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“A Study on various techniques of motivation of employees”
 

“A Study on various techniques of motivation of employees”

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Motivating employees can be one of biggest challenges as an employer, but learning how to inspire each individual is the key to a successful organization.

Motivating employees can be one of biggest challenges as an employer, but learning how to inspire each individual is the key to a successful organization.

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    “A Study on various techniques of motivation of employees” “A Study on various techniques of motivation of employees” Document Transcript

    • ID#5539 “A Study on various techniques of motivation of employees” Faiza Rehman MBA-5 7/15/2013 Motivating employees can be one of biggest challenges as an employer, but learning how to inspire each individual is the key to a successful organization. Final Project
    • “A Study on various techniques of motivation of employees” 1. Introduction This project entitled as “A Study on various techniques of motivation of employees” was done to find out the factors which will motivate the employees. The study undertakes various efforts to analyze all of them in great details. From the study, the study was able to find some of the important factors which motivate the employees. Factors like financial incentives and non financial incentive, performance appraisal system, good relationship with employees; promotional opportunities in the present job, employee participation in decision making are very much effect the level employee motivation. It is also clear from the study that the company is so eager in motivating their employees and their present effort for it so far effective. The human resources can play an important role in the realization of the objectives. Employees work in the organization for the satisfaction of their needs. If the human resources are not properly motivated, the management will not be able to accomplish the desired results. Therefore, human resources should be managed with utmost care to inspire, encourage and impel them to contribute their maximum for the achievement of the business objectives. Motivating employees can be one of biggest challenges as an employer, but learning how to inspire each individual is the key to a successful organization. Unless you know your workers' differences, the music they make together may sound more like a cacophony than a symphony. According to Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, a motive is “something a need or desire that causes a person to act”. “Motivate, in turn, means “to provide with a motive,” and motivation is defined as “the act or process of motivating”. Consequently, motivation is the performance or procedure of presenting an intention that origin a person to capture some accomplishment (Shanks.N. H.).Motivation is derived from the word “motivate”, means to move, push or influence to proceed for fulfilling a want (Kalimullah et al, 2010). 2. Broader Problem Area Motivation is a power that strengthens behavior, gives route to behavior, and triggers the tendency to continue (Farhad et al, 2011). Motivation is a procedure that initiates through a physiological or psychological want that stimulates a performance that is intended at an objective. It is the concluding product of interface among personality behavior and organizational distinctiveness (IRCO). It symbolizes those psychological procedures that foundations the stimulation, route, and determination of deliberate actions that are target oriented (Farhad et al, 2011). Also motivation is a progression of moving and supporting goal-directed behavior (Chowdhury.M.S, 2007). It is an internal strength that drives individuals to pull off personal and organizational goals (Reena et al, 2009).Motivation is a set of courses concerned with a kid of strength that boosts performance and directs towards accomplishing some definite targets (Kalimullah et al, 2010).The motivation of an individual envelops all the motives for which he selects to operate in a definite approach (Lefter et al,2008). In fact motivation is “inside another person’s head and heart” (Khadim et al,2009).
    • 3. Research Objective This document aims at providing employees and management members with the information that can be beneficial both personally and professionally. Every business enterprise has multiple objectives including of adequate profit for payment of a reasonable rate of return to the owners and for investment in business through satisfaction of customers, maintenance of a contended workforce and creation of a public image. The basic job of management of any business is the effective utilization of available human resources, technological, financial and physical resources for the achievement of the business objectives. 4. Research Question a. What are the factors influence employee motivations in the organization? b. Does employee motivation influence the organizations success? c. Does motivated employees give efficient results and are more developed? 