Republic of the Philippines                                   Tarlac State University                                    C...
2BLAPTICA DUBIA (Dubia Cockroach) AS AN ADDITIVE FOR BROILER                      CHICKEN FEEDS                        ___...
3                                       ABSTRACTTitle:         Blaptica Dubia(Dubia Cockroach) as an Additive for Broiler ...
4       3.      How are the control and experimental groups described in terms of their:               a. Cost of Producti...
5       1.4 The results of laboratory testing done to evaluate the levels of moisturecontent of the commercial and experim...
6of crude protein. Having the standard level of crude protein for Broiler Chicken Feeds as13%, the control group has 38.43...
7Crude fiber is a term used to describe the fibrous food residue that is left over after it hasbeen dissolved in the labor...
8      2.3 In terms of texture, since the T-value is 1 is lower than the critical value 2.101,the researchers accepted Ho....
9       Based on findings and recommendations, the researchers strongly recommend thefollowing:   1. This study is only a ...
10         © 2012 David Marco A. BildanMarlyVea Clarisse L. ElliGian Carlo B. MuldongLiana Faith Q. De Leon   Ray John A. ...
11                                ACKNOWLEDGEMENT        First of all, the researchers would like to thank the Lord God Al...
12thank you for all the support and concern that served as their foundation and inspirationto finish their research study....
13           DEDICATIONThe efforts and sacrifices are dedicated         to the Almighty God,  our beloved parents and teac...
14                         TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                 PageAPPROVAL ...
15         Animal Feeds Testing ………………......………………………………..                                              22         Statist...
16                             LIST OF TABLESTable                                                                     Pag...
17                  LIST OF FIGURESFigure                                        Page 1. Research Paradigm…………………………………………...
18                                        Chapter 1                     THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction       T...
19of odor and habits. Dubia roaches are used as feeder insects and have become popular forfeeding reptiles and amphibians ...
20stench of an un-sanitized coop could also make local city inspectors ban the raiser fromraising chickens.        If the ...
21               e. Crude Fiber; and               f. Calcium?       7.      How are the control and experimental groups d...
22         Furthermore, it may point-out possible nutrients that can be extracted from theDubia Cockroach, providing futur...
23the problems stated on the statement of the problem and as a basis to draw conclusionsand recommendations.       The stu...
24crickets. (www.wikipedia.com).It is the main additive for broiler chicken feeds as used inthis study.        Broilers. C...
25fibrous food residue with no nutritional value left after the control and experimental feedsare dissolved in the laborat...
26       Steaming. It is a process that uses indirect heat with the use of a steamer to cookwhichresults in a more nutriti...
27                                        Chapter 2              REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES       This chapt...
28meat to fulfill our dragon’s appetite. I few years ago while keeping frilled dragons I gotinto roaches. It amazed me how...
29cockroaches. The roaches are captured, killed and hold in a jar until the next morning.The chickens can eat them after. ...
30been used to cure illnesses, like indigestion and dropsy (edema). Some people put oncrushed roaches to stinging wounds t...
31bacteria tested, she says. What’s more, the substances had no toxic effects on humanbrain cells, and more research is un...
32consume. Unfortunately, the demand for poultry and poultry by products continue to riseas human population increases, re...
33all bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms in the cockroaches (also from insecticidesthat can affect the chickens’ h...
34Gathering of Dubia   Cockroaches                                 Preparation of Home-                                   ...
35                                        Chapter 3                                   METHODOLOGY       This research was ...
36Sampling Design       Sensory evaluation of control feeds and experimental feeds were assessed usingjudgmental sampling ...
37Instruments       The actual instruments, apparatus, and equipment that were used for the Broilerchicken feeds preparati...
38time of at least 15 minutes at 100 °C (212 °F) to achieve sterility by using any steamsterilization utensil. This step w...
39Magaspac, Gerona, Tarlac to react on the difference between the experimental productand the commercial product.VII.   Te...
40organically bound N to ammonium sulphate which when heated with excess alkali(40% NaOH), NH3 was liberated which is dist...
41Statistical Treatment       Continuum Frequency counts were used to describe the appearance of theexperimental feeds. Me...
42T-test Independent Formula:where:              t               –   t-probability                  ,           –   mean s...
43                                             Chapter 4        PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA        T...
44                                     Table 2 Description of Color of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Fee...
45                                    Table 4  Moisture Content Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken ...
46                                    Table 5  Ash Content Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds...
47                                     Table 6 Crude Protein Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Fee...
48                                    Table 7   Crude Fat Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds ...
49                                    Table 8  Crude Fiber Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds...
50                                    Table 9    Calcium Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds  ...
51                                          Table 10                                      Cost Analysis                   ...
52                                      Table 11Test of difference of the Odor, Color and Texture of the Experimental and ...
53                                        Chapter 5             SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION       This chapter...
54from fungal contamination. Thus, the experimental group is more preferred than thecontrol group because of the lower per...
55        1.7 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the levels of crude fatpresent in the commercial and exp...
56        1.9 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the levels of calcium ofthe commercial and experimental ...
57Conclusion       Based from the gathered data, the researchers concluded the following:   4. The control group was found...
5811. Other tests can also be conducted to the experimental group to add more value to   its significant property.12. Also...
59                                 BIBLIOGRAPHYA. BOOKS     Chiba, Lee I., 2009. Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 12:    ...
60     Heijden, Maarten van der and D de Haan. 2010. Optimising Moisture while         Maintaining Feed Quality     http:/...
61http://www.brighthub.com/environment/science-environmental/articles/73152.aspx (2 June 2010)http://www.smallstock.info/i...
62                                           Appendix A                                           Excuse letter           ...
63                                              Appendix B                                             Discount letter    ...
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds
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BLAPTICA DUBIA as an additive for broiler chicken feeds

  1. 1. Republic of the Philippines Tarlac State University College of Education Laboratory High School Lucinda Campus, Tarlac City APPROVAL SHEET This thesis of David Marco Bildan, Marly Vea Clarisse Elli, Gian Carlo Muldong,Liana Faith De Leon, Ray John Dorig, and Mies Eliel Dela Cruz entitled “BLAPTICADUBIA (DUBIA COCKROACH) AS AN ADDITIVE FOR BROILER CHICKEN FEEDS”,which prepared and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Math-ScienceCurriculum, is hereby accepted. ESTRELLA B. PAGCO, M.A. Ed. – Math Instructor, Science Research II PANEL OF EXAMINEES RAMACHANDRA C. TORRES Member SHARON A. GALBADORES MILAGROS BONDOC Member Member Accepted and approved in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for Science Research II. NORBINA GENEVER M. CASTRO, M.A. Ed. – EDMA. Director, Laboratory High School Date: ________________
  2. 2. 2BLAPTICA DUBIA (Dubia Cockroach) AS AN ADDITIVE FOR BROILER CHICKEN FEEDS _______________ A Research Study Presented to The Faculty of Tarlac State University Laboratory High School Tarlac City _______________ In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for Science Research II _______________ Presented by: BILDAN, DAVID MARCO A. ELLI, MARLY VEA CLARISSE L. MULDONG, GIAN CARLO B. DE LEON, LIANA FAITH Q. DORIG, RAY JOHN A. DELA CRUZ, MIES ELIEL C. MARCH 2012
  3. 3. 3 ABSTRACTTitle: Blaptica Dubia(Dubia Cockroach) as an Additive for Broiler Chicken FeedsResearchers: David Marco A. Bildan Marly Vea Clarisse L. Elli Gian Carlo B. Muldong Liana Faith Q. De Leon Ray John A. Dorig Mies Eliel C. Dela CruzInstitution: Tarlac State University Laboratory High School The Dubia cockroach (Blapticadubia) is one of the best falsifiers of the commonmisconceptions about cockroaches. This study provided information to people, especiallypoultry raiser, on its composition, benefits, and other information. The study aims to answer the following questions: 1. How are the control and experimental feeds be described in terms of their: a. Odor; b. Color; c. Texture; 2. How are the control and experimental feeds be described in terms of their: a. Moisture Content; b. Ash Content; c. Crude Protein; d. Crude Fat; e. Crude Fiber; and f. Calcium?
  4. 4. 4 3. How are the control and experimental groups described in terms of their: a. Cost of Production? 4. Is there a significant difference between the control and experimental groups in terms of: a. Odor; b. Color; and c. Texture? This study is an experimental research and descriptive research. It determines theeffectiveness of Dubia cockroach (Blapticadubia) asan additive for broiler chicken feeds.This research is intended to offer Filipinos, especially poultry raisers, to use Dubiacockroaches as the main source of protein in feeds and to utilize the Dubia cockroaches. The experiments conducted by the researchers’ yielded results including thefollowing: 1.1 The means of the odor evaluation are as follows; the control group has a meanof 4.6 and the experimental group has a mean of 4.8. Having the higher mean of theexperimental group, it is said to be more preferred in terms of odor. 1.2 The means of the color evaluation are as follows; the control group has amean of 4.5 and the experimental group has a mean of 4.7. Having the higher mean of theexperimental group, it is said to be more preferred in terms of color. 1.3 The means of texture evaluations are as follows; the control group has a meanof 4.2 and the experimental group has a mean of 4.5. Having the higher mean of theexperimental group, it is said to be more preferred in terms of texture.
