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Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology
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Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology

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Invited talk given at ICTES 2014, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

Invited talk given at ICTES 2014, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

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    • 1. PatternsinInformationTechnology 1 Some Observations on Common Patterns in Information Technology Prof. Dr. Franz-Josef Behr, Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences ICTES 2014, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Kelaniya#mediaviewer/File:Unikelruki.jpg
    • 2. PatternsinInformationTechnology 2 Outline • Introduction • Features and collections of them, and their Identity • Encoding – Markup Languages, Structuring vocabularies by namespaces – Key value pairs – Separating information chunks • Standards • Openess • Networking and Service Orientation
    • 3. PatternsinInformationTechnology 3 • Field data collection • Surveying • Photogrammetry • Remote sensing • Mobile Apps • Geodatabeses • Spatial Data Infrastructures • Data Harmonization • Service oriented Architectures • Web Mapping • OGC WebServices • Architectures • Reports & Presentations • 3D, 4D, …
    • 4. PatternsinInformationTechnology 4 Complexity
    • 5. PatternsinInformationTechnology 5 Reduction of Complexity
    • 6. PatternsinInformationTechnology 6 Recognition of Pattern
    • 7. PatternsinInformationTechnology 7 Features and collections of them
    • 8. PatternsinInformationTechnology 8 Features • real world: consisting of entities / phenomena (latin: ens: a being) • Feature = an abstraction of real world phenomena (ISO 19101)‖ • geographic feature: associated with a location relative to the Earth. • The state of a feature is defined by a set of properties, where each property may be thought of as a {name, type, value} triple. Real worldt Model Entity feature Identity properties behaviour attributes geometry styling properties meta properties Technical viewpoint, abstraction, generalization relationships
    • 9. PatternsinInformationTechnology 9 feature feature feature feature feature feature featurefeature feature feature feature feature feature feature
    • 10. PatternsinInformationTechnology 10 Single features and collections: in GML • FeatureCollection: a collection of GML Features, having own properties and an optional list of Spatial Reference System Definitions. [1] • GML feature collections are themselves valid GML features. [2] <complexType name="AbstractFeatureCollectionType" abstract="true"> <complexContent> <extension base="gml:AbstractFeatureType"> <sequence> <element ref="gml:featureMember" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <element ref="gml:featureMembers" minOccurs="0"/> </sequence> </extension> </complexContent> </complexType>> <element name="AbstractFeatureCollection" type="gml:AbstractFeatureCollectionType" abstract="true" substitutionGroup="gml:AbstractFeature" /> [1] http://www.w3.org/Mobile/posdep/GMLIntroduction.html [2] OpenGIS Geography Markup Language (GML) Encoding Standard, v 3.2.1, http://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/? artifact_id=20509
    • 11. PatternsinInformationTechnology 11 Single features and collections: in Java
    • 12. PatternsinInformationTechnology 12 Real worldt Model Entity feature Identity properties behaviour attributes geometry styling properties meta properties Technical viewpoint, abstraction, generalization relationships Identity of features • Each feature must be identifiable. • Need of identification systems – perhaps many • Identification also needed in networking (discussed later)
    • 13. PatternsinInformationTechnology 13 Identity of features <gml:featureMember> <AX_Flurstueck gml:id="DEBWL0010001UiIg"> <gml:identifier codeSpace="http://www.adv-online.de/">urn:adv:oid:DEBWL0010001UiIg</gml:identifier> <zeigtAufExternes> <AA_Fachdatenverbindung> <art>urn:bw:fdv:1000</art> <fachdatenobjekt> <AA_Fachdatenobjekt><name>0680199400016V</name></AA_Fachdatenobjekt> … <position> <gml:Surface srsName="urn:adv:crs:DE_DHDN_3GK3_BW100" gml:id="Y33"> … <gml:Curve gml:id="Y34"> <gml:segments> <gml:LineStringSegment> <gml:posList>515748.750 5454798.050 515758.590 5454780.310</gml:posList> </gml:LineStringSegment> </gml:segments> … </gml:polygonPatches> </gml:Surface> </position> <gemarkung> <AX_Gemarkung_Schluessel> <land>08</land> <gemarkungsnummer>680</gemarkungsnummer> </AX_Gemarkung_Schluessel> … <flurstueckskennzeichen>08068000300592____00</flurstueckskennzeichen> <amtlicheFlaeche uom="urn:adv:uom:m2">290.00</amtlicheFlaeche>cou
