in the  clinical view  in your text.
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING  IS ASSOCIATED  WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS? A SUPPRESSION BY DIFFERENT HLA PROTEINS B URIC ACID CRYS...
MUSCLES! Prepare yourself for. . .
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09 Articulations Selected Articulations In Depth

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Specific articulations. Synovial joints of various categories

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09 Articulations Selected Articulations In Depth

  1. 1. Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) <ul><li>Combination of a hinge and gliding joint </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced by 3 major extrinsic ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Only synovial joint in skull </li></ul><ul><li>Depression/elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Protraction/retraction </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral movements </li></ul>
  2. 3. The temporomandibular joint is formed by the mandibular condyle and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. It is supported by ligaments.
  3. 5. An articular disc separates the bones within the joint capsule. The movement of this disc may create clicking or popping sounds.
  4. 6. The TMJ allows depression/elevation, protraction/retraction, and lateral rotary movements.
  5. 7. Mouth splints can prevent teeth grinding which can lead to TMJ syndrome
  6. 8. Close-up of mouth splint used to prevent TMJ syndrome
  7. 9. ACCORDING TO THE CLINICAL VIEW IN YOUR TEXT, TMJ DISORDER CAN CAUSE WIDESPREAD DISTRIBUTION OF PAIN IN THE HEAD. WHY? A SPREAD OF INFLAMMATORY CHEMICALS VIA THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM B AVASCULAR NECROSIS C AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE D PSYCHOSOMATIC PAIN FROM OCCIPITAL LOBE OF THE CEREBRUM E IRRITATION OF THE TRIGEMINAL NERVE
  8. 10. The intervertebral discs form an amphiarthrotic symphysis between one vertebral body and the next. The articulation between the articular processes form amphiarthotic synovial gliding (planar) joints .
  9. 11. The combined effect of slight movement between all the gliding joints is considerable movement of the spine.
  10. 12. Palpation of the ligamentum nuchae
  11. 13. The sternoclavicular joint is formed where the clavicle articulates with the manubrium. Depending on the reference source it is a either a diarthrotic synovial gliding joint OR a diarthrotic synovial saddle joint .
  12. 14. Sternoclavicular joint has an articular disc .
  13. 15. Mike Bond putting great stress on his sternoclavicular joints
  14. 16. Dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint
  15. 17. Partial dislocation of both sternoclavicular joints with bleeding
  16. 20. X ray of acromioclavicular separation
  17. 21. Glenohumeral Joint
  18. 22. The glenohumeral joint is formed by the head of the humerus articulating with the glenoid cavity of the scapula
  19. 23. Master Long preparing to dislocate an opponent’s glenohumeral joint Read clinical view in the text
  20. 24. U. S. soldier learning how to dislocate opponent’s shoulder Green arrow shows direction of force
  21. 25. Dislocation (luxation) of the right shoulder (glenohumeral joint) with subsequent anterior displacement of the head of the humerus.
  22. 26. Glenohumeral dislocation
  23. 27. Doctor’s foot
  24. 28. The glenoid labrum deepens the concavity of the shoulder joint
  25. 29. Lateral view of scapula
  26. 30. Rotator cuff (musculotendinous cuff) is formed by tendons of the infraspinatus, subscapularis, supraspinatus, and teres major. It is weak inferiorly.
  27. 31. The coracohumeral ligament, glenohumeral ligaments, and the transverse humeral ligament all help stabilize the glenohumeral joint.
  28. 32. There are numerous bursae and tendon sheaths associated with the shoulder (glenohumeral) joint.