  5. 5. 5 1.4 The results of laboratory testing done to evaluate the levels of moisturecontent of the commercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; thecontrol group has moisture content level of 12% and the experimental group has moisturecontent level of 10.70%. Having the standard level of moisture content in BroilerChicken Feeds as 11%, the control group has a 9.09% of difference with the standardlevel and the experimental group has a 2.27% of difference with the standard level ofmoisture content. Feeds with high moisture content are liable to spoil quickly, mostlyfrom fungal contamination. Thus, the experimental group is more preferred than thecontrol group because of the lower percentage of the moisture content. 1.5 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the ash content level of thecommercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; the control group hasan ash content level of 6% and the experimental group has an ash content level of 0.8%.Having the standard level of ash content for Broiler Chicken Feeds as 3%, the controlgroup has a 100% of difference with the standard level and the experimental group has a73.33% of difference with the standard level of moisture content. The amount of acidinsoluble ash is a good guide to the amount of sand or other dirt which may be presentand the total of all the minerals found in the feeds. The feed is usually adulterated withsand during drying process. The experimental group is more preferred than the controlgroup because of the acid insoluble ash present and the lower difference in percentagefrom the standard level. 1.6 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the level of crude proteinpresent in the commercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; thecontrol group has 18% of crude protein present and the experimental group has 13.81%
  6. 6. 6of crude protein. Having the standard level of crude protein for Broiler Chicken Feeds as13%, the control group has 38.43% difference from the standard level of crude proteinand the experimental group has a 6.23% difference from the standard. Crude protein isneeded especially for Broiler developers in maintaining their diet. Thus, the experimentalgroup is more preferred than the control group because of the difference in percentagefrom the standard level, and the quantity of crude protein needed by the broilers. 1.7 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the levels of crude fatpresent in the commercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; 3% ofcrude fat was present in the control group and 8.77% of crude fat was present in theexperimental group. Having the standard level of crude fat for Broiler Chicken Feeds as6.5%, the control group was 53.85% different from the standard level of crude fat forBroiler Chicken feeds and the experimental group was 34.29% different from thestandard level. The high Crude Fat is indicative of adulteration with urea and or someinferior quality oil seed meals. The free fatty acid content of oily materials will affectpalatability due to rancidity of oils. Thus, the control group is more preferred than theexperimental group because of the high crude fat in the experimental group which mayaffect the palatability of the chicken feeds. 1.8 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the levels of crude fiberpresent in the commercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; thecontrol group has 6% of crude fiber and the experimental group has 1.12% of crude fiber.Having the standard level of crude fiber for Broiler Chicken Feeds as 6.5%, the controlgroup had 7.69% difference from the standard level of crude fiber for Broiler Chickenfeeds and the experimental group had 82.77% of difference from the standard level.
  7. 7. 7Crude fiber is a term used to describe the fibrous food residue that is left over after it hasbeen dissolved in the laboratory with certain harsh chemical solvents such as sulfuric acidand sodium hydroxide. Crude fiber has no nutritional value. Thus, the experimental groupis more preferred than the control group because of the lower crude fiber for thenutritional content of the chicken feeds. 1.9 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the levels of calcium of thecommercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; the control group has1.1% of calcium and the experimental group has 0.004% of calcium. Having the standardlevel of calcium for broiler chicken feeds as 0.8, the control group had 7.5% differencefrom the standard level of calcium and the experimental group had a 39.95% differencefrom the standard level of calcium for broiler chicken feeds. Calcium feeding mayimprove eggshell quality (Farmer et al., 1983; Van Wambeke and DeGroote, 1986) andthe bones of the chickens. Thus, the control group is more preferred than theexperimental group because of the calcium content that a broiler chicken needed. 2.0 In terms of cost, the Dubia cockroach-mixed feeds costs P39.12/kg which ischeaper by 2.2% compared to the commercial feeds which costs P40.00/kg. 2.1 In terms of odor, since the T-value -0.9487 is higher than the critical value -2.101, the researchers accepted Ho. Hence, there is no significant difference between thetwo groups, controlled and experimental. 2.2 In terms of color, since the T-value 0.7386 is lower than the critical value2.101, the researchers accepted Ho. Hence, there is no significant difference between thetwo groups, controlled and experimental.
  8. 8. 8 2.3 In terms of texture, since the T-value is 1 is lower than the critical value 2.101,the researchers accepted Ho. Hence, there is no significant difference between the twogroups, controlled and experimental. Based from the gathered data, the researchers concluded the following: 1. The control group was found to be of very acceptable color, odor and moderately acceptable texture. The experimental feeds was found to be of very acceptable color, odor, and texture. 2. There is no significant difference between the color, odor, and texture between the commercial and experimental feeds. 3. The implication of the study to science research is that the growing cost for broiler chicken feeds often turns down poultry raisers. Research into the alternatives of commercial broiler chicken feeds is expected to lower the cost of production and maintenance by local poultry raisers. Blapticadubia Cockroaches can be found from households to chicken pens and add to tempest burdened by poultry raisers. Dubia cockroaches are also an effective source of protein commonly overlooked as pests by many. It is possible that the efficacy provided by commercial broiler chicken feeds can be sought by the provision of Blapticadubia as an additive for homemade broiler chicken feeds at a significantly lower cost. Preliminary results of this investigation indicates that Blaptica Dubia as an additive for homemade broiler chicken feeds has a high potential of being a cheaper alternative to commercial broiler chicken feeds especially if the home- made ingredients were nutritious left-over or being harvested in owned farm.
  9. 9. 9 Based on findings and recommendations, the researchers strongly recommend thefollowing: 1. This study is only a preliminary investigation. Hence, further studies and utilization of Blapticadubia and homemade feeds should be pursued to determine its most effective potential needed to locate the active principle from the various nutrients and their agricultural studies. 2. Increasing the ratio of Blapticadubia over homemade feeds can possibly improve the nutritional value of the homegrown feeds and the cost of production. 3. Other tests can also be conducted to the experimental group to add more value to its significant property. 4. Also, other researchers can study other kinds of cockroaches, Americana Periplaneta, in terms of their properties and used to man. 5. Other researchers may include soybean or fish meals for additional nutrient content. 6. Also, increasing the skimmed milk or adding bone meal for calcium content. 7. Adding ingredients with vitamins or minerals can possibly improve the ash content of the feeds. 8. Other researchers may not grind or pound the ingredients because these processes can cause the loss of protein and nutrients needed.
  10. 10. 10 © 2012 David Marco A. BildanMarlyVea Clarisse L. ElliGian Carlo B. MuldongLiana Faith Q. De Leon Ray John A. Dorig MiesEliel C. Dela CruzALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  11. 11. 11 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, the researchers would like to thank the Lord God Almighty who,they know, has been with them since they first decided this research study, for givingthem the wisdom, knowledge, and strength to accomplish a very significant requirementfor their subject, Science Research II. To their parents, for their unending support, be it morally or financially and fortheir great understanding on our schedule. To their teachers from Tarlac State University – Laboratory High School, forgiving some advices and understanding their schedules, thank you for granting themsome of their spare time. To their classmates (MS – IV) who helped them in every little way they can,even though they also had same obligations to do, the researchers appreciate it a lot. To Sir Ramachandra C. Torres, Ma’am Sharon A. Galbadores, and Ma’amMilagros Bondoc, their panellists, for helping them improve their research study throughtheir critical analysis. To Ma’am Diane Quinto, their English critic, for helping them improve theirresearch study through correcting grammatical errors. To Prof. EstrellaB.Pagco, their Science Research II adviser, for helping theirgroup intellectually, for bestowing them every thought that she had just to help them,
  12. 12. 12thank you for all the support and concern that served as their foundation and inspirationto finish their research study. DMAB, MVCLE, GCBM, LFQDL, RJAD, MECDC
  13. 13. 13 DEDICATIONThe efforts and sacrifices are dedicated to the Almighty God, our beloved parents and teachers, friends and Math Science – IV.
