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16 5 pp

  1. 1. Chapter ObjectivesSection 5: The Way to Victory• Identify the battles that turned the tide of the war in 1863. • Cite the events that led to the South’s surrender in 1865. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  2. 2. Why It MattersThe Civil War–a war in which Americansfought other Americans–transformed the UnitedStates. It shattered the economyof the South while contributing to the rapideconomic growth of the North and the West.African Americans gained freedom whenslavery was abolished, but the war left a legacyof bitterness between North and South thatlasted for generations.
  3. 3. The Impact TodayKey events during this era still shape our livestoday. For example: • The institution of slavery was abolished. • The war established the power of the federal government over the states. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  4. 4. Guide to ReadingMain IdeaAfter four years of war that claimed the lives ofmore than 600,000 Americans, the Northern forcesdefeated the Southern forces. Key Terms• entrenched • total war Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  5. 5. Southern Victories• Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia seemed too strong to beat in 1862 and 1863. • They easily won the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862, in Virginia against General Ambrose Burnside. • Because of his failure, Burnside resigned. General Joseph Hooker replaced him. (pages 485–486) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  6. 6. Southern Victories (cont.)• Hooker rebuilt the army, but Lee attacked his troops first and won another victory at Chancellorsville, Virginia, near Fredericksburg in May 1863. • General Stonewall Jackson was among the heavy casualties. • Jackson died at Chancellorsville from an accidental shot by one of the Confederate companies. He died a week later. (pages 485–486) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  7. 7. The Tide of War Turns• Lee decided to invade the North, hoping to win aid for the Confederacy from Britain and France. • The South was not victorious as he moved his 75,000 troops north in June. • Union General George Meade replaced General Hooker to find and fight Lee’s troops and protect Washington, D.C., and Baltimore from attack. (pages 486–488) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  8. 8. The Tide of War Turns (cont.)• The armies fought the three-day Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863. • On the third day, 14,000 Confederate forces, led by General Pickett, advanced toward Union lines. • The Union fired as the Confederate troops marched across open territory. • Lee’s troops retreated to Virginia in defeat. (pages 486–488) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  9. 9. The Tide of War Turns (cont.)• Another Northern victory occurred at the Battle of Vicksburg, Mississippi. • The Union gained control of the Mississippi River, a war goal, and isolated the western Confederacy. • This and the Battle of Gettysburg were turning points in the war. (pages 486–488) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  10. 10. The Tide of War Turns (cont.)• On November 19, 1863, Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Address at a ceremony dedicating a cemetery at Gettysburg. • The speech helped Americans look ahead and focus on building America. (pages 486–488) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  11. 11. Final Phases of the War• New Union leadership brought new plans to attack the Confederacy. • After the Northern victory at Chattanooga, Tennessee, led by Generals Grant and Sherman, Lincoln named Grant commander of all the Union armies. • The plan was to have the Army of the Potomac crush Lee’s army in Virginia. • The western army under Sherman would advance to Atlanta and crush the Confederates in the Deep South. (pages 488–490) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  12. 12. Final Phases of the War (cont.)• Grant’s and Lee’s armies met in three battles near Richmond: the Battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Courthouse, and Cold Harbor. • The Confederacy held firm each time Grant resumed the attack. • Another attack at Petersburg turned into a nine- month siege. • Grant hoped that Richmond would fall, thereby cutting it off from the rest of the Confederacy. (pages 488–490) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  13. 13. Final Phases of the War (cont.)• The North lost thousands of men and grew tired of the war. • Democrats wanted to make peace with the South, but Lincoln wanted to restore the Union. • The end of the war was in sight, and Lincoln won reelection easily. (pages 488–490) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  14. 14. Final Phases of the War (cont.)• In September 1864 Sherman captured Atlanta, and the Confederates were driven out of Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. • Sherman’s army waged “total war” as it then advanced from Atlanta toward Savannah, Georgia, destroying farms, killing animals, and tearing up railroad lines along the way. • It captured Savannah and devastated South Carolina as the troops moved to meet Grant in Virginia. (pages 488–490) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  15. 15. Victory for the North• Lincoln talked about the end of the war and the hope for peace in his second Inaugural Address in 1865. • On April 2, 1865, Confederate lines at Petersburg broke and Lee withdrew his troops. • Richmond fell the same day. • Rebel troops, civilians, and government officials fled, setting fire to the city of Richmond as they left. (pages 490–491) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  16. 16. Victory for the North (cont.)• On April 9, 1865, Lee and his troops surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, a small Virginia village. • Grant asked only for their arms, letting them keep their horses and giving them three days’ supply of food. (pages 490–491) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  17. 17. Victory for the North (cont.)• Confederate forces in North Carolina surrendered to General Sherman several days later. • Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy, was captured on May 10 in Georgia. • The war was over. (pages 490–491) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  18. 18. Victory for the North (cont.)• The war had several consequences.  - The Civil War was the most devastating in American history. More than 600,000 soldiers died. It caused billions of dollars worth of damage, mostly in the South.  - Bitter feelings between Southerners and Northerners lasted for generations.  - The federal government was strengthened and became more powerful than the states.  - The war freed millions of African Americans. (pages 490–491) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

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