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  • 1. Why It MattersWe had survived our worst war, but the end ofthe Civil War left Americans to deal with a setof pressing issues. The status of some 3.5million former enslaved people had yet to bedecided. Nor had the terms by which the formerConfederate states would rejoin the Union beendecided. How Americans would handle theseissues would shape the future of our country.
  • 2. The Impact TodayDebate over the rightful power of the federalgovernment and the states continues to this day.Americans continue to wrestle with the problemof providing civil rights and equal opportunityto all citizens.
  • 3. Chapter ObjectivesClick the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Compare Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction andthe plan of the Radical Republicans. • Explain Andrew Johnson’s proposal for handlingReconstruction.Section 1: Reconstruction Plans
  • 4. Guide to ReadingClick the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Differences over how Reconstruction should becarried out divided the government. • Reconstruction Main IdeaKey Terms• amnesty • radical • freedmen
  • 5. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Reconstruction Debate• Americans faced many difficult issues overhow Reconstruction, or rebuilding the South,should be carried out. (pages 500–502)• Before the war was over, Lincoln proposed in1863 the Ten Percent Plan for acceptingSouthern states back into the Union. • When ten percent of the voters of a state tookan oath of loyalty to the Union, the state couldform a new government and adopt a newconstitution banning slavery.
  • 6. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Reconstruction Debate (cont.)(pages 500–502)- Lincoln wanted Southerners who supported theUnion to take charge of the state governments. - Lincoln offered amnesty to all white Southernerswho were willing to swear loyaltyto the Union, except Confederate leaders. - He supported giving educated African Americans orthose who served in the Union army the right tovote. - Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee establishedgovernments under Lincoln’s plan in 1864. - A struggle occurred when Congress refused to seattheir representatives.
  • 7. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Reconstruction Debate (cont.)• A more radical plan proposed by RadicalRepublicans called for a tougher approach toReconstruction. • The plan called for breaking up Southerninstitutions. • Since the Radical Republicans controlledCongress, they voted to deny seats to any statereconstructed under Lincoln’s plan.(pages 500–502)
  • 8. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Reconstruction Debate (cont.)• Congress developed its own harsh plan in July1864 by passing the Wade-Davis Bill. (pages 500–502)- A majority of white males had to swear loyalty. - Only white males who swore they had neverfought against the Union could vote for delegatesto a state convention. - Former Confederates were denied the right tohold public office. - If a new state constitution abolishing slavery wasadopted at a convention, then the state could bereadmitted to the Union.
  • 9. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Reconstruction Debate (cont.)(pages 500–502)- Lincoln refused to sign the bill. - He knew, though, that he would have to compromisewith the Radical Republicans.
  • 10. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Reconstruction Debate (cont.)• Another difficult issue of Reconstruction washow to help freed African Americans. • A new government agency, the Freedmen’sBureau, was established to help formerenslaved persons. • It distributed food and clothing, providedmedical services, and established schoolsstaffed mostly by teachers from the North.(pages 500–502)
  • 11. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Reconstruction Debate (cont.)• It helped African Americans buy land and getjobs and receive fair wages. • It also gave aid to new African Americanhigher institutions of learning, such asAtlanta University, Howard University, andFisk University.(pages 500–502)
  • 12. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Lincoln Assassinated!• The country mourned the death of a man whosaved the Union and helped African Americanswin freedom. (pages 502–503)• On the evening of April 14, 1865, PresidentLincoln was shot while attending a play at theFord’s Theater in Washington, D.C. • His assassin, John Wilkes Booth, entered thebox Lincoln was sitting in, shot him in theback of the head, and escaped. • Lincoln died a few hours later at the home of anearby tailor.
  • 13. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.• Vice President Andrew Johnson became thepresident. • As a former senator, he was the only Southernsenator to support the Union. • He called his plan for the South “Restoration.”Lincoln Assassinated! (cont.)(pages 502–503)- Most Southerners would be granted amnesty oncethey swore an oath of loyalty to the Union.
  • 14. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Lincoln Assassinated! (cont.)(pages 502–503)- High-ranking Confederate officials and wealthylandowners could only be pardoned by applyingpersonally to the president. - This was his way of attacking the wealthy leaderswho he thought tricked Southerners intoseceding. - The president would appoint governors andrequire them to hold elections for stateconstitutional conventions. - Only whites that swore their loyalty and had beenpardoned would be allowed to vote.
  • 15. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.Lincoln Assassinated! (cont.)(pages 502–503)- Before a state could reenter the Union, itsconstitutional convention had to denouncesecession and abolish slavery. - States had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendmentpassed in January 1865 that abolished slavery. • By the end of 1865, Johnson declaredRestoration was almost complete because allthe former Confederate states, except Texas,had established new governments and wereready to rejoin the Union.