1.1 identification hard & softwoods

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1.1 identification hard & softwoods

  1. 1. Types of Trees Deciduous and Coniferous Trees
  2. 2. Deciduous and Coniferous Trees <ul><li>Deciduous trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as hardwoods or broadleaves trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coniferous trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As known as softwood or needle leaved trees </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Deciduous trees - characteristics <ul><li>Give us hardwood timber </li></ul><ul><li>Lose their leaves in autumn – except holly </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk divides to develop large branches </li></ul><ul><li>Large broad leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Generally grow more slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Usually harder and more durable wood </li></ul><ul><li>Branches are generally larger and more irregular than conifers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Coniferous trees - characteristics <ul><li>Give us softwood timber </li></ul><ul><li>Evergreen - except larch </li></ul><ul><li>Have a straight trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller branches </li></ul><ul><li>Needle like leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds borne in pine cones </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical in shape </li></ul><ul><li>Grow quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Wood is usually softer and less durable than hardwood </li></ul>
  5. 5. Irish Hardwoods Irish Softwood <ul><li>Oak </li></ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><li>Beech </li></ul><ul><li>Sycamore </li></ul><ul><li>Elm </li></ul><ul><li>Birch </li></ul><ul><li>Horse chestnut </li></ul><ul><li>Scots pine </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas Fir </li></ul><ul><li>Norway spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Sitka Spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Larch </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oak <ul><li>Take 120 years to mature </li></ul><ul><li>Grow to height of 40 metres </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit (seed) is called acorn </li></ul><ul><li>Durable, Light coloured wood, easy to work with </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boat building </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ash <ul><li>Take 60 years to mature </li></ul><ul><li>Grow to height of 40 metres </li></ul><ul><li>Pliable, tough Light white coloured wood difficult to work with </li></ul><ul><li>Uses : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool handles </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Beech <ul><li>Grow to height of 36 metres </li></ul><ul><li>Durable, reddish to brown coloured wood </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool handles </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sycamore <ul><li>Take 200 years to mature </li></ul><ul><li>Grow to height of 35 metres </li></ul><ul><li>Strong creamy white coloured wood which is ease to work with </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood carving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodturning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violin making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>veneers </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sitka Spruce <ul><li>Take 40 years to mature </li></ul><ul><li>Grow to height 45 metres </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow root system, thrives on wet soil (bogs) </li></ul><ul><li>Forms 75% of trees planted in Ireland annually </li></ul><ul><li>Known as white deal </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly durable with a pale brown colour </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural timber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>floorboard </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Norway Spruce <ul><li>Grow to height 40 metres </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow root system, thrives on damp fertile soil </li></ul><ul><li>Forms 4% of trees planted in Ireland annually </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as white deal </li></ul><ul><li>not durable with a white to cream colour </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christmas trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal joinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plywood </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Douglas Fir <ul><li>Cone shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Grow to height 55 metres </li></ul><ul><li>Likes light therefore branches are scarce </li></ul><ul><li>Tough, durable wood with a reddish- brown colour </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railway sleepers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plywood manufacture </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Scots Pine <ul><li>Shape is not typical – tall with a few large branches </li></ul><ul><li>Grow to height 40 metres </li></ul><ul><li>Slow growing not commerically planted any longer </li></ul><ul><li>Known as red deal </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and durable with a bright yellow colour </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roof frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraph poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fence posts </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Other timbers <ul><li>Some timbers cannot grow in Ireland due to our climate </li></ul><ul><li>They grow in tropical areas, where they are able to continuously grow all year around and as a result they do not have annual rings </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mahogany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ebony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walnut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balsa </li></ul></ul>

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