  29. 33. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A CORRECT STATEMENT? A GLENOHUMERAL DISLOCATIONS (LUXATIONS) INITIALLY OCCUR SUPERIORLY AND THEN THE HUMERAL HEAD SHIFTS POSTERIORLY. B THE LIGAMENTUM NUCHAE CONNECTS TO THE VERTEBRA PROMINENS C THE FIBROCARTILAGE PADS BETWEEN VERTEBRAL BODIES FORM SYNCHONDROSES D THE ARTICULATION BETWEEN VERTEBRAL ARTICULAR PROCESSES ARE BIAXIAL SYMPHYSES E. THE MUSCULOTENDINOUS CUFF IS FORMED BY INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE
  30. 34. Elbow joint
  31. 35. The humeroulnar joint ( between trochlea and trochlear notch) is a hinge joint. The humeroradial joint ( between capitulum and radial head) is considered by some to be a gliding joint. Anterior view
  32. 36. Elbow joint
  33. 38. The elbow joint is supported by its articular capsule and by multiple strong ligaments: the radial (lateral) collateral ligament, the ulnar (medial) collateral ligament, and the annular ligament.
  34. 39. Elbow joint : note radial (lateral) collateral ligament and anular ligament
  35. 40. Elbow joint : note the ulnar (medial) collateral ligament and the anular ligament .
  36. 41. Read clinical view about subluxation of the head of the radius in your text
  37. 42. Subluxation of the head of the radius
  38. 43. Dislocation (luxation) of the elbow can damage the associated ligaments
  39. 44. The radiocarpal (wrist) articulation does NOT include the distal end of the ulna because the ulna is separated from the carpal bones by an articular disc.
  40. 45. Metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
  41. 46. Hinge joints Condyloid joint No ligamentous support posteriorly!
  42. 47. Posterior dislocation of interphalangeal joint
  43. 48. Open dislocation of interphalangeal joint of finger #1
  44. 49. Coxal joint
  45. 50. Coxal (hip, acetabulofemoral) joints
  46. 51. A fibrocartilage acetabular labrum deepens the concavity of the acetabulum and helps stabilize the coxal (acetabulofemoral) joint
  47. 52. Strong ligaments, a strong joint capsule, and powerful muscles help to stabilize the acetabulofemoral joint
  48. 53. The retinacular fibers support the joint capsule and contain arteries that supply most of the blood to the neck and head of the femur The ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres) contains a small artery that supplies some of the blood to the head of the femur.
  49. 54. Fracture of the neck of the femur Read about fracture of the femoral neck in the clinical view in the text
  50. 55. Tibiofemoral (knee) joint
  51. 56. The knee joint is composed of two separate articulations: the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint.
  52. 57. Patellofemoral joint of left knee of femur
  53. 58. The quadriceps femoris tendon inserts onto the patella, which is embedded in this tendon The patellar ligament extends inferiorly from the patella and attaches to the tibial tuberosity
  54. 59. The tibiofemoral joint is stabilized by the lateral (fibular) collateral ligament and by the medial (tibial) collateral ligament . The LCL is NOT attached to the meniscus. Right knee, anterior view
  55. 60. In varus displacement of the knee (hyperadduction of the lower leg), the distal segment (lower leg) is abnormally deviated medially. This is normally prevented by the lateral (fibular) collateral ligament .
  56. 61. The tibiofemoral joint is stabilized by the lateral (fibular) collateral ligament and by the medial (tibial) collateral ligament . Right knee, anterior view
  57. 62. In valgus displacement of the knee (hyperabduction of the lower leg), the knee is driven medially while the lower leg is deviated laterally. This is normally prevented by the medial (tibial) collateral ligament.
  58. 63. attached The medial collateral ligament is attached to the medial meniscus . This means if the MCL tears the medical meniscus also tears. Right knee, anterior view
  59. 64. The medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus are made of fibrocartilage and help stabilize the knee and act as cushions. Note the MCL is attached to the medial meniscus. attached Right knee, anterior view
  60. 65. The menisci help to pad and stabilize the knee
  61. 66. More deeply the tibiofemoral joint is stabilized by the posterior cruciate ligament and by the anterior cruciate ligament .
