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# structures

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### structures

1. 1. Solid , shell, and frame structures<br />
2. 2. Solid structure<br />A solid structure is formed from a solid piece( or combination of pieces) of some materials. A concert parking barrier is a solid structure. So is a brick wall and a hockey puck. A solid structure has little or no space inside , relies on its on its own mass to resist the forces that act on it.<br />
3. 3. Frame structure<br />A frame structure is made up of a rigid arrangement of parts , or structural components, fastened together . An example is your skeleton, which is hade up of bones, ligaments ,and joints. The strength of a frame structure comes from the way the components are joined.<br />
4. 4. Shell structure<br />A shell structure has a solid outer surface , which may be rounded or flat in shape , and a hollow inner area . Shell structures with a round outer surface ,because the curved area usually stronger than those with a flat outer surface, because the curved area s distribute the load around the whole surface.<br />
5. 5. Arch bridge<br />Is designed to withstand heavy loads. The dynamic load of people and other traffic causes each piece of wood or stone in the arch to push against the piece next to it. <br />
6. 6. Truss bridge <br />Is a lightweight but strong bridge, made of trusses(triangle- shaped frames) along its sides. <br />
7. 7. Beam bridge<br />The beam bridge is the most common bridge used . A simple beam bridge is flat and is supported at its two ends . A longer beam bridge may be supported by additional piers (vertical supports) <br />
8. 8. Suspension bridge<br />A simple suspension bridge hangs between two ends that hold it up. A modern suspension bridge has tall towers on either end that support the main cables holding up the bridge . The main cables are anchored in concrete at each end of the bridge .<br />
9. 9. Arches <br />An arch is a common shape in structures such as bridges . The arch can support a large load because the force of the load because the force of the load is carried down through the arch to foundation. This spreads out the load. <br />
10. 10. Beams<br />Beams are common components in a wide range of structures . A simple beam is a flat structure that is supported at each end . If too much weight is put on a beam in the middle, it will bend in a u-shape and may even break . Changing the shape of a beam, however, can increase its strength . <br />
11. 11. Columns<br />A columns is a solid structure that can stand by itself . Columns can be used to support beams.<br />
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