    • 14. PatternsinInformationTechnology 14 Encoding Data
    • 15. PatternsinInformationTechnology 15 Encoding Data Principle of MarkUp • Markup Language • Definition of structural elements for data • Strict syntax End-TagElement contentStart tag with attribute Element name Attribute name Attribute value <person city="Karlsruhe">Franz-Josef Behr</person> eXtensible
    • 16. PatternsinInformationTechnology 16 Encoding Data Markup Languages: XML After:http://wwbota.free.fr/Samples/parsing.htm • You can have your won Markup Language • It‘s understandable for human beings and for computer programs
    • 17. PatternsinInformationTechnology 17 <georss:where> <gml:Point> <gml:pos>48.947534 8.482132</gml:pos> </gml:Point> </georss:where> <georss:where> <gml:Point> <gml:pos>48.947534 8.482132</gml:pos> </gml:Point> </georss:where> <georss:point>48.947534 8.482132</georss:point><georss:point>48.947534 8.482132</georss:point> <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> <kml> <Placemark> <name>48° 56' 51.120623'' N, 8° 28' 55.675049' E</name> <description></description> <Point> <coordinates>8.482132, 48.947534, 0</coordinates> </Point> </Placemark> </kml> <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> <kml> <Placemark> <name>48° 56' 51.120623'' N, 8° 28' 55.675049' E</name> <description></description> <Point> <coordinates>8.482132, 48.947534, 0</coordinates> </Point> </Placemark> </kml> <geo:Point> <geo:lat>48.947534</geo:lat> <geo:long>8.482132</geo:long> </geo:Point> <geo:Point> <geo:lat>48.947534</geo:lat> <geo:long>8.482132</geo:long> </geo:Point> Ambiguity of names in different XML DialectsAmbiguity of names in different XML Dialects W3C Geo KML GeoRSS (GML) GeoRSS (simple)
    • 18. PatternsinInformationTechnology 18 Solution: Structuring vocabularies by namespaces In programming languages (here: Java) In XML In Database technology: context for database names Source: ISO 19101, ISO 19115
    • 19. PatternsinInformationTechnology 19 Key value pairs https://www.car2go.com/api/v2.1/vehicles? loc=stuttgart&oauth_consumer_key=car2gowebsite&format=json&callbac k=jQuery17108792290978299311_1369324710467&_=1369324710759 In URLs to identify resources in JSON
    • 20. PatternsinInformationTechnology 20 Separating information chunks http://www.gis-news.de/cgi-bin/mapserv.exe? img.x=348&img.y=318&zoomdir=1&zoomsize=2&layer=city&layer=mot orway&layer=Europe&imgext=4.296614+49.186302+7.284114+52.1749 38&imgxy=274.5+274.5 http://www.gis-news.de/cgi-bin/mapserv.exe? img.x=348&img.y=318&zoomdir=1&zoomsize=2&layer=city&layer=mot orway&layer=Europe&imgext=4.296614+49.186302+7.284114+52.1749 38&imgxy=274.5+274.5 In URLs to identify resources: In GML encodings: ?
    • 21. PatternsinInformationTechnology 21 Separators have to be defined: Decimal separator (.)Decimal separator (.) coordinate separator (,)coordinate separator (,) tuple separator (space)tuple separator (space)
    • 22. PatternsinInformationTechnology 22 Source Data Standards Open
    • 23. PatternsinInformationTechnology 23 Open agenda is now implemented by the UK Government and delivering huge cost savings for government £409 million in the first half of this year Read on: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-bodies-must-comply-with-open-standards- principles
    • 24. PatternsinInformationTechnology 24 EU Digital Agenda and Open Data Source: http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/blog/eu-open-data-portal-here [2014-06-21]
    • 25. PatternsinInformationTechnology 25 Source Data Standards Open Openess • Data must be complete. • Data must be primary. • Data must be timely. • Data must be accessible. • Data must be machine-processable. • Access must be non-discriminatory. • Data formats must be non-proprietary. • Data must be under an open license or license free. • Data must have permanence and be findable over time. • Usage costs must be affordable (de minimis).