  14. 14. 14 TABLE OF CONTENTS PageAPPROVAL SHEET …………………………………………………………... iTITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………………….….. iiTHESIS ABSTRACT ………...…..…………………………………………….. iiiCOPYRIGHT PAGES ………...……..…………………………………………... xACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………..……………….……………………………. xiDEDICATION …………....……..…………………………………………....... xiiiLIST OF TABLES ….…….………………...……………………………...….... xvLIST OF FIGURES ………………………………...………………………….... xviChapter 1. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND ………………………. 1 Introduction …………………………………………………………… 1 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………... 3 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………... 4 Hypothesis …………………………………………………..….……… 5 Scope and Delimitation ……..……………………………………..….. 5 Definition of Terms …………………………………………………… 6 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES ………….. 10 Related Literature ……………………………………………………... 10 Foreign ………………….……..………………………………….. 10 Local …………………………………….……………..………… 12 Related Studies ………………………………………………………... 13 Foreign ………………………….………………………...………. 13 Local ……………………….……………………………………… 14 Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………….. 15 Research Paradigm …………………………………………………… 17 3. METHODOLOGY ………..…………………………………………… 18 Research Design ….………….………………………………………… 18 Sampling Design …….……………………………………………….... 19 Sensory Evaluation …….…………...…………………………………... 19 Instruments ……………………………...……………………………... 20 Preparation of Feeds …………………………………………………...... 20
  15. 15. 15 Animal Feeds Testing ………………......……………………………….. 22 Statistical Treatment ....……………………………………………….... 24 4. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA ………………………………………………………………… 26 Odor Evaluation of Feeds …….……….…...…………………..……………26 Color Evaluation of Feeds …….……....…...…………………..……………27 Texture Evaluation of Feeds …….….…...…………………..………………27 Moisture Content of Feeds ……...…...….....………………..………………28 Ash Content of Feeds ……………....………..……………...………………29 Crude Protein Levels of Feeds ……….…...……….……..…………………30 Crude Fat Levels of Feeds ……….…...…………………..……...…………31 Crude Fiber Levels of Feeds ……….…...………………..…………………32 Calcium Levels of Feeds ………….....…………………..…………………33 Cost Analysis of Feeds ………….…...…………………..…………………34 Test of Difference of Odor, Color and Texture of Feeds ...…...……………35 Cost of Feeds ………….……………......………………..…………………35 5. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ........................................................................... 36 Summary of Findings ………………………………………………… 36 Conclusion ………………………………………………………….….. 40 Recommendation …………………………………………….……….. 40BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………………… 42APPENDICES ……………………………..………………………………… 45DOCUMENTATION ………………………………………………………… 53CURRICULUM VITAE ……………………..……………………………… 60
  16. 16. 16 LIST OF TABLESTable Page 1. Odor Evaluation of Feeds ………….…...…………………..………………… 26 2. Color Evaluation of Feeds ………....…...…………………..………………… 27 3. Texture Evaluation of Feeds ……….…...…………………..………………… 27 4. Moisture Content of Feeds ………….….....………………..………………… 28 5. Ash Content of Feeds ………….…...………..……………...………………… 29 6. Crude Protein Levels of Feeds ………….…...……….……..………………… 30 7. Crude Fat Levels of Feeds ………….…...…………………..……...………… 31 8. Crude Fiber Levels of Feeds ………….…...………………..………………… 32 9. Calcium Levels of Feeds ………….…....…………………..………………… 33 10. Cost Analysis of Feeds ………….……...…………………..………………… 34 11. Test of Difference of Odor, Color and Texture of Feeds ………...…………… 35 12. Cost of Feeds ………….……………......…………………..………………… 35
  17. 17. 17 LIST OF FIGURESFigure Page 1. Research Paradigm…………………………………………………….. 17
  18. 18. 18 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction There is nothing in the world more hated, and perhaps feared, than that bane ofmankind which is the cockroach infestation. Cockroaches have been one of the mostcommon house pests for centuries now. At night, cockroaches search for food in kitchens,food storage places, rubbish bins, drains and sewers. Long the annoyance and fourth class unwanted resident of major urban cities, thecockroach resists even when resistance is futile. Habits and high reproductive rate of pestcockroaches can lead to large populations spreading disease organisms, contaminatingfood, causing allergies, and even worsening asthma. Cockroaches are also a nuisance to Tarlaqueños in situations such as: childrenbitten in eyelids, food contamination, and unbinding of books. These are the common stereotypes that put a negative impression upon hearingthe word cockroaches but not all redeem these nuisances. Not all cockroaches feed onwaste materials and harmful substances which cause undesired effects to human health;same as through with the misconception of cockroaches thriving on filthy environments.Also, not all cockroaches emit a foul odor. Dubia Cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) serves as a living falsifier to thesestereotypes. Dubia Cockroaches feed on sweet foods, carrots, apples, oranges, lettuce, drycat/dog food, cereals, and fish food. Beyond the similarities of the common cockroach’s(Periplaneta americana) appearance to the Dubia cockroach, they differ greatly in terms
  19. 19. 19of odor and habits. Dubia roaches are used as feeder insects and have become popular forfeeding reptiles and amphibians because they have high quality herp food source that iseasier to raise than crickets. Dubia are meaty roaches with a soft body which contain amuch higher ratio of protein compared to crickets. They breed in drier conditions thanmany other roaches and produce little odor. They are calm and easy to handle for feeding.They do not make any noise which is another reason they are becoming much morepopular than crickets. They don’t bite and they can’t fly. If the handler drops a roach, theroach is easy to catch. Compared to other roaches, they are exceptionally poor climbersand cannot climb glass or plastic. The adults can live up to 1-2 years and can be bredeasily. The females give live birth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaptica_dubia). Insects are rich in protein and this gives the cockroach a potential to complementBroiler Chicken feeds. Complete feeds are the most expensive type. Using a proteinconcentrate mixed with home-grown grain will reduce the costs. Mixing somecockroaches in the chicken feeds, in detail, the Dubia cockroach (Blaptica dubia) canreduce a native poultry owner’s expenses. A poultry raiser in Tarlac City is raising some chickens in a backyard, one of thethings that a poultry raiser would have to continually do to ensure that the chickens are ingood condition would be to clean the chicken coop. Having a messy and unsanitary coopcould lead to a load of trouble for both the owner and the chickens. If the poultry raiser would not clean the coop, the chickens are risked to beinfected by disease carrying bacteria and would get sick and even die. Worse, the bacteriaof an unclean chicken coop could also be the cause of some human diseases. Thus, the
  20. 20. 20stench of an un-sanitized coop could also make local city inspectors ban the raiser fromraising chickens. If the raiser would feed cockroaches to chickens, the raiser should take measuresin order to prevent the unwanted materials from cockroaches that can be a possibledanger to the chickens’ health. As to the high prices of commercial feeds, this study aims to prove the capabilityof the Dubia Cockroach as an additive for Broiler Chicken feeds and offer a cheaperalternative.Statement of the Problem The Dubia cockroach (Blapticadubia) is one of the best falsifiers of the commonmisconceptions about cockroaches. This study provided information to people, especiallypoultry raiser, on its composition, benefits, and other information. The study aimed to answer the following questions: 5. How are the control and experimental feeds be described in terms of their: a. Odor; b. Color; c. Texture; 6. How are the control and experimental feeds be described in terms of their: a. Moisture Content; b. Ash Content; c. Crude Protein; d. Crude Fat;
  21. 21. 21 e. Crude Fiber; and f. Calcium? 7. How are the control and experimental groups described in terms of their: a. Cost of Production? 8. Is there a significant difference between the control and experimental groups in terms of: a. Odor; b. Color; and c. Texture?Significance of the Study Tarlaqueños are fond of chickens and they own hectares of land which may beused as farms, specifically, a poultry farm, but the high cost of maintenance on raisingbroiler chickens often turns down poultry raisers. As to the high prices of commercialfeeds, this study aims to prove the capability of the Dubia Cockroach as an additive forBroiler Chicken feeds and offer a cheaper alternative. Being aware of the currentsituation, it will be easier to provide a positive resolution for the said cockroach. To the poultry raisers, this study intends to produce broiler chicken feedscompromisingof the mentioned cockroach. To the community, this study could help in eliminating the misconception ofDubia roaches as pest which resides in residential households. This study subsists todiscern the positive resolutions of the said pest to the human population.
