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Continuity and discontinuity

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A presentation about continuity and discontinuity in film and video production. ...

A presentation about continuity and discontinuity in film and video production.

The Presentation was given in Oct. 2008 as a part of the "Introduction to Film Studies" class, University of Applied Sciences Vorarlberg.

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    Continuity and discontinuity Continuity and discontinuity Presentation Transcript

    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY & DISCONTINUITY MARTE MICHAEL / FLACHSMANN CHRISTOF English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Oct. 20th, 2008
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof TAbLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUITY 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY DISCONTINUITY AXIS OF ACTION vIOLATION - JUMP CUT - NON DIEGETIC INSERT FILM SOUND INTERNAL & EXTERNAL DIEGETIC SOUND - NON DIEGETIC SOUND FILM AUTHORSHIP
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: INTRODUCTION • One scene - different shots • Shots that belong together should be continuous • Smooth flow from shot to shot • Coherence and orientation INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: INTRODUCTION TECHNIqUES • Consequent graphic quality (colors, composition, movement, ...) • Figures are balanced and symmetrically deployed • Constant lightning tonality • Same sound setting INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: 180° SYSTEM • Action is assumed to take place along a predictable line • Place your camera within a 180° area on one side of the axis INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: 180° SYSTEM The viewer should always know • where the characters/objects are in relation to one other and to the setting • where he/she is in relation to the story action Therefore it’s important to establish the scene with one or more shots INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: 180° SYSTEM If the camera is placed in the 180° area • the relative positions of the frame remain consistent • the eyelines are consistent, what means that characters always will look in the right direction • the screen direction will always be consistent INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: SHOT/REvERSE SHOT • The end points of the axis of action are shown SHOT 1 • Usually the first shot establishes the axis of action • The second shot shows one end point • After a cut the other endpoint is shown SHOT 2 SHOT 3 INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: EYELINE MATCH 1ST SHOT Character glances at something off-screen 2ND SHOT The object can be revealed with an eyeline match cut. SHOT 1 The line of the character’s glance has matched the two shots together. SHOT 2 INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: EYELINE MATCH Point of view cutting is a variation of the eyeline match 1ST SHOT Character glances at something off-screen SHOT 1 2 SHOT ND The object from the characters optical vantage point. SHOT 2 INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: MATCH ON ACTION CUT 1ST SHOT An action is being performed but not finished 2ND SHOT Shows the same action being continued from an other point of view or zoom level SHOT 1 SHOT 2 INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof CONTINUITY: DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY Related to the match on action cut 1ST SHOT A characters walks out of the screen on the right side SHOT 1 2ND SHOT The character enters in the next shot from the left side SHOT 2 INTRODUCTION - 180° SYSTEM - SHOT/REvERSE SHOT - EYELINE MATCH - MATCH ON ACTION CUT - DIRECTIONAL CONTINUITY
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof DISCONTINUITY: AMbIGUOUS WAYS • Follows the common rules of continuity from a technical point of view • Discontinuity is generated by narrational ambiguity INTRODUCTION - AXIS OF ACTION vIOLATION - JUMP CUT - NON DIEGETIC INSERT
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof DISCONTINUITY: vIOLATION OF 180° SPACE • Camera is placed everywhere (360°) around an action • Moving objects seem to change direction • Creates disorientation INTRODUCTION - AXIS OF ACTION vIOLATION - JUMP CUT - NON DIEGETIC INSERT
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof DISCONTINUITY: JUMP CUT • Ignores the 30° rule • 2 shots of the same subjects are cut together, no big difference in camera distance and angle • very visible, disorients the spectator INTRODUCTION - AXIS OF ACTION vIOLATION - JUMP CUT - NON DIEGETIC INSERT
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof DISCONTINUITY: NON-DIEGETIC INSERT • Comments the action of a narrative with a metaphorical or symbolic shot • Is coming from outside of the film world ( = non-diegetic) INTRODUCTION - AXIS OF ACTION vIOLATION - JUMP CUT - NON DIEGETIC INSERT
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof FILM SOUND EXTERNAL DIEGETIC SOUND NON DIEGETIC SOUND • origin is located in the story world • origin from outside of the story world (e. g. music represented as coming from (e. g. mood music) instruments in the story space) INTERNAL DIEGETIC SOUND • origin is located in character’s mind
    • English 3: Introduction to Film Studies Continuity & DisContinuity Michael Marte / Flachsmann Christof FILM AUTHORSHIP Distinguishes between • directors as artists and (director as auteur) • directors as mere technicians (metteurs en scéne)