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A new noteworthy tool for improving forest biodiversity in reforested areas: the effectiveness of Miyawaki method in Mediterranean reforestation programs Federico VessellaDepartment of Forest and Environment (D.A.F.), Università degli Studi della Tuscia, via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy. Thessaloniki, March 22-24 2011
Applications and resultsMiyawaki has been succesfullyapplied in several Far Eastcountries, (e.g. Japan, China,Malaysia, Thailand) and in SouthAmerica (Brazil and Chile).Experimented in thousandshectares, Miyawaki always allowsclimax vegetation achievement.
Advantages compared to traditional methods After planting, any human care is not required, such as weeding or thinning; Undergrowth with late-successional species is immediately on site; Forest stand becomes quickly part of natural ecosystem
Method limits Accurate botanical and ecological analysis of sites is need, thus specialists are required for environmental investigations; Manpower need is high; Planting costs are quite expensive
Method restrictions – adaptability to Mediterranean climate Some Mediterranean climate patternsSites where Miyawaki successed
Method involvement in Mediterranean environment Miyawaki method was never tested in Mediterraneanenvironment, mainly because is unknown Difficulties are linked to Mediterranean climatecharacterized by summer aridity, in several cases by wintercold, and by thin soils Nevertheless, it could be interesting for the Mediterraneancontext, because in this area complete environmentrestoration takes long time Maintenance planting cost are reduced to the first year
Site location A Sardinia - Italy B I.G.M. 1:25000 of Aerial view (2006) experimental fieldMunicipality of Pattada
Project description Site A Site BSurface 4500 m2 c.a. 1000 m2 c.a.Altitude a.s.l. 760 m 885 mSlope 4° 0°Aspect North-East FlatGeology Granite GraniteSoil Lithic and Dystric Lithic and Dystric Xerorthents XerorthentsPlant number 1759 1828Density 4000 plants/ha 18000 plants/haN. of species 32 17
Potential vegetation (climax)Mixed forest with Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Q. pubescens and Ilex aquifolium
Our changements to the original method No new soil addition (20 cm labour of first pre- existent soil) Use of some local pioneer species (Pinus pinaster) together with late successional ones to improve plant community resilience Test of different types of mulching
Quantitative analysis Site A Planted species: 28 Qualitatively 37% Survived all survived Native species in not worked strips: 4 63% Test Area closed to Site A in a 30 years old 10 species (31,25%) reforested zone Test Area in a coevalTraditional reforestation technique reforested zone lightly 7 species (21,88%) far from Site A Test Area in a gradoni reforested site 7 species (21,88%) Quantitative analysis Site B 19.69% Total planted species: 23 Qualitatively Survived Forest species: 17 7 forest sp. survived 80.31%
Comparison with traditional methods of reforestation More rapid development of trees, in particular of pioneer species Greater richness in species, also climatic species (Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Q. pubescens and Ilex aquifolium are present)
20 yearsMax height = 4 m gradoni reforestation
Improvement opportunities and conclusions Improve soil characteristics adding compost or local vegetal material Reducing pioneers species without excluding at all Test for the optimal plant density Use high quality seedlings Reduce planting costsPre-Forest cultivation approach should help solving thoseproblems and Miyawaki method should be applied as interestingtool for forest restoration programmes in Mediterranean countries
• introduce a new technology build on pre-cultivation (in mini-plugs) of forest regeneration materials (FRM) in a cost efficient and environmental friendly production unit not affected by outdoor climate; • integrate these technologies into a functional system for large scale production of pre-cultivated forest regeneration materials adapted to transplanting and further growth at forest nurseries all over EuropeThe mobile pre-cultivation unit,adapted to a standardisedcontainer size for transportationon a lorry, train or boat to anyoptional forest nursery.