  22. 22. 22 Furthermore, it may point-out possible nutrients that can be extracted from theDubia Cockroach, providing future references that can be utilized to performexperimental activities for the scientists and animal biologists.Null Hypotheses There is no significant difference between the experimental feeds and the controlfeeds in terms of its odor, color, texture, moisture content, ash content, effectiveness, andcost of production.Assumption There is a significant difference between the experimental feeds and the controlfeeds in terms of its odor, color, texture, moisture content, ash content, effectiveness, andcost of production.Scope and Delimitation The study dealt with the comparison of Blapticadubia (Dubia Cockroach) asan additive for broiler chicken feeds over the commercially available broiler chickenfeeds. The study focused that the cockroaches will only be mixed in the homemadefeeds as an additive. Control and experimental chicken feeds were differentiated by ten (10)respondents from Magaspac, Gerona, Tarlacaccording to its physical description: Odor,Color, and Texture. Results from the observation and questionnaire were used to answer
  23. 23. 23the problems stated on the statement of the problem and as a basis to draw conclusionsand recommendations. The study also focusedon the possibility of a broiler chicken benefiting fromDubia Cockroaches through analyzing the nutritional content of the said roach providedby the laboratory examination conducted by the Department of Science and Technology –Region III (DOST-III).Definition of Terms The following terms were defined to help for a better understanding of this study. Additive. Characterized by, being, or producingeffects (as drug responses or geneproducts) that when the causative factors act together are the sum of their individualeffects (www.merriam-webster.com) In this study, additive refers to the Blapticadubiasupplemented to the original mixture of feeds. AOAC. The “Association of Official Analytical Chemists” or is now being calledas "Association of Analytical Communities,” AOAC INTERNATIONAL is committed tobeing a proactive, worldwide provider and facilitator in the development, use, andharmonization of validated analytical methods and laboratory quality assurance programsand services. Ash Content. It is a measure of the total amount of minerals present in the food(people.umass.edu) In this study, ash content is determines the amount of acid insolubleash which affects the nutritional value of the feeds. Blaptica dubia. Also known as Orange-spotted Cockroach. It is ameaty roachwith a soft body which contains a much higher ratio of protein compared to
  24. 24. 24crickets. (www.wikipedia.com).It is the main additive for broiler chicken feeds as used inthis study. Broilers. Chickens raised specifically for meat production. (www.wikipedia.com).In this study, broilers were used as the subject of consumer in regards to the yieldedchicken feeds. Calcium. It determines the strength of the shells of the produced eggs by chickens.(www.dummies.com) In this study, calcium refers to the component of the control andexperimental feeds which improves the shell and bone strength of the chickens. Thecloser level of calcium possessed by the control and experimental feeds to the standardlevel will end to a more favorable result. Chicken Feeds. These feeds supply the nutrients required by chickens to allowoptimal growth and development (www.dummies.com) Referred to as the manufacturedpellet type feeds which will be the control group, and another home-made mixed withcockroaches as an experimental group in this study. The type of chicken feeds used is forbroilers. Color. The term used for the palatability of the feeds in terms of the appearance. Crude Fat. The term used to refer to the crude mixture of fat-soluble materialpresent in a sample (www.foodscience-avenue.com). Crude fat is also one of the bases ofcomparison between the experimental and control group. Crude Fiber. A measure of the quantity of indigestible cellulose, pentosans,lignin, and other components of this type in present foods. The components have littlefood value but provide the bulk necessary for proper peristaltic action in the intestinaltract. (www.foodscience-avenue.com) Crude fiber is used to describe the amount of
  25. 25. 25fibrous food residue with no nutritional value left after the control and experimental feedsare dissolved in the laboratory with harsh chemical substances. Crude Protein. A measure of dietary protein that is based on the assumption thatthe average amino acid in a protein contains 16 percent nitrogen. Thus, total chemicallydetermined nitrogen × 6.25 (100 ÷ 16) = crude protein. (www.extension.org) Crude fiberis used to describe the component which enables proper development of the reproductivesystem within the Broiler chickens. Crude protein also contributes to the essentialnutritional requirements of a well-balanced feed diet. Judgmental Sampling. In judgment sampling, the researcher or some other"expert" uses his/her judgment in selecting the units from the population for study basedon the population’s parameters. (www.uoguelph.ca) In this study, it is used as thesampling design to select respondents to provide their comparison between theexperimental and control group under the variables of odor, color and texture. Moisture Content. It is the quantity of water contained in a material.(www.wikipedia.com) In this study, moisture content refers to the balance between shelf-life and palatability of the control and experimental feeds. Too much moisture contentwould result to lower shelf-life, but the lack of moisture content would result tounpalatable feeds and increased requirement for water. Odor. In this study, it is thearoma of the feeds. Palatability. Acceptable to the taste; sufficiently agreeable in flavor to be eaten(www.thefreedictionary.com). Palatability is utilized in this study as the satisfaction levelof the Blapticadubia feeds when consumed by Broiler chickens.
  26. 26. 26 Steaming. It is a process that uses indirect heat with the use of a steamer to cookwhichresults in a more nutritious product than boiling because fewer nutrients are leachedaway into the water. (www.wikipedia.com) In this study, it is used as a method ofsterilization of the Blapticadubia. Texture. In this study, it is the smoothness, roughness, and such of the feeds.
  27. 27. 27 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter exhibits works that are related and show relevance to the subjectmatter. The researchers gather facts and knowledge through looking into articles in booksand internet. Also, by examining and searching for thesis and dissertations that will leadand bring us information about our research problem.Related Literature a. Foreign Cockroaches are crazy for cleanliness. They spend hours washing themselves,licking their feet and sucking on their own antennae – two very important body parts(Masoff, Joy., 2000 “Oh Yuck!”The Encyclopedia of Everything Nasty). The Orange Spotted Roach, BlapticaDubia(or Guyana) can be a valuable food forreptiles, birds, amphibians, fishes, etc. This roach makes an excellent feeder insect as itrarely flies and cannot scale glass or plastic. Adults and juveniles alike have a softexoskeleton, and are thus an ideal food for amphibians, birds, spiders, scorpions, fishes,reptiles and certain small mammals (I have used them as treats for flying squirrels anddeer mice). The nymphs are only .1 inch in length, and eagerly accepted by tinyamphibians and reptiles (Frank Indiviglio, 2009). A blogger said “Bearded and Dwarf Monitors are probably two of the mostpopular pets in the U.S. Dragons and Monitors need a good mixture of fruits, veggies,and insects. Till recently most of us have used crickets, mealworms, and other treats likewax worms. The problem is none of these feeders get large enough or carry the necessary
  28. 28. 28meat to fulfill our dragon’s appetite. I few years ago while keeping frilled dragons I gotinto roaches. It amazed me how well they were able to maintain their weight while usingroaches compared to other feeders. Plus one roach was like feeding 4-5 crickets. Usingthe roaches was also key part in weight recuperation after breeding. Most people just letthe dragon’s pound pinkies or high fat worms that are not providing the necessary proteinand vitamins. I really recommend that everyone should at least try roaches once beforepassing judgment on them”(http://www.blaberus.com/Documents/What%20Eats%20Roaches.pdf). At the end of the year there could be 10 million new cockroaches as a result ofone romantic evening (Masoff, Joy., 2000 “Oh Yuck!”The Encyclopedia of EverythingNasty). Of all roaches, the Blaptica Dubia Roaches are among the best feeder roaches onthe market. Dubia Roaches dont climb smooth surfaces, they dont fly (males have wingsand can sometimes hover), and, if kept properly they have noodor. Blapticadubiaroaches are nutritious for a variety of reptiles because they are soft-bodied, high in protein, low in fat, and have a lot of meat. Dubia roaches have a “clean”,streamlined look that is not upsetting to many bug-phobic people. They breed at amoderate rate so a small colony is adequate for a correspondingly small reptile collection(http://blapticadubiaroaches.com/). Roaches are used to make sauces, condiments, and appetizers. Some people eatcockroaches fried in oil and garlic as a cure for indigestion. Cockroaches are supremecouch potatoes. They spend 75 percent of their time resting. There are people that collect
  29. 29. 29cockroaches. The roaches are captured, killed and hold in a jar until the next morning.The chickens can eat them after. Chickens will also eat other insects, like termites, grubs,and worms and will hang around when turn over the compost pile, because chickens haveaccess to roaches, worms, and centipedes (AlinaNiemi, Ezine Articles, 2010). Large aquatic turtles like snapping turtles, large tortoises, sail fin lizards,basilisks, water dragons, and other huge lizards eat cockroaches (Rhudy, 2011). Wasps,centipedes, birds, bats, spiders, frogs, snakes, rats, and most other small animals also eatcockroaches (Paladin, 2008 and Jim, 2004). A chameleon cant also resist eating a cockroach. In fact, one can buy a cockroachonline for a chameleon to feed (Modhayan, 2008 & Cornett, 2005). Several chicken foods are in pet shops. One can feed it for a chicken.Unfortunately, the commercial chicken feeds at pet store are expensive. One can makechicken feed too. Making chicken feed is not difficult. It can be made from breakfastleftovers. Chicken is an omnivore bird after all (Dihl, 2010). b. Local Cockroaches serve as reminders for people to clean rooms, kitchen sinks orbathrooms. Cockroaches also play a huge ecological role by helping decompose forestland animal waste and are food for scavengers (those animals that eat decomposingorganisms), thus they circulate the food chain. In laboratory experiments, cockroacheshave not been involved in actual disease occurrences. In fact, cockroaches spend moretime bathing themselves than humans (Garcia, 2009). Many animals (including small mammals, amphibians, and birds) eatcockroaches, and are also used by some for medicinal purposes. For centuries, they have