5. Significance of Research The answer to "Why is employee motivation important?" is because in today's down economy, it's more important than ever to have a motivated workforce. That's because a motivated employee is a productive employee. And a productive employee is a more profitable employee. See how that works? When people aren't motivated, they become less productive, less creative, less of an asset to your company. Now more than ever, we need motivated employees. Again remember that main answer to why is employee motivation important is so you can stay in business. Therefore, before you can understand why employee motivation is important you must understand what motivates them individually. Different people are motivated by different things: money, success, recognition, popularity, status, career development, health, balance, and learning. Use this list as a starting point to develop your own "motivational" list, and ask each of your employees to check the things that are important to them. Once they do this, sit down with each employee to discuss her motivational factors and design a reward program that is specific to her individual psyche. 6. Literature Review 6.1 Motivation According to Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, a motive is “something a need or desire that causes a person to act”. “Motivate, in turn, means “to provide with a motive,” and motivation is defined as “the act or process of motivating”. Consequently, motivation is the performance or procedure of presenting an intention that origin a person to capture some accomplishment (Shanks.N. H.).Motivation is derived from the word “motivate”, means to move, push or influence to proceed for fulfilling a want (Kalimullah et al, 2010). Motivation is a procedure that initiates through a physiological or psychological want that stimulates a performance that is intended at an objective. It is the concluding product of interface among personality behavior and organizational distinctiveness (IRCO). It symbolizes those
    • psychological procedures that foundations the stimulation, route, and determination of deliberate actions that are target oriented (Farhad et al, 2011). Also motivation is a progression of moving and supporting goal-directed behavior (Chowdhury.M.S, 2007). It is an internal strength that drives individuals to pull off personal and organizational goals (Reena et al, 2009).Motivation is a set of courses concerned with a kid of strength that boosts performance and directs towards accomplishing some definite targets (Kalimullah et al, 2010).The motivation of an individual envelops all the motives for which he selects to operate in a definite approach (Lefter et al,2008). In fact motivation is “inside another person’s head and heart” (Khadim et al,2009). 6.2 Employee Motivation Among financial, economic and human resources, the latest is more essential and has the capability to endow a company with competitive edge as compared to others (Rizwan et al, 2010). Employee Performance fundamentally depend on many factors like performance appraisals, employee motivation, Employee satisfaction, compensation, Training and development, job security, Organizational structure and other, but the area of study is focused only on employee motivation as this factor highly influence the performance of employees. Employee motivation is one of the policies of managers to increase effectual job management amongst employees in organizations (Shadare et al, 2009). A motivated employee is responsive of the definite goals and objectives he/she must achieve, therefore he/she directs its efforts in that direction. Motivation formulates an organization more successful because provoked employees are constantly looking for improved practices to do a work, so it is essential for organizations to persuade motivation of their employees (Kalimullah et al, 2010). Getting employees to do their best work even in strenuous circumstances, is one of the employees most stable and greasy challenges and this can be made possible through motivating them. 6.3 Organizational Effectiveness Composition of people which formulate independent business identity for some specific purpose is commonly known as organization and getting desired outcome within defined resources is treated as effectiveness. Organizational effectiveness is the notion of how effectual an organization is in accomplishing the results the organization aims to generate (Muhammad, et al, 2011). It plays an important role in accelerating organizational development (Bulent et al, 2009). 6.4 Rewards No one works for free, nor should they. Employees want to earn reasonable salary and payment, and employees desire their workers to feel that is what they are getting (Houran. J). Money is the fundamental inducement, no other incentive or motivational technique comes even close to it with respect to its influential value (Sara etal, 2007). It has the supremacy to magnetize, maintain and motivate individuals towards higher performance. Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate described money as the most fundamental factor in motivating the industrial workers to attain greater productivity (Adeyinka et al, 2007). Research has suggested that reward now cause satisfaction of the employee which directly influences performance of the employee (Kalimullah et al, 2010). Rewards are management tools
    • that hopefully contribute to firm’s effectiveness by influencing individual or group behavior. All businesses use pay, promotion, bonuses or other types of rewards to motivate and encourage high level performances of employees (Reena et al, 2009). To use salaries as a motivator effectively, managers must consider salary structures which should include importance organization attach to each job, payment according to performance, personal or special allowances, fringe benefits, pensions and so on (Adeyinka et al, 2007). 6.5 Leadership Leadership is about getting things done the right way, to do that you need people to follow you, you need to have them trust you. And if you want them to trust you and do things for you and the organization, they need to be motivated. Theories imply that leader and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation (Rukhmani.K, 