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Ways of separating mixtures
 

Ways of separating mixtures

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    Ways of separating mixtures Ways of separating mixtures Presentation Transcript

    • Separation of Mixtures  Identify the different ways of separating mixtures.  Determine how the different ways are used to separate mixtures.  Identify the ways in which Hand Picking, Threshing, Winnowing, Sieving, Magnetic Attraction, Sublimation, Evaporation, Crystallization, Sedimentation & Decantation, Loading, Filtration, Distillation, Centrifugation, and Paper Chromatography can be used in daily life.
    • A Mixture…. o consists of two or more different substances that are mixed but not chemically combined. o they do not have well defined specific properties. o can be separated into its components by physical means.
    • Rock-mixture of different kinds of rocks Sandwich- mixture of bread, meat, tomato Examples of Mixtures Soda- mixture of sugar and water
    • 2 Types of Mixtures The prefixes: “hetero” indicate difference. A heterogeneous mixture is that which does not have the same composition throughout, that is, its components are not uniformly distributed and can be distinguished from each other.
    • oExamples: •Concrete •Beach sand is heterogeneous since you can see different colored particles •Vinegar and oil salad dressing is heterogeneous since two liquid layers are present, as well as solids.
    • The prefixes: “homo” indicate sameness. A homogeneous mixture is that which has the same composition throughout, that is, its components are uniformly distributed and cannot be distinguished from each other.
    • oExamples: •Corn oil •White vinegar •A sugar solution •A salt solution
    • What are the different ways of separating mixtures?  Hand Picking  Threshing  Winnowing  Sieving  Magnetic Attraction  Sublimation  Evaporation  Crystallization  Sedimentation & Decantation  Loading  Filtration  Distillation  Centrifugation  Paper Chromatography
    • Hand Picking
    •  The components of a solid-solid mixture can be separated by hand picking.  This is only useful when the particles are large enough to be seen clearly. For example • separating pebbles from rice or dal, • separating grass from mint leaves, and • separating parts of a salad.
    • Threshing
    •  Threshing is the method that generally used by the farmers to separate the grains from the stalks after harvesting.  The dried stalks are beaten or threshed to separate the grains.  However, in large farms threshing is done by using threshing machines.
    • Winnowing
    •  In Winnowing the mixture is allowed to fall from a height.  The lighten components get separated from the heavier ones because of wind or air blow.  This method is used to separate lighter husk from heavier Grains like wheat.
    • Sifting or Sieving Sieving is used to separate a dry mixture which contains substances of different sizes by passing it through a sieve.
    •  A sieve is a device containing tiny holes and separates wanted elements from unwanted material.
    • Magnetic Attraction or Magnetism Magnetism is a process in which magnetically susceptible material is extracted from a mixture using a magnetic force.
    • Sublimation The process in which a solid changes directly into gaseous state on heating is called sublimation.
    • oExample Iodine and ammonium chloride  On heating, they do not melt.  Iodine changes into a beautiful violet vapor while ammonium chloride changes into a white vapor.  They change back into solid crystal on cooling.
    • Evaporation Evaporation is a process in which a liquid changes into gaseous form on heating. Allowing the liquid to evaporate, leaving the soluble solid behind.
    • Crystallization is a process which separates a pure solid in the form of its crystals from a saturated solution. Crystallization
    • Sedimentation and Decantation Sedimentation is the process by which the insoluble, heavy solid particles settle down their own in a solution. In order to separate the two, the liquid has to be gently poured into another
    • container without disturbing the sediments. This process of obtaining clear liquid by pouring a solution from a container in order to leave the sediments in the bottom of the original container is called decantation.
    • Loading Loading is a process which speeds up the sedimentation. In fact, loading is a faster process as compared to sedimentation.
    • Filtration
    • Filtration is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass. oExample: Using a coffee filter to separate the coffee flavor from the coffee beans.
    • Distillation the process by which a mixture is separated by heating a solution and condensing using a cooling tube. The liquid collected is the distillate. Distillation
    • “It is the process whereby distilled water is produced and accessible in the market” “Rain water is a product of distillation” “Some medicine that has fish oil ingredients passes through double distillation”. Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil are produced from petroleum by distillation.
    • The solution is boiled and steam is driven off.
    • Salt remains after all water is boiled off.
    • No chemical change occurs when salt water is distilled. Saltwater solution (homogeneous mixture) Pure water
    • Centrifugation • Spin sample very rapidly: denser materials go to bottom (outside) • Separate blood into serum and plasma - Plasma = less dense - Erythrocytes = red blood cells • Check for anemia (lack of iron)
    • Paper Chromatography Paper Chromatography used to separate out one color from a mixture of colors.
    • Separation by Chromatography
    • oExamples: Using chromatography paper to separate ink into it’s original components
    • Review Questions Exercise 1 Consists of two or more different substances that are mixed but not chemically combined. a. mixture b. compound c. substance d. solution
    • Answer Exercise 1  a. mixture
    • Exercise 2 A ____________________ is that which does not have the same composition throughout, that is, its components are not uniformly distributed and can be distinguished from each other. a. mixture b. compound c. heterogeneous mixture d. homogeneous mixture
    • Answer Exercise 2  c. heterogeneous mixture
    • Exercise 3 A ____________________ is that which has the same composition throughout, that is, its components are uniformly distributed and cannot be distinguished from each other. a. mixture b. compound c. heterogeneous mixture d. homogeneous mixture
    • Answer Exercise 3  d. homogeneous mixture
    • Exercise 4 The components of a solid-solid mixture can be separated by a. threshing b. hand picking c. winnowing d. sieving
    • Answer Exercise 4  b. hand picking
    • Exercise 5 This is a process in which magnetically susceptible material is extracted from a mixture using a magnetic force. a. sieving b. filtration c. paper chromatography d. magnetic attraction
    • Answer Exercise 5  d. magnetic attraction
    • Exercise 6 (answer each question) Question 1 Why is a chocolate chip cookie considered a mixture?
    • Answer Exercise 6 1. Chocolate chip cookie o They are mixtures because they are made up of 2 different substances mixed together (cookie and chocolate chips). o The individual parts keep their original properties. o The parts can be separated easily by physical means.
    • Exercise 6 Question 2 What are the two types of mixtures?
    • Answer Exercise 6 Question 2 Two Types of Mixtures oheterogeneous mixture ohomogeneous mixture
    • Exercise 6 Question 3 What are the different ways of separating mixtures.
    • Answer Exercise 6 Question 3 Different Ways of Separating Mixtures oHand Picking oThreshing oWinnowing oSieving oMagnetic Attraction oSublimation oEvaporation
    • oCrystallization oSedimentation & Decantation oLoading oFiltration oDistillation oCentrifugation oPaper Chromatography
    • Exercise 6 Question 4 Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil are produced from petroleum by _______________ .
    • Answer Exercise 6 Question 4 4. distillation