  30. 30. 30been used to cure illnesses, like indigestion and dropsy (edema). Some people put oncrushed roaches to stinging wounds to relieve pain (Diana, 2010) Cockroaches have proteins that chickens can benefit. Cockroaches scurryingabout farms can be fed to chickens by setting a trap which includes a jar with VaselineJelly inside the jar on the upper portion and bait inside. By the time the roaches getinside, the roaches won’t be able to come out due to the Vaseline gel. Owners can feedthe chickens with the cockroaches and benefited with the extra protein (Jason, 2005)Related Studies a. Foreign This study of Eekeren (2004), Small-scale Poultry Production in the Tropics, thediet of poultry must include the following essential nutrients: water, energy sources,protein (amino acids), vitamins, minerals and other ingredients. Another animal proteinthat could be used for feeding to poultry is blood-meal. Blood-meal and all other animalprotein products must be thoroughly sterilized before being mixed into food to avoidinfecting birds and eggs with disease. Commercially bred cockroaches are a safer option. The study of Katie Cordrey, an author and researcher in Medicinal Roaches(2010), says that antibiotics in cockroach brains may lead to new bacteria-killing drugs.Harmful bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics, so scientists havebeen looking to nature for alternatives. Molecules that are found in the brains of theseinsects can potentially kill deadly bacteria like MRSA and E. coli. Experiments revealedthat antibiotics in cockroach brains are effective and non-toxic to humans. Substancescalled lysates of locust and cockroach brains proved more than 90% effective against
  31. 31. 31bacteria tested, she says. What’s more, the substances had no toxic effects on humanbrain cells, and more research is under way to purify and further characterize theantibacterial properties of the biological agents from the insects’ brains. This study entitled “Raising Backyard Chickens” (2010), chickens will scratch forworms, are happy with people leftovers, love pellets, seeds and vegetables, peels, bugsand slugs. Chickens want to eat bread while pecking at a cockroach, and sometimes, theywill eat grass and even pebbles. Chickens are most content when range around for foodand they will know what to eat and what not to every time. On the other hand, peoplecould prepare the fanciest feed preparation for them but if the chickens do not want it,they will avoid it. What to feed chickens should not be too complicated. Simple steps likethis could provide eggs for the table or for hatching. This study conducted by Dessie and Ogle, (1996)states that the feed resource isdeficient in protein, energy and probably calcium for layer birds which show thatsupplementation of local birds with food sources containing energy and protein and acalcium source brings about a considerable increase in egg production. This study conducted by Eekeren, et al (2004), states that medium-weight (3 to 5pounds) and heavy chicken breeds are raised for meat production, and can quickly reacha high slaughter weight when given plenty of good quality feed. b. Local This study conducted by Macapia, et al (2010), found that Poultry production isconsidered one of the most common and very promising agricultural enterprisesespecially for low income farm families. It offers several advantages to the raisers.Boilerproduction is a big industry. It represents 85 percent of poultry meat that Filipinos
  32. 32. 32consume. Unfortunately, the demand for poultry and poultry by products continue to riseas human population increases, resulting in the greater demand for high qualityingredients to be used in mixed feeds. High quality feeds usually means importation ofmajor ingredients such as fish meal and soybean meal. It is therefore desirable to sourcealternative ways to enhance and hasten animal’s growth during these times of unstableprices of feeds. In this study, the researchers used Blaptica dubia as an additive for BroilerChicken feeds. The studies shown above showed that well-balanced feeds will increasemeat and egg production of chicken breeds. Good quality feeds include a balancedmixture between water, minerals, protein, calcium and energy sources. Compared to this study, Dubia Cockroaches were not to be fed to the chickenspurely, but used as an additive for Broiler Chicken Feeds. Cockroaches also underwentdifferent stages before being added to feeds.Conceptual Framework The study dealt only on the efficacy of Dubia Cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as anadditive for broiler chicken feeds with the use of samples undergoing specific tests. The experimental and descriptive type of research method were used in this study.The principal aim in employing this method is to test the nutritional content of DubiaCockroaches. Dubia cockroaches (Blaptica dubia), adults and sub-adults, were gatheredand collected using a bottle for safe-keeping, by means of catching and breeding. The livecockroaches underwent into cleansing and sterilization for about 15 minutes at 100 °C(212 °F) by using any steam sterilization utensil. This step was done for it will inactivate
  33. 33. 33all bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms in the cockroaches (also from insecticidesthat can affect the chickens’ health), which can be quite resistant. The steamedcockroaches were chopped and sun dried. Home-made feeds ingredients were gathered like corn, nuts, rice, and skimmedmilk. The ingredients were pounded using a mortar and pestle and refined. The refined ingredients were mixed with the chopped and sun-dried cockroacheswith the percentage of the weight they are designated with, and afterwards were given tothe Department of Science and Technology – Region III in Maimpis, San Fernando,Pampanga for the animal feeds tests. The researchers observed the two groups in terms of odor, color, texture, moisturecontent, ash content, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, calcium content, and cost ofproduction.
  34. 34. 34Gathering of Dubia Cockroaches Preparation of Home- made feeds Preparation ofExperimental Feeds: a. cleansing and sterilization b. chopping c. sun dryingExperimental Feeds Control Feeds Observations in terms of: a. Odor b. Color c. Texture d. Ash content e. Crude fat f. Crude fiber g. Crude protein h. Calcium Content i. Cost of Production Figure 1 Paradigm of the Study
  35. 35. 35 Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY This research was conducted in order to determine whether the cockroachBlapticadubia has the potential to become an additive for broiler chicken feeds and play asignificant role in poultry farms and households in Tarlac City. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the reliability of the methods thatwere used were also part of the objectives.Research Design In order to answer these research goals, a combination of approaches, survey,descriptive and experimental research methods were used in this study. The researcherstested out hypotheses by reaching conclusions that resulted to new discoveries. Thesurvey and the descriptive method yielded qualitative data while the experiment yieldedquantitative data which was analyzed by the researchers using tables and graphs. In this study, the experimental method was employed to determine whether it waspossible for a cockroach to be considered as an additive feed for chickens and if therewere nutrients for the chickens to benefit. The researchers opted to use this researchmethod considering the objective to obtain first-hand data from experimentation,description and surveys. This research is intended to offer Filipinos, especially poultry raisers thatcannot afford commercial products.
  36. 36. 36Sampling Design Sensory evaluation of control feeds and experimental feeds were assessed usingjudgmental sampling method. The researcher chose the respondents based on who theythink would be appropriate for the study. This method is used primarily because therewere alimitednumber of people that have expertise in the area being researched. Theresearchers selected ten respondents from Magaspac, Gerona, Tarlac. The respondentswere interviewed based on their observations on the control and experimental groups.The respondents evaluated the odor, color and texture from: Very Acceptable,Moderately Acceptable, Acceptable, Less Acceptable, and Not Acceptable. Theexperimental method is then appropriate for this research since this method is used forgathering data through observation.Sensory Evaluation The sensory evaluation was composed of odor, color, and texture. This researchused any Dubia cockroach as an additive for broiler chicken feeds. The researchersprepared a treatment which contains 9.5g chopped Dubia cockroaches (Blaptica Dubia). Actual Compositions of the Set-ups (Broiler Chicken Feeds) Material Set-Up Chopped Dubia Cockroach (Blaptica Dubia) 9.5 g Ground Field Corn 97.2 g Pounded Rice Grains 80.7 g Raw Ground Nuts 42.6 g Skimmed Milk 20 g
  37. 37. 37Instruments The actual instruments, apparatus, and equipment that were used for the Broilerchicken feeds preparation are 1 mortar & pestle, 1 steamer, 1 gas stove, 1 measuringspoon, 1 triple beam balance, 1 knife, and 4 pairs of gloves. For testing the Broilerchicken feeds, equipments and apparatus of AOAC methods of Analysis 18th ed. are used.1 VelpScientifica Distillation apparatus (for Crude Protein), 1 Air Oven, 1 Flamephotometer, 1 Silica crucible, 1 Muffle furnace, 1 Velp Fat Extractor, 6 beakers, 1Aluminum dish, 2Ashing dishes, 2 Desiccators, 1Filtering device, 1 Suction filter, and 1Fiber analyzer. Procedure I. Catching and Collecting of Cockroaches The researchers considered the gathering of cockroaches with methods which didnot include anything poisonous that can potentially harm the chickens. The researchersalso considered the use of traps such as jars with bait inside (e.g. carrots, apples, oranges,lettuce, dry cat/dog food, cereals, and fish food) and the walls of the jar polished withlubricants (e.g. oil, Vaseline gel, Petroleum Jelly). This set up did not permit the leavingof the cockroaches, thus rendered them trapped. The researchers bred the roaches for adequate use for the broiler chicken feeds.II. Sterilization After the researchers have gathered the cockroaches, the cockroaches underwentcleansing to remove any unwanted materials which could be crucial to the chicken’shealth, and then were sterilized by using steam. The cockroaches were heated at a holding
