cultivating branchonetasDendrocephalus brasiliensis : Known as camarãozinho, branchonetas or freshwaterartemia.Knowing the branchonetas:The branchoneta has separate sexes and easy identification. Its body is cylindrical, ranging fromlight green tint to white for the male specimen, and somewhat transparent, for females, whosetails are reddish.Branchonetas grow more than 1 mm a day, after day 3 of life. This animal reached dimensions ofup to 30 mm as adults (around 50 days of life), even exceed, if the environment is quitefavorable. On average, adults are found around 20 mm.Being essentially branchoneta Filtrating in a short period of time, leaves a pool rich in plankton,completely "clean."With reference to the zooplankton intake was observed in both ponds, such as tanks, which givesthe branchoneta not more preferably.The species also has a strong tendency to aggregate, forming clusters, swimming in alldirections. Individuals swim on their own backs with filopodia upward directed light or brightnessof the room in which they are (telotaxia ventral).At the same time that nothing will branchoneta the feeding of the material in suspension, filteringwith its appendages: bacteria, algae, protozoa, and metazoan remains of organicmatter. However, it soon becomes characterized phytoplankton its tendency, as zooplankton ishardly consumed. So your eating habits early and would be predator, feeding Filtratingspecialization. A more intense predation is only exercised in reaching anostracos largeas Branchinecta gig andBranchinecta ferox .With one week of life, it is possible to find ways for young branchoneta with ovaries intraining. Approximately eight days after hatching, they are already mature and begin to releasethe cysts, which are dark and octagonal shape. A preliminary analysis revealed that, in position,each female releases 100-230 cysts.The life cycle of branchonetas is approximately 90 days, a period corresponding to the spawninggrounds for several species of carnivorous fish.It is a prolific species, reproducing continuously throughout the year, except during winter whentemperatures drop. There was a dominant female sex ratio of approximately 60%.Females perform postures daily, stimulated by the stress of overcrowding and / or impendingdrought. Their cysts, because they are heavier than water, sink to the bottom, where it lay, mixedwaste, and there are.The cysts are just born this background material, the substrate is dried and then hydrated.If water is always maintained there is no birth of cysts (necessarily need to go through a period ofdiapause dry). Sometimes it can happen until the birth of a cyst that has been in that region byevaporation has dried.CystsCysts of branchoneta, like the other Anostracos are resistant and ensure survival duringextremely adverse environmental conditions such as desiccation and freezing.
After the complete draining of the incubators they remain at the bottom, even if exposed to thesun for several weeks. Once the pond is full, they hatch quickly, there is an individual growth andrapid population and the fourth day of life, the young forms in sizes suitable for use in the diet ofyoung fish can now be harvested. At eight days old adult forms can now be harvested with nets, ifyou want to make production in the lab or use them in fish feeding.Usually you get a small portion of the substrate (mud bottom of the tank cultivation), containing,amid the waste, the cysts. Because the cysts are heavy, go to the bottom, making theirseparation.Hatching cysts branchonetas: 1. Prepare a small container of 500 ml, maximum, transparent and very clean to do the seeding of the cysts. It is important that you do so, to get to see the nauplii that are born and not end up throwing it all away, thinking that the cysts do not avenged. 2. Place 200 ml of water and chlorine free (previously boiled, cooled and stirred to restore oxygenation). 3. Provide a screen cover to prevent mosquitoes or mosquitoes, can reach into the water to make egg laying. 4. Accommodate the container, preferably a location in the sun.But beware, there may be overheating. 5. Hydrate the cysts, seeding the substrate in this water. Only a small part of it, to avoid losing all cysts in a seeding wrong.Once you master the management, risk is higher seeding batches of substrate. To better use of acquired cysts, from time to time, check seeding new lots, to continue production. When you finish the acquired cysts, you can avail themselves of the cysts produced in their own culture. 6. It does not require forced aeration (porous rock), but if applied, should have a very soft bubbling.If the water temperature is in the range 27-30 ° C and pH ranging from 6.5-7.2 (referenceparameters), the start branchonetas birth within 24 hours after hydrated, but still births forseveral days. This is a trick, because in nature, are born all at once, after a little rain was notenough to keep the pool filled for a long time, they end up dying without getting to play, whilerising slowly, they ensure the perpetuation of the species. Initially black and have a strongresemblance to the salt brine shrimp.Attention!: The fact that nauplii branchonetas born, does not mean that you successfully complete. It iscommon to all of a sudden death occurs all for no apparent reason, at any stage of life, so always sowsubstrate with cysts gradually and monitor the development .Looking at the jar against the light, its easy to view the nauplii of branchonetas. They can stay forthree days this pot without power.After this time, should be transferred to a tank of growth andfattening.Preparing a tank for the growth and fattening branchonetas: 1. Prepare a low box and wide (more or less 15 liters of clean water and chlorine free (previously boiled, cooled and stirred to restore oxygenation). 2. Place the tank bottom a thin layer of river sand (2 cm) and washed and preferably boiled and cooled. This will be the substrate of their culture, where the positions will be made of eggs.
