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Ch. 17 2 pp

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  • 1. Why It MattersWe had survived our worst war, but the end ofthe Civil War left Americans to deal with a setof pressing issues. The status of some 3.5million former enslaved people had yet to bedecided. Nor had the terms by which the formerConfederate states would rejoin the Union beendecided. How Americans would handle theseissues would shape the future of our country.
  • 2. The Impact TodayDebate over the rightful power of the federalgovernment and the states continues to this day.Americans continue to wrestle with the problemof providing civil rights and equal opportunityto all citizens.
  • 3. Chapter ObjectivesClick the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Identify what some Southerners did to deprivefreed people of their rights, and explain howCongress responded. • Cite the main features of Radical Reconstruction.Section 2: Radicals in Control
  • 4. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Guide to ReadingRadical Republicans were able to put their version ofReconstruction into action. • black codes Main IdeaKey Terms• override • impeach
  • 5. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.African Americans’ Rights• The new Southern states passed a series of lawsin 1865 and early 1866 called black codes. (pages 504–506)• These laws reestablished slavery in disguise. • They deprived freed people of their rights andenabled plantation owners to exploit AfricanAmerican workers. - Some laws allowed local officials to arrest and fineunemployed African Americans and make themwork for white employers to pay off their fines.
  • 6. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Congress challenged the black codes. • It extended the life of the Freedmen’s Bureauin 1866 and granted it the power to set upspecial courts to prosecute people chargedwith violating the rights of AfricanAmericans.African Americans’ Rights (cont.)(pages 504–506)- Other laws banned African Americans from owningor renting farms. - One law allowed whites to take orphaned AfricanAmerican children as unpaid apprentices. 
  • 7. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• It also passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866,giving full citizenship to AfricanAmericans, and gave the federalgovernment the right to intervene in stateaffairs to protect them. • It overturned black codes and contradicted the1857 Supreme Court Dred Scott decisionsaying that African Americans were notcitizens.African Americans’ Rights (cont.)(pages 504–506)
  • 8. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Johnson vetoed both bills. • However, Republicans were able tooverride both vetoes and the bills becamelaw. • This split between the president and theRadical Republicans led Congress to drafta new Reconstruction plan.African Americans’ Rights (cont.)(pages 504–506)
  • 9. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• In June 1866 Congress passed the FourteenthAmendment to the Constitution granting fullcitizenship to all individuals born in the UnitedStates. • The amendment also says that no state cantake away a citizen’s life, liberty, and property“without due process of law.” Every citizenwas also entitled to “equal protection of thelaws.” African Americans’ Rights (cont.)(pages 504–506)- It did not include voting rights for AfricanAmericans. - It also barred certain former Confederates fromholding national or state office unless pardoned by atwo-thirds vote of Congress.
  • 10. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Congress declared that Southern states mustratify the amendment in order to be readmittedto the Union. • Because Tennessee was the only stateto ratify early, adoption of the amendmentwas delayed until 1868 when the other tenstates finally ratified it.African Americans’ Rights (cont.)(pages 504–506)
  • 11. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Republicans won victories in the congressionalelections of 1866. • They increased their majorities in both housesand gained control of every Northern stategovernment.African Americans’ Rights (cont.)(pages 504–506)
  • 12. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Radical Reconstruction• Radical Reconstruction was the periodthat began when Congress passed theReconstruction Acts. (pages 506–508)• The First Reconstruction Act, passed onMarch 2, 1867, called for the creation of newgovernments in the ten Southern states thathad not ratified the Fourteenth Amendment. • Tennessee was quickly readmitted to theUnion because it had ratified the amendment.
  • 13. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Radical Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 506–508)- The ten states were divided into five militarydistricts under the command of military officers. - African American males were guaranteed the right tovote in state elections. - Former Confederate leaders could not hold politicaloffice. - To be readmitted, each state had to ratify theFourteenth Amendment and submit its new stateconstitution to Congress.
  • 14. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• The Second Reconstruction Act was passed afew weeks later. • It required military commanders to beginregistering voters and to prepare for new stateconstitutional conventions.Radical Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 506–508)
  • 15. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• By 1868 seven Southern states hadestablished new governments and met theconditions for readmission. • They were Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia,Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, and SouthCarolina. • By 1870 the final three states restored to theUnion were Mississippi, Virginia, and Texas.Radical Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 506–508)
  • 16. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• The rift between Congress and PresidentJohnson grew wider. • Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act inMarch 1867 to limit the president’s power. • It prohibited him from removinggovernment officials without the Senate’sapproval.Radical Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 506–508)
  • 17. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• When Congress was not in session in August1867, Johnson suspended his secretary of war,Edwin Stanton. • When the Senate met again and refused toapprove this act, Johnson fired Stanton. • Johnson also appointed as commanders ofSouthern military districts some generalswhom the Radicals opposed.Radical Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 506–508)
  • 18. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Because of Johnson’s actions, the House votedto impeach him. • The case went to the Senate for a trial thatlasted almost three months. Radical Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 506–508)- His defenders said he was exercising his right tochallenge laws he thought unconstitutional. - They said the impeachment was politicallymotivated and that Congress was trying toremove him from office without accusinghim of a crime.
  • 19. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Radical Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 506–508)- His accusers argued that Congress should retain thepower to make laws. - A senator from Massachusetts said that Johnson hadturned “the veto power into a remedy for ill-considered legislation . . . into a weapon of offenseagainst Congress.” - The Senate vote was one vote short of the two-thirdsmajority needed to convict, so Johnson remained inoffice until March 1869.
  • 20. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• The 1868 presidential election was a vote onReconstruction. • Most states had rejoined the Union by theelection. • Americans chose Republican and formerNorthern general Ulysses S. Grant as theirnew president.Radical Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 506–508)
  • 21. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Another major piece of Reconstructionlegislation was the Fifteenth Amendment. • It prohibited the state and federal governmentsfrom denying the right to vote to any malecitizen because of race, color, or previouscondition of servitude. • It became law in February 1870. • The Republicans thought that the power of thevote would allow African Americans toprotect themselves.Radical Reconstruction (cont.)(pages 506–508)