  38. 38. 38time of at least 15 minutes at 100 °C (212 °F) to achieve sterility by using any steamsterilization utensil. This step was done for it will inactivate certain bacteria, viruses andother microorganisms like E. coli and Coliform in the cockroaches (also from insecticidesthat can affect the chickens’ health), which can be quite resistant. It did not necessarilyeliminate all prions, but helped in eliminating some harmful substances.III. Chopping and Sun Drying After doing so, the researchers chopped the cockroaches to prevent the chicks orchickens to choke. The cockroaches were exposed to the sun’s heat to kill certain bacteriaand to dry them.IV. Preparation of the Home-made feeds The ingredients used were 97.2 g of ground field corn, 80.7 g of pounded ricegrains, 42.6 g of raw ground nuts, and 20 g of skimmed milk. The ingredients were mixedthoroughly.V. Mixture of the Components The home-made feeds were mixed with the chopped and sun-dried cockroacheswith the percentage of the weight they are designated with by using a Triple BeamBalance.VI. Data Collection The Dubia cockroach-mixed feeds was given to the Department of Science andTechnology – Region III in Maimpis, San Fernando, Pampanga for the animal feeds teststhat includes Moisture Content, Ash Content, Crude Protein, Crude Fat, Crude Fiber, andCalcium. The researchers used judgmental sampling to get ten respondents from
  39. 39. 39Magaspac, Gerona, Tarlac to react on the difference between the experimental productand the commercial product.VII. Testing Procedures of the Dubia cockroach-mixed Feeds (AOAC methods of Analysis 18thed) a. Moisture content (AOAC 930.15) "Loss on Drying at 135°C for 2 Hours" - A 2g sample was placed in an Aluminum dish which was in turn placed in a forced air draft oven set to 135°C. The dish was removed after exactly two hours, covered and placed in a desiccator. When cooled, the dish is weighed and the loss in weight is the moisture content. b. Ash Content (AOAC 942.05) 2 g of sample was weighed accurately in a silica crucible. The sample was ignited on a burner until smoke ceases. The crucible was placed in a muffle furnace and heated to 550°C and kept for 2 hours. At this temperature all organic matter was burnt leaving behind minerals. The crucible was removed from the furnace carefully and cooled in a desiccator at room temperature and weighed again. c. Crude Protein The crude protein content of a feed was estimated by measuring the amount of nitrogen (N) in the feed and by using VelpScientifica Distillation apparatus operation manual. Two grams sample was digested in H2SO4 using CuSO4 5H2O as catalyst and by adding Na2SO4 or K2SO4 to elevate the boiling point converting
  40. 40. 40organically bound N to ammonium sulphate which when heated with excess alkali(40% NaOH), NH3 was liberated which is distilled into a known excess ofstandard acid (0.1 N H2SO4). The unneutralized acid was mixed with standardalkali (0.1 N NaOH). From the known value, the nitrogen content and crudeprotein were calculated by multiplying by 6.25.c. Crude Fat (AOAC 945.16) With reference to Velp Fat Extractor Manual, A dried, ground sample wasextracted with petroleum ether which dissolves fats, oils, pigments and other fatsoluble substances. The ether is then evaporated from the fat solution. Theresulting residue is weighed and referred to as ether extract or crude fat.e. Crude Fiber (AOAC 962.09) Crude fibre is the residue remaining after sequential digestion with 0.255Nsulfuric acid and 0.313N sodium hydroxide solutions in a Fibre Analyzer,followed by oven-drying at 104ºC overnight and ignition at 600ºC for 3hours. The compounds removed are predominantly protein, sugar, starch, lipidsand portions of both the structural carbohydrates and lignin. These residues(containing cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, ash and tannins) are indigestiblesubstances, often called structural carbohydrates.f. Calcium (AOAC 988.06) Calcium was determined by using the Flame Photometric Method.
  41. 41. 41Statistical Treatment Continuum Frequency counts were used to describe the appearance of theexperimental feeds. Mean was also used to describe the control group in terms of odorand texture.Scoring the Variables This study used the Likert Scale. The Likert Scale is an ordered, one-dimensionalscale from which respondents chose one option that best aligned with their view. Inscoring, numbers are usually assigned to each option. 4.50 and above = Very Acceptable (va) 3.50 – 4.49 = Moderately Acceptable (ma) 2.50 – 3.49 = Acceptable (a) 1.50 – 2.49 = Less Acceptable (la) 1.49 and below = Not Acceptable (na) Descriptive method was used to compare the animal feeds tests of the control andexperimental product by using the standard product as basis.T-Test II To test the significant difference between the two samples, the T-Test II shall beused. The formula is as follows:
  42. 42. 42T-test Independent Formula:where: t – t-probability , – mean scores Σ ,Σ – mean squares , – number of cases
  43. 43. 43 Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the data gathered during the experimentation and interpretedto satisfy the problems identified in the research. Table 1 Description of Odor of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds Very Moderately Acceptable Less Not Acceptable Acceptable acceptable acceptable Mean Description 5 4 3 2 1 Control Very 6 4 0 0 0 4.6 Group Acceptable Experimental Very 8 2 0 0 0 4.8 Group Acceptable Table 1 shows the odor evaluation of the experimental and commercial broilerchicken feed. It is shows that the control group is found to be of very acceptable odorwith a mean of 4.6 and the experimental group is found to be of very acceptable odorwith a mean of 4.8. Table 2 represents the color evaluation of experimental and commercial broilerchicken feeds. In terms of color, it is shown on the table that the control group has a meanof 4.5 which is very acceptable color and the experimental group has a mean of 4.7 whichis very acceptable.
  44. 44. 44 Table 2 Description of Color of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds Very Moderately Acceptable Less Not Acceptable Acceptable acceptable acceptable Mean Description 5 4 3 2 1 Control Very 6 3 1 0 0 4.5 Group AcceptableExperimental Very 7 3 0 0 4.7 Group Acceptable Table 3Description of Texture of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds Very Moderately Acceptable Less Not Acceptable Acceptable acceptable acceptable Mean Description 5 4 3 2 1 Control Moderately 3 6 1 0 0 4.2 Group Acceptable Experimental Very 6 3 1 0 0 4.5 Group Acceptable Table 3 shows the texture evaluation of the experimental and control groups. Thecontrol group was found to be of moderately acceptable texture with a mean of 4.2 andthe experimental group was found to be of very acceptable texture with a mean of 4.5.
  45. 45. 45 Table 4 Moisture Content Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds Percentage of Moisture Content Difference from Standard Level Control Group 12% 9.09% Experimental Group 10.70% -2.27% Standard Level 11% 0% Table 4 shows the results of the laboratory test done to the control andexperimental groups to determine their levels of moisture content. The control group hasa moisture content level of 12% which had a 9.09% of difference from the standard leveland the experimental group has a moisture content level of 10.70% which had a -2.27%of difference from the standard level of moisture content for Broiler Chicken Feeds. The moisture or water content of the feed is a key nutrient that is often neglectedbut is frequently limiting particularly in tropical situations and especially in lactatinganimals. Much of the animal’s water is likely to come from the feed, particularly whenthe animal is grazing or browsing lush vegetation. Once harvested, feeds with highmoisture content are liable to spoil quickly, mostly from fungal contamination. Themolds and more particularly the toxins that are produced by many molds make the feedunpalatable and can cause illness or even death to both the animals and people handlingthe feed. On the other hand, very dry feeds, while being stable during storage, are lesspalatable for the animal and also increase the animal’s requirement for water(http://www.smallstock.info/info/feed/chemical.htm#Moisture).
  46. 46. 46 Table 5 Ash Content Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds Percentage of Ash Content Difference from Standard Level Control Group 6% 100% Experimental Group 0.80% 73.33% Standard Level 3% 0% Table 5 shows the results of the laboratory test done to determine the ash contentof the control and experimental broiler chicken feeds. The control group showed 6% ofash content with had a 100% of difference from the standard level of ash content and theexperimental group showed 0.8% of ash content which had a 73.33% difference with thestandard level of ash content for Broiler Chicken Feeds. An analytical laboratory for the precise estimation of nutrient contents andcontaminants is of utmost importance. Analyze the feeds for proximate principles. Theamount of acid insoluble ash is a good guide to the amount of sand or other dirt whichmay be present. The feed is usually adulterated with sand during drying process. The ashalso represents the total of all the minerals found in the feeds. Although a smaller amountcan come from plant-based ingredients, most ash comes from the bonecontent and minerals additives in a product(http://www.unapcaem.org/Activities%20Files/A16/Animal%20Feed%20&%20Quality.pdf).
  47. 47. 47 Table 6 Crude Protein Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds Percentage of Crude Protein Difference from Standard Level Control Group 18% 38.46% Experimental Group 13.81% 6.23% Standard Level 13% 0% Table 6 shows the results of the laboratory test done to determine the levels ofcrude protein of the control and experimental broiler chicken feeds. The control groupshowed 6% of crude protein with had a 38.46% of difference from the standard level ofcrude protein and the experimental group showed 13.81% of crude protein which had a6.23% difference with the standard level of crude protein for Broiler Chicken Feeds. Diets containing 12.4 percent crude protein offered for consumption to broilerbreeder males during the period of 7 to 21 weeks of age were adequate for developmentof the reproductive system and subsequent reproductive performance (Wilson et al.,1971). Broiler breeder males can be fed 12 to 14 percent crude protein on a restrictedbasis after 4 weeks of age with no adverse effects on final body weight, sexual maturity,or semen quality; a greater number of males produced semen through 53 weeks when fed12 percent crude protein than when fed higher levels (Wilson et al., 1987a).