3. Provide a screen cover to prevent mosquitoes or mosquitoes, can reach into the water to make egg laying. 4. Accommodates it, preferably a location in the sun. But beware, there may be overheating. 5. This tank, if possible, should be a high place, to favor the sifonagens water to collect all or part of the substrate containing the cysts. 6. It does not require forced aeration (porous rock), but if applied, should have a very soft bubbling.Transfer of nauplii branchonetas tank for growth and fattening:You should follow the usual procedures for adapting these nauplii branchonetas this tank water forgrowth and fattening. Nauplii adapt to temperature and pH of the water where they will betransferred: 1. Place this pot floating in the tank for growth and fattening, for 30-40 minutes to equalize the water temperature. 2. Then go adding water tank growth and fattening in the pot, in small doses, up to double the original volume of water. This must take place very slowly, so that the nauplii fit securely to the pH of the water tank growth and fattening. Take your time to 6-8 hours if possible apply this process. 3. Loosen the nauplii in the tank for growth and fattening.Feeding the branchonetas: 1. They may be fed green algae 1 (without predators 2 ), spirulina, diatomaceous , yeast (bakery), yeast, thin fish feed, milk powder, wheat flour or any food that becomes suspended in water . Prefer a green algae. Foods such as milk powder, yeast, wheat flour can be used with caution. Start "testing" and reduced amounts until you find the "sweet spot". Branchonetas The feed lot, "filtering" the water with great rapidity, leaving tanks infested with green algae (not filamentous) quickly translucent (usually 24 to 72 hours depending on the volume of water and the introduced amount of individuals). To do so, always keep green algal cultures of "reserve". 2. Remember that excess food kills more than the lack (like the fish) especially if you use foods (green water can be the will, and placed where the water turbidity loss, even partially).Collection of cysts:You can leave your culture producing cysts, until the near extinction of adults (several months), ordepending on the rush to get cysts, one can, after sexual maturity of individuals, transfer them toanother box branchonetas the adult (ie it is not advisable, because in adulthood, they feel thechanges in the pattern of water and may even die). It then drying the substrate. The cysts can bestored at room temperature, but without moisture for a long time.Note: The drying during the rainy season is much more problematic due to high humidity, and there canbe used to feature a fan.You can choose to wait all adults die in the development box and fattening, age, and only thenmake the collection of the substrate, leaving aspiring or evaporate the excess water, leaving drythe pellet.
Another option is, from time to time, collect the waste by suction from the bottom, filteringdisposable filter in the coffee percolator and putting to dry.This process has the disadvantage of losing many cysts that burrow into the filter, but can be seededwith filter paper together.You can also allow water and sediment collected material resting on a container for high andnarrow (PET bottles cut), and after pelleted and aspirate again excess water, drying byevaporation to leave the substrate.