Town Layout• Narrow winding streets withdensely built construction on bothsides• All Major streets were oriented inthe East-West direction at rightangles to the direction of duststorms• The height of the buildingcompared to the width of streets islarge to create shaded coolenvironment for the pedestriansand other social activities on thestreets.Plan of Jaisalmer town
Smaller HousesThe simplest town house consists of a single room, a verandah and acourtyard. Larger houses of this type have another verandah over theentrance and some houses have an additional room on one side of thecourtyard. These single storey structures are owned by the poorest peopleand have been built in the peripheral areas of the town.
Middle Income HousesA two or three-storey structure,this house type can be consideredthe typical house of Jaisalmer. Itis similar to the first house type inplan, with the only differencethat additional rooms and smallenclosed terraces are located atthe upper floors. The front part ofthe first floor has a balconyprojecting onto the street.
HavelisThe most complex and interestingresidential buildings in Jaisalmerare the havelis (Fig.7) built by therich merchants or courtiers. Inthese four or five-storied houses,the courtyard is surrounded byrooms or verandahs on all sides.There are underground rooms aswell, sometimes at two levels onebelow the other. The uppermoststorey comprises terracesenclosed by wind pavillions andhigh parapet walls. In some cases,the house is built around twocourtyards.
Plan and Section of a typical Haveli in Jaisalmer
Building Construction Details• Most common building materials– Light yellowish sandstone for walls (0.45m or more inthickness)– 50 mm thick panels of limestone used on upper levels forelements on projecting wall facades
.. BC Details contd.• Two types of construction used for floors and roofs– Traditional method: Laying closely spaces timber beams and coveringthem with a layer or reed or grass matting with a layer of earth on top.– Because of lack of availability in the desert, stone beams are beingused.
Natural Cooling SystemsShading mask for thesmall horizontalprojections for asouth-facing wall in arelatively wide street.
An E-W street orientation, in summer the sun would be shining on thesouth facade from 9.30am to 2.30pm. The corresponding solar altitudesduring this time are 54° to 86° and even small horizontal projections aresufficient to shade the south-facing building. The north face of thebuilding receives solar radiation before 8 am and after 4pm with solaraltitude being less than 35°. At this time the building opposite shades thenorthern facade even if the street is relatively wide.
Shading mask for aneastern wall in anarrow street. Theshading mask for awestern wall issimilar.
For streets oriented N-S, the summer sun shines on the east facade till11.30am and the west facade after 12.30pm. The solar altitude duringthese periods varies from 0° to 79°, With a narrow street, the buildingfacades would be shaded before 10.30am and after 1.30pm (Fig.10), Thus,solar radiation would be incident on the E-W facades for no more than anhour each which is taken care of by the massive wall construction.