Alcohol fermentation

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Alcohol fermentation

  1. 1. ALCOHOL FERMENTATION
  2. 2. INDEX:  INTRODUCTION  PROCESS  ORGANISMS USED  SUBSTRET AND MEDIA COMPOSITION AND IDEAL CONDITION  PRODUCT RECOVERY  USES  CONCLUSION
  3. 3. alcoholic fermentation, also referred to as, Ethanol fermentation, is a biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products. Because yeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen ethanol fermentation is classified as anaerobic.
  4. 4. Conversation Mechanism C6H12O6 180 C2H5OH + CO2 92 88 100 Kg 51.1 Kg 48.9 Kg Theoretical Yield : 51.1%
  5. 5. Sugar ====> Alcohol + Carbon dioxide gas + Energy (Glucose) (Ethyl alcohol)
  6. 6. Organisms used: Bacteria:  Zymomonas mobilis  Closteridium acetobutylicum  Klebsiella pneumoniae Yeast  Saccharomyces cerevisiae  Saccharomyces carlsbergenesiae  Saccharomyces saki  Saccharomyces oviformis  Candida utilis  Mucur sp.
  7. 7. FERMANTABLE SUBSTRATE  Sugary materials  Starchy material  Cellulosic materials
  8. 8. SUGARY MATERIALS: Molasses Suger cane Sugar beet Sweet potato Sulfide waste Weet sorgum Whey glucose Succrose Lactose
  9. 9. STARCHY MATERIALS cereals: wheat,maize,barley,sorgum,corn,rice Roots: potato,tropica Mild products: wheat flour,corn feed
  10. 10. CELLULOSIC MATERIALS Wood Paper waste Agricultural waste
  11. 11. Nutrient Raw material Carbon molasses, starch Nitrogen corn steep liquor, soybean meal, pure ammonia or ammonium salts, urea, nitrate salts, phosphate salts Vitamins and growth factors biotin, yeast extract, beef extract, corn steep liquor, wheat germ meal Fermentation media
  12. 12. CONDITIONS FOR FERMENTATION Carbon sources: pure sugar or crude sugars/molasses (10-18%). Growth factors: can be provided in the form of molasses. pH: 4.8-5.0. Temperature: 21-26 F. Temp. can be controlled by heating or cooling of tanks.
  13. 13. CONTN…….. Time: Depends on yeast strain. Usual time is between 30 to 72hrs. Yield: 0.4 gallon of ethyl alcohol per one gallon of molasses. 90% carbohydrates can be converted in to alcohol.
  14. 14. FERMENTATION PROCESS CARRY OUT BY:  batch fermentation  Continuous fermentation continuous fermentation is used because of several advantages.
  15. 15. FERMENTATION  Inoculums size: In range of 3% to 10% with an average about 4%  Media: 10 -18%. Concentrations greater than 20% are not employed as they could be detrimental to yeast.
  16. 16. PRODUCT RECOVERY  Distillation is a separation process for a mixture of liquids or oils. It relies on differences in the boiling points of the component liquids to be separated.  Alcohol can be obtained by distillation and column is known as rectified column.  Can also be recovered by fractional distillation. Distillate contains 95.6% ethyl alcohol and 4.4% water.
  17. 17. BY-PRODUCTS  Three byproducts generated 1.Carbon dioxide- used for production of dry ice and pure form used for preparation of soft drinks. 2.Yeast biomass- used for animal fodder because it contains high protein, vitamins etc. 3.Distillery effluents- used as a fertilizer and animal feed.
  18. 18. Ethanol Tolerance Growth Tolerance Production Tolerance Ethanol level at which Growth ceases 6-9% wt/vol Ethanol level at which Ethanol production ceases 15% wt/vol or higher
  19. 19. USES:  Fuels Some alcohols, mainly ethanol and methanol can be used as an alcohol fuel  Preservative  Solvents  Alcohols have applications in industry and science as reagents or solvents ethanol can be used as a solvent in medical drugs, perfumes and vegetable essences such as vanilla
  20. 20.  Alcoholic beverages  Antifreeze  Antiseptics  Ethanol can be used as an antiseptic to disinfect the skin.
  21. 21. CONCLUSION  Thus alcohol production is an important fermentation because of following reasons: 1.Gives ethyl alcohol used for consumption as well as industrial purposes. 2.Gives byproducts like carbon dioxide, yeast biomass, fertilizer etc. 3.Gives effective utilization of agro- waste eg. Molasses, sulphite waste liquor etc.

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