  48. 48. 48 Table 7 Crude Fat Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds Percentage of Crude Fat Difference from Standard Level Control Group 3% 53.85% Experimental Group 8.77% 34.92% Standard Level 6.5% 0% Table 7 shows the results of the laboratory test done to determine the levels ofcrude fat of the control and experimental broiler chicken feeds. The control group showed3% of ash content with had a 53.85% of difference from the standard level of crude fatand the experimental group showed 8.77% of crude protein which had a 34.92%difference with the standard level of crude fat for Broiler ChickenFeeds. An analytical laboratory for the precise estimation of nutrient contents andcontaminants is of utmost importance. Analyze the feeds for proximate principles. Thisindicates possible constraints on usage due to the presence of excessive content of crudefiber, fat or total ash. The high Crude Fat is indicative of adulteration with urea and orsome inferior quality oil seed meals.The free fatty acid content of oily materials willaffect the palatability and rancidity of oils.
  49. 49. 49 Table 8 Crude Fiber Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds Percentage of Crude Fiber Difference from Standard Level Control Group 6% 7.69% Experimental Group 1.12% 82.77% Standard Level 6.5% 0% Table 8 shows the results of the laboratory test done to determine the levels ofcrude fiber of the control and experimental broiler chicken feeds. The control groupshowed 6% of crude fiber with had a 7.69% of difference from the standard level ofcrude fiber and the experimental group showed 1.12% of crude fiber which had a82.77%difference with the standard level of crude fiber for Broiler Chicken Feeds. In the intestinal tract, fiber resists being broken down by enzymes, although partof it may be metabolized by bacteria in the lower gut. Fiber is characterized by low or nonutritional value. Dietary fiber is a complex mixture of different components; it may ormay not include the fibrous structure. Crude fiber, on the other hand, is a term used todescribe the fibrous food residue that is left over after it has been dissolved in thelaboratory with certain harsh chemical solvents such as sulfuric acid and sodiumhydroxide. According to experts from Colorado State University, crude fiber only equalsabout one seventh to one half of total dietary fiber, depending upon the source of the fiber(http://www.livestrong.com/article/322507-the-definition-of-crude-fiber-in-food/#ixzz1p4WuOsf2).
  50. 50. 50 Table 9 Calcium Levels of the Experimental and Commercial Broiler Chicken Feeds Percentage of Calcium Difference from Standard Level Control Group 1.1% 37.5% Experimental Group 0.004% 99.5% Standard Level 0.8% 0% Table 9 shows the results of the laboratory test done to determine the levels ofcalcium present in the control and experimental broiler chicken feeds. The control groupshowed 1.1% of calcium with had a 37.5% of difference from the standard level ofcalcium and the experimental group showed 0.004% of calcium which had a 99.5%difference with the standard level of calcium for Broiler Chicken Feeds. As calcium level is increased, shell strength of eggs from meat-type or broilerhens also increases (Mehring, 1965). Egg production and hatchability of meat-type henson litter were not improved by feeding more than 3.91 g of calcium per hen daily (Wilsonet al., 1980). One of the best determinants of calcium adequacy for breeder hens is eggspecific gravity; eggs should have a specific gravity of 1.080 or greater for optimalhatchability (McDaniel et al., 1979). Since meat-type hens are usually given a dailyallotment of feed early in the morning before significant eggshell calcification occurs,supplying a portion of the calcium in an afternoon feeding may improve eggshell quality(Farmer et al., 1983; Van Wambeke and DeGroote, 1986). Feeding the entire dietaryallocation in the afternoon, however, may significantly reduce hatchability because ofproduction of eggs with thicker eggshells (Brake, 1988).
  51. 51. 51 Table 10 Cost Analysis Set- up Price per kg Control Group P40.00 / kg Experimental Group P39.12 / kg Table 10 shows the computation of the cost of production of the two groups. Itshows that the researchers spentP40.00/kg for the commercial broiler chicken feeds andP39.12/ kg for the experimental broiler chicken feeds. Table 11 shows the test of difference of the odor, color, and texture of the controland experimental groups. The table shows the t-test in terms of odor with a t computed of-0.9487 and t-critical of -2.101. Therefore, the commercial feeds and experimental feedsare incomparable. The t-test in terms of color with a t computed of 0.7386 and t critical of2.101. Therefore, the commercial feeds and experimental feeds are incomparable. The t-test in terms of texture with a t computed of 1 and t critical of 2.101. Therefore, thecommercial feeds and experimental feeds are incomparable
  52. 52. 52 Table 11Test of difference of the Odor, Color and Texture of the Experimental and Control Group T – Critical Conclusion Inference Group Mean Decision Value Value Control 4.6 AcceptOdor -0.9487 -2.101 Insignificant Ho Experimental 4.8 Control 4.5 Accept InsignificantColor 0.7386 2.101 Experimental 4.7 Ho Control 4.2 Accept InsignificantTexture 1 2.101 Experimental 4.5 Ho Table 12 Cost Price Cheaper by Control Group P40.00 0% Experimental Group P39.12 2.2 % Table 12 reveals that the experimental group is cheaper by 2.2 % than thecommercial group.
  53. 53. 53 Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter presents the summary of the study, its findings, conclusions andrecommendations.Summary of findings Based on the gathered data, the researchers came out with the following results: 1.1 The means of the odor evaluation are as follows; the control group has amean of 4.6 and the experimental group has a mean of 4.8. Having the higher mean of theexperimental group, it is said to be more preferred in terms of odor. 1.2 The means of the color evaluation are as follows; the control group has amean of 4.5 and the experimental group has a mean of 4.7. Having the higher mean of theexperimental group, it is said to be more preferred in terms of color. 1.3 The means of texture evaluations are as follows; the control group has amean of 4.2 and the experimental group has a mean of 4.5. Having the higher mean of theexperimental group, it is said to be more preferred in terms of texture. 1.4 The results of laboratory testing done to evaluate the levels of moisturecontent of the commercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; thecontrol group has moisture content level of 12% and the experimental group has moisturecontent level of 10.70%. Having the standard level of moisture content in BroilerChicken Feeds as 11%, the control group has a 9.09% of difference with the standardlevel and the experimental group has a 2.27% of difference with the standard level ofmoisture content. Feeds with high moisture content are liable to spoil quickly, mostly
  54. 54. 54from fungal contamination. Thus, the experimental group is more preferred than thecontrol group because of the lower percentage of the moisture content. 1.5 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the ash content level ofthe commercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; the control grouphas an ash content level of 6% and the experimental group has an ash content level of0.8%. Having the standard level of ash content for Broiler Chicken Feeds as 3%, thecontrol group has a 100% of difference with the standard level and the experimentalgroup has a 73.33% of difference with the standard level of moisture content. The amountof acid insoluble ash is a good guide to the amount of sand or other dirt which may bepresent and the total of all the minerals found in the feeds. The feed is usually adulteratedwith sand during drying process. The experimental group is more preferred than thecontrol group because of the acid insoluble ash present and the lower difference inpercentage from the standard level. 1.6 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the level of crude proteinpresent in the commercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; thecontrol group has 18% of crude protein present and the experimental grouphas 13.81% ofcrude protein. Having the standard level of crude protein for Broiler Chicken Feeds as13%, the control group has 38.43% difference from the standard level of crude proteinand the experimental group hasa 6.23% difference from the standard. Crude protein isneeded especially for Broiler developers in maintaining their diet. Thus, the experimentalgroup is more preferred than the control group because of the difference in percentagefrom the standard level, and the quantity of crude protein needed by the broilers.
  55. 55. 55 1.7 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the levels of crude fatpresent in the commercial and experimentalbroiler chicken feeds are as follows; 3% ofcrude fat was present in the control group and 8.77% of crude fat was present in theexperimental group. Having the standard level of crude fat for Broiler Chicken Feeds as6.5%, the control group was 53.85% different from the standard level of crude fat forBroiler Chicken feeds and the experimental group was 34.29% different from thestandard level. The high Crude Fat is indicative of adulteration with urea and or someinferior quality oil seed meals. The free fatty acid content of oily materials will affectpalatability due to rancidity of oils. Thus, the control group is more preferred than theexperimental group because of the high crude fat in the experimental group which mayaffect the palatability of the chicken feeds. 1.8 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the levels of crude fiberpresent in the commercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; thecontrol group has 6% of crude fiber and the experimental group has 1.12% of crude fiber.Having the standard level of crude fiber for Broiler Chicken Feeds as 6.5%, the controlgroup had 7.69% difference from the standard level of crude fiber for Broiler Chickenfeeds and the experimental group had 82.77% of difference from the standard level.Crude fiber is a term used to describe the fibrous food residue that is left over after it hasbeen dissolved in the laboratory with certain harsh chemical solvents such as sulfuric acidand sodium hydroxide. Crude fiber has no nutritional value. Thus, the experimental groupis more preferred than the control group because of the lower crude fiber for thenutritional content of the chicken feeds.