  62. 67. Note that the posterior cruciate ligament is tight (taut) when the tibiofemoral joint is flexed while the anterior cruciate ligament is tight (taut) when the tibiofemoral joint is extended . Most knee injuries occur when the knee is extended (anterior cruciate ligament is tight) so it is commonly ruptured (ruptured ACL) by hyperextension or lateral displacement when leg is extended. ACL tight PCL tight
  63. 68. Humans are bipedal animals. An important aspect in walking and standing is the ability to “lock” the knees . This is possible because at full extension the tibia rotates laterally so as to tighten the ACL and squeeze the meniscus between the tibia and femur. This mechanism permits a person to stand for long periods without using or tiring the muscles of the leg.
  64. 69. The tibiofemoral joint (knee) is very vulnerable to injury. Read the clinical view in the text.
  65. 70. Valgus deviation of the knee (hyperabduction of lower leg))
  66. 71. Valgus stress to the knee (hyperabduction of the lower leg) can rupture the MCL, the medial meniscus, and, if enough displacement occurs, the ACL and the PCL. (medial)
  67. 74. An allograft replacement of the ACL uses materials from another person (cadaver)
  68. 75. An autograft replacement uses your own tissues, such as the middle portion of the patellar ligament
  69. 76. An autograft replacement can also use a portion of your hamstring tendons. They are removed, braided, and used to replace the ACL.
  70. 79. There are numerous bursae associated with the knee. Two of them are shown here.
  71. 80. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WOULD BE INJURED IN THE KNEE BY HYPERABDUCTION OF THE LOWER LEG (VALGUS DEVIATION)? A MENISCUS B LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT C PATELLAR LIGAMENT D RUPTURED RETINACULAR FIBERS E ALL OF THE ABOVE
  72. 81. Ankle joint
  73. 82. The talocrural (ankle) joint is a hinge joint formed by the medial and lateral malleoli and the talus
  74. 83. The talocrural (ankle) joint is surrounded by an articular capsule
  75. 84. Medial view Lateral view
  76. 85. The most common sprain of the ankle is excessive inversion that ruptures the anterior talofibular ligament and the calcaneofibular ligament
  77. 86. Excessive inversion of the ankle in rugby
  78. 89. Dislocated right ankle
  79. 90. Dislocated ankle joint
  80. 93. Excessive eversion , which is less common, can damage the deltoid ligament on the medial side of the ankle
  81. 94. High top athletic shoes have been statistically shown to reduce the incidence of ankle sprains, most likely by making the person more aware of the position of the ankle when leaping or jumping.
  82. 95. Results: The high-top shoes were more effective in reducing the amount and rate of inversion than the low-top shoes
  83. 96. Sprains are often accompanied by bleeding and inflammation of the joint capsule (synovitis). Read about ankle sprains and Pott fractures in the clinical view in the text.
  84. 97. Intertarsal joints (and tarsometatarsal joints) are planar (gliding) joints Metatarsophalangeal joints are condyloid joints Interphalangeal joints are hinge joints
  85. 98. Active joints develop larger and thicker capsules and the supporting ligaments increase in size .
  86. 99. Moderate exercise is good for the joints and all parts of the human body.
  87. 100. Dorothy Hamill , an Olympic figure skater now suffers from osteoarthritis.
  88. 101. Modern fiberoptic arthroscopy
  89. 103. Knee replacement
  90. 104. Hip replacement
  91. 105. Read about the different types of arthritis in the clinical view in your text.
  92. 106. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS ASSOCIATED WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS? A SUPPRESSION BY DIFFERENT HLA PROTEINS B URIC ACID CRYSTALS ACCUMULATING IN SYNOVIAL FLUID C OVEREXERCISE OR ADVANCING AGE D MOST COMMON TYPE OF ARTHRITIS E COMMONLY TREATED WITH SYNGENETIC GRAFTS OR XENOGRAFTS
  93. 107. MUSCLES! Prepare yourself for. . .
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