    • 26. PatternsinInformationTechnology 26 Standards
    • 27. PatternsinInformationTechnology 27 Organisations and their dependencies Establish definition of and terms of engagement in *SDI ISO TC 211 TC 204 JTC-1 National Standards Organizations Provide expertise & candidate stds. Review & approve stds. Adopter/ Implementer Community Adopter/ Implementer Community OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Facilitation Bodies • GSDI • ANZLIC • PCGIAP • FGDC • PC-IDEA • INSPIRE • GeoConnections • CODI/UNECA • AGI • … W3C: HTTP, PNG, RDF, SOAP/XMLP (Web Services Activity), XML, Xlink, Xpath, Xpointer, XSL/XSLT, XML Schema OGC: Web Map Server, Web Feature Server, GML, Web Coverage Server, Style Layer Descriptor, Catalog Service ISO: Ref Model, Terminology, Conformance testing, Profiles, Spatial Schema, Temporal Schema, Feature Cataloguing Methodology, Spatial Ref by Coords and Ids, Quality, Metadata, WMS, GML, LBS, Registration of Geo-information Items Metadata Profile, Data Content Standards, etc. Class A liaison XML Protocol (XMLP), XML Signature, I18N Class C Liaison: XML, I18N Modified after: http://www.fgdc.gov/library/presentations/documents/2003- presentations/GIS_Standards_Rockies1003.ppt [2013-05-31] • ISPRS • ICA •… • ASPRS • DGPF • local chapters •…
    • 28. PatternsinInformationTechnology 28 Sharing Interoperability
    • 29. PatternsinInformationTechnology 29 Networking and Service Orientation Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Social_Network_Analysis_Visualization.png GIS = High Complexity = Empowering a Few Web Services: Simplicity = Empowering a Billion
    • 30. PatternsinInformationTechnology 30 Networking • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). URIs can be: – Locations / adresses: Uniform Resource Locator (URL) , [RFC2396] – Names: Uniform Resource Name (URN) [RFC 1737, RFC 2141, RFC 3061] – IP-Adresses (IPv4, IPv6) <gml:Point srsname=“urn:adv:crs:ETRS89_UTM32“> <gml:coordinates>369949.671 5615301.383</gml:coordinates> </gml:Point> http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI
    • 31. PatternsinInformationTechnology 31 Web Gis Architecture Internet HTTP Webserver HTTP CGI protocol Document root Static resources Server side programs Dynamic Generation of resources Client "User Agent" PNG, JPG, … XML / SVG DBMS Server Data preparation, analysis SQL Presentation Tier Data Tier Communication Tier, Web Tier Application Tier, Business Logic Tier Application Server IP address / Server Name / Host nameIP address DNS Server 80 HTTP-Client HTTP-Client HTTP-Client Local GIS 80 Communication TierCommunication Tier Application TierApplication Tier Data TierData Tier Presentation TierPresentation Tier
    • 32. PatternsinInformationTechnology 32 Internet HTTP Webserver HTTP CGI protocol Document root Static resources Server side programs Dynamic Generation of resources Client "User Agent" PNG, JPG, … XML / SVG DBMS Server Data preparation, analysis SQL Presentation Tier Data Tier Communication Tier, Web Tier Application Tier, Business Logic Tier Application Server IP address / Server Name / Host nameIP address DNS Server 80 HTTP-Client HTTP-Client HTTP-Client Local GIS 80 Architecture: The protocols HTTP RFC 2616 HTTP RFC 2616 CGI RFC 3875 CGI RFC 3875 SQL ISO/IEC 9075 SQL ISO/IEC 9075 XML w3.org/XML/ XML w3.org/XML/ Content-Type RFC 2045 Content-Type RFC 2045 URI RFC 1630 URI RFC 1630
    • 33. PatternsinInformationTechnology 33 Publish-Find-Bind-Pattern Client Web Service Offer Service Registry Catalogue publish „bind“ = "cosuming" the service Find = "discover" OGC GetCapabilities, WSDL OGC Web Catalogue Service, UDDI, Discovery Service Service Comsumer, OpenLayers View Services, Download Services, …
    • 34. PatternsinInformationTechnology 34 Summary / Outlook • Several observable patterns in ICT were shown. • Try to figure out ALWAYS the design pattern in information technology applicable for YOUR filed of work. • Take care of standards. • Be open regarding data, services, collaboration – be interoperable.

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