  56. 56. 56 1.9 The results of laboratory testing done to determine the levels of calcium ofthe commercial and experimental broiler chicken feeds are as follows; the control grouphas 1.1% of calcium and the experimental group has 0.004% of calcium. Having thestandard level of calcium for broiler chicken feeds as 0.8, the control group had 7.5%difference from the standard level of calcium and the experimental group had a 39.95%difference from the standard level of calcium for broiler chicken feeds. Calcium feedingmay improve eggshell quality (Farmer et al., 1983; Van Wambeke and DeGroote, 1986)and the bones of the chickens. Thus, the control group is more preferred than theexperimental group because of the calcium content that a broiler chicken needed. 2.0 In terms of cost, the Dubia cockroach-mixed feeds costs P39.12/kg which ischeaper by 2.2% compared to the commercial feeds which costs P40.00/kg. 2.1 In terms of odor, since the T-value -0.9487 is higher than the critical value -2.101, the researchers accepted Ho. Hence, there is no significant difference between thetwo groups, controlled and experimental. 2.2 In terms of color, since the T-value 0.7386 is lower than the critical value2.101, the researchers accepted Ho. Hence, there is no significant difference between thetwo groups, controlled and experimental. 2.3 In terms of texture, since the T-value is 1 is lower than the critical value2.101, the researchers accepted Ho. Hence, there is no significant difference between thetwo groups, controlled and experimental.
  57. 57. 57Conclusion Based from the gathered data, the researchers concluded the following: 4. The control group was found to be of very acceptable color, odor and moderately acceptable texture. The experimental feeds were found to be of very acceptable color, odor, and texture. 5. The control group was found to be of 12% moisture content, 6% ash content, 12% crude protein, 3% crude fat, 6% crude fiber and 1.1% calcium. The experimental group was found to be of 10.70% moisture content, 0.80% ash content, 13.81% crude protein, 8.77% crude fat, 1.12% crude fiber and 0.004% calcium. 6. The control group costs Php 40.00 / kg and the experimental group costs Php 39.12 / kg; thus, the experimental group is 2.2% cheaper than the control group. 7. There is no significant difference between the control and experimental group in terms of their color, odor and texture.Recommendations Based on findings and recommendations, the researchers strongly recommend thefollowing: 9. This study is only a preliminary investigation. Hence, further studies and utilization of Blapticadubia and homemade feeds should be pursued to determine its most effective potential needed to locate the active principle from the various nutrients and their agricultural studies. 10. Increasing the ratio of Blapticadubia over homemade feeds can possibly improve the nutritional value of the homegrown feeds and the cost of production.
  58. 58. 5811. Other tests can also be conducted to the experimental group to add more value to its significant property.12. Also, other researchers can study other kinds of cockroaches, Americana Periplaneta, in terms of their properties and used to man.13. Other researchers may include soybean or fish meals for additional nutrient content.14. Also, increasing the skimmed milk or adding bone meal for calcium content.15. Adding ingredients with vitamins or minerals can possibly improve the ash content of the feeds.16. Other researchers may not grind or pound the ingredients because these processes can cause the loss of protein and nutrients needed.
  59. 59. 59 BIBLIOGRAPHYA. BOOKS Chiba, Lee I., 2009. Animal Nutrition Handbook Section 12: “PoultryNutrition and Feeding” page 316 Masoff, Joy., 2000 “Oh Yuck!”The Encyclopedia of Everything “Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994”pp. 20-30B. PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Babiker , M.S., C. Kijora , S.A. Abbas and J. Danier. 2009. Nutrient Composition Main Poultry Feed Ingredients Used in Sudan and Their Variations from Local Standard Tables Values Bakker, Robert R. and H.W. Elbersen. 2005. Managing Ash Content and Quality Herbaceous Biomass: An Analysis From Plant To Product Bastianelli, D., E. Fermet-Quinet, C. Hervouet, S. Domenech, L. Bonnal And D. Friot 2000. Quality of poultry feeds in East Africa. Interest of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the estimation of their composition Dessie, Tadelle. 1996. The Role of Scavenging Poultry in Integrated Farming Systems in Ethiopia Eekeren, N. Van, A. Maas, H.W. Saatkamp, M. Verschuur.2004. Small-scale Poultry Production in the Tropics Harvey, Mueller I. 2000. Modern Techniques for Feed Analysis
  60. 60. 60 Heijden, Maarten van der and D de Haan. 2010. Optimising Moisture while Maintaining Feed Quality http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/09/100909-cockroach-brains- mrsa-ecoli-antibiotics-science-health/ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/09/100909-cockroach-brains- mrsa-ecoli-antibiotics-science-health/C. INTERNET http://www.blaberus.com/Documents/What%20Eats%20Roaches.pdf http://blapticadubiaroaches.com/ http://blogs.thatpetplace.com/thatreptileblog/2008/12/01/the-orange-spotted- roach-an-interesting-pet-and-valuable-food-for-reptiles-amphibians-invertebrates- birds-and-fishes-part-1/ (2009) http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070519053647AAdoBSx http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080925084257AAJXvrf http://www.reptileknowledge.com/care/chameleon-feeding.php http://www.roachcom.net/rofacts/ http://ezinearticles.com/?Diet-of-a-Chicken---Chicken-Feed-and-Other- Tips&id=5575670 (10 July 2010) http://www.bukisa.com/articles/357947_how-to-make-chicken-feed (21 September 2010) http://www.thenewstoday.info/2009/05/05/cockroaches.html (2009)
  61. 61. 61http://www.brighthub.com/environment/science-environmental/articles/73152.aspx (2 June 2010)http://www.smallstock.info/info/feed/chemical.htmhttp://www.foragetesting.org/lab_procedure/sectionC/part8.0.htmhttp://www.aoac.org/oma_revision/toc.htmhttp://www.a2la.org/scopepdf/1307-02.pdfhttp://www.plamondon.com/faq_feed.htmlhttp://agromedia.ca/ADM_Articles/content/f1a1c1.pdfhttp://www.lionsgrip.com/labels.htmlhttp://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/80324/Interpreting-the-feed-analysis-report.pdfhttp://urbanchickens.org/benefits-urban-chickens
  62. 62. 62 Appendix A Excuse letter Republic of the Philippines Tarlac State University Laboratory High School Lucinda Campus, Tarlac CityFebruary 14, 2012Sir/Madam:Blessed day! We, the fourth year Math and Science students of Laboratory High School areaccomplishing a study entitled, “Blaptica dubia (Dubia Cockroach) as an Additive for BroilerChicken Feeds” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Science Research II at Tarlac StateUniversity Laboratory High School.In this connection, we are requesting your good office to excuse us on our classes for one whole dayon February 14, 2012. We are going to bring the samples that will undergo animal feeds test at theDepartment of Science and Technology – Region III in Maimpis, San Fernando, Pampanga.We hope that this request will merit utmost consideration and approval from you. We are lookingforward for your kind support.Thank you and God bless!Respectfully yours,(Sgd) David Marco Bildan(Sgd) Marly Vea Clarisse Elli(Sgd) Gian Carlo Muldong(Sgd) Liana Faith De Leon(Sgd) Ray John Dorig(Sgd) Mies Eliel Dela CruzNoted by:(Sgd) Estrella B. PagcoAdviser/ Research II InstructorRecommended by:(Sgd) Ma. Shinette P. MoralesAcademic HeadApproved by:(Sgd) Norbina Genever M. CastroDirector
  63. 63. 63 Appendix B Discount letter Republic of the Philippines Tarlac State University Laboratory High School Lucinda Campus, Tarlac CityFebruary 14, 2012Victor B. Mariano, DBARegional DirectorDepartment of Science and Technology 3San Fernando, PampangaSir:Blessed day! We, the fourth year Math and Science students of Laboratory high School are accomplishing astudy entitled, “Blaptica dubia (Dubia Cockroach) as an Additive for Broiler Chicken Feeds” in partialfulfillment of the requirements for Science Research II at Tarlac State University Laboratory High School.In this connection, we appeal for discount regarding your animal feeds tests specifically Crude Fat, CrudeProtein, Crude Fiber, Ash Content, Moisture Content, and Calcium.We hope that this request will merit utmost consideration and approval from you.Thank you and God bless!Respectfully yours,(Sgd) David Marco Bildan(Sgd) Marly Vea Clarisse Elli(Sgd) Gian Carlo Muldong(Sgd) Liana Faith De Leon(Sgd) Ray John Dorig(Sgd) Mies Eliel Dela CruzNoted by:(Sgd) Estrella B. PagcoAdviser/ Research II Instructor(Sgd) Ma. Shinette P. MoralesAcademic HeadApproved by:(Sgd) Norbina Genever M. CastroDirector

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