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Ch. 17 4 pp
 

Ch. 17 4 pp

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    Ch. 17 4 pp Ch. 17 4 pp Presentation Transcript

    • Why It MattersWe had survived our worst war, but the end ofthe Civil War left Americans to deal with a setof pressing issues. The status of some 3.5million former enslaved people had yet to bedecided. Nor had the terms by which the formerConfederate states would rejoin the Union beendecided. How Americans would handle theseissues would shape the future of our country.
    • The Impact TodayDebate over the rightful power of the federalgovernment and the states continues to this day.Americans continue to wrestle with the problemof providing civil rights and equal opportunityto all citizens.
    • Chapter ObjectivesClick the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Cite the changes that occurred in the South duringthe last years of Reconstruction. • Describe how African Americans were denied theirrights.Section 4: Change in the South
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Guide to ReadingDemocrats steadily regained control of Southerngovernments as support for Radical Reconstructionpolicies decreased. • reconciliation Main IdeaKey Terms• commission • cash crop • poll tax • literacy test • grandfather clause• segregation • lynching
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Reconstruction Declines• As Southern Democrats began to regainpolitical and economic control in the South,support for Radical Reconstruction policiesdecreased. (pages 513–515)• Many Northerners also began believing in theend of Reconstruction. • They thought it was holding back Southerneconomic expansion.
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Grant was reelected in the 1872 presidentialelection despite division in the RepublicanParty. • Reports of corruption in Grant’sadministration and in Reconstructionprograms caused a group of Republicans toform the Liberal Republicans. • They nominated Horace Greeley. • Although Greeley also had the support ofmany Democrats, Grant won.Reconstruction Declines (cont.)(pages 513–515)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Congress passed the Amnesty Act in May 1872that pardoned most former Confederates. • This caused the political balance in the Southto change and allowed Democrats to regainpower. • During the 1872 election, Liberal Republicanscalled for expanded amnesty for whiteSoutherners.Reconstruction Declines (cont.)(pages 513–515)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Democrats regained control of stategovernments in Virginia and North Carolina. • The Ku Klux Klan and other violent groupsterrorized Republican voters, thus helpingDemocrats take power. • The Democrats used threats to pressure whiteRepublicans to become Democrats. • They also used violence to persuade AfricanAmericans not to vote. • By 1876 Florida, South Carolina, and Louisianawere the only Southern statesto remain Republican.Reconstruction Declines (cont.)(pages 513–515)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Scandals and corruption charges weakened theRepublican Party. • The nation was also in an economic depression.Blame fell on theRepublicans. • In the 1874 congressional elections, theDemocrats won control of a part of the federalgovernment. • They gained Senate seats and won control of theHouse. • This weakened Congress’s commitment toReconstruction and to protecting the rights ofnewly freed African Americans.Reconstruction Declines (cont.)(pages 513–515)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.The End of Reconstruction• The disputed election of 1876 confirmed theRepublican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes thewinner four months after the election. (pages 515–517)• Samuel Tilden, the Democrat, appeared thewinner, but disputed returns from Florida,Louisiana, and South Carolina changed theresult. • A special commission was appointed toresolve the election.
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• It awarded all 20 disputed electoral votes toHayes, giving him the required majority forvictory. • Congress confirmed the commission’sfindings, so Hayes became president althoughhe had fewer popular votes than Tilden did.The End of Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 515–517)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Congressional leaders made a deal to settle theelection. • This was the Compromise of 1877. • It said that the new government would givemore aid to the South and withdraw allremaining troops while the Democratspromised to maintain the rights of AfricanAmericans.The End of Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 515–517)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Hayes sent a clear message in his InauguralAddress that Reconstruction was over. • The federal government would no longerattempt to reshape Southern society or helpAfrican Americans.The End of Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 515–517)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Change in the South• By the 1880s the country saw the rise of the“New South.” (pages 517–518)• Industry developed based on the region’sresources of cotton, tobacco, lumber, coal,iron, and steel. - The textile industry advanced. - Instead of shipping cotton to the North and Europe,the South built its own textile mills. - The tobacco industry grew. James Duke’s company,Duke’s American Tobacco Company, eventuallycontrolled almost all tobacco manufacturing in thenation.
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Change in the South (cont.)(pages 517–518)- The iron and steel industry also grew. - Alabama had deposits of iron ore. - By 1890 Southern mills produced nearly 20 percentof the nation’s iron and steel.
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• The following factors helped this growth: Change in the South (cont.)(pages 517–518)- a cheap and reliable workforce of people whoworked long hours for low pay - the railroad rebuilding of destroyed track caused arailroad boom; between 1880 and 1890, the miles oftrack doubled
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• A new ruling party, the Democrats, took over. • Many of these people were merchants,bankers, industrialists, and other businessleaders who supported economic developmentand opposed Northern interference. • They were conservatives. • They called themselves “Redeemers” becausethey saved themselves from Republican rule.Change in the South (cont.)(pages 517–518)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Policies included lower taxes, less publicspending, and reduced government services. • Many social services that had started duringReconstruction were cut or eliminated,including public education.Change in the South (cont.)(pages 517–518)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• The South still remained primarily a ruraleconomy even as it developed some industry. • It sank deeper into poverty and debt as timewent on. Change in the South (cont.)(pages 517–518)- Some plantations, although not many, werebroken up. - When divided, the land was used forsharecropping and tenant farming, which were notprofitable.
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Change in the South (cont.)(pages 517–518)- Reliance on sharecropping and cash crops, orcrops that could be sold for money, hampered thedevelopment of a more modern agriculturaleconomy. - An oversupply of the biggest cash crop, cotton,forced prices down. - With less money, farmers had to buy on credit andpay high prices for their foodand supplies. - Thus, their debt increased.
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.A Divided Society• Reconstruction was a success and a failure. (pages 519–520)• It helped the South recover and beginrebuilding. • However, the South remained a ruraleconomy that was very poor. • African Americans did not have truefreedom because the South created asegregated society, separating them fromwhites.
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Southern states imposed voting restrictionseven though the Fifteenth Amendmentprohibited any state from denying the right tovote because of race. A Divided Society (cont.)(pages 519–520)- Many states required people to pay a poll tax beforevoting. - Because many African Americans and poor whitescould not afford to pay the tax, they could not vote.- Many states required prospective voters to also takea literacy test. - Because African Americans had little education,they could not pass the test and therefore could notvote.
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.A Divided Society (cont.)(pages 519–520)- Some states passed a grandfather clause to enablesome whites who may not have been able to passthe test to be able to vote. - The law said that if their fathers or grandfathers hadvoted before Reconstruction, they were also allowedto vote. - African Americans were excluded because they didnot gain the right to vote until 1867.
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• The South became a segregated society. • Many states passed Jim Crow laws, which werelaws that required African Americans andwhites to be separated in almost every publicplace and facility. • The facilities were separate but not equal. • Southern states spent more money on schoolsand facilities for whites than for AfricanAmericans. • This segregation lasted for more than 50 years.A Divided Society (cont.)(pages 519–520)
    • Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Violence against African Americans increased.• Threats of violence and the voting laws causedAfrican American voting to drop. • Mob lynching, or killing African Americansby hanging, increased. • If African Americans were suspected ofcommitting crimes or did not behave as whitesexpected them to, they were lynched.A Divided Society (cont.)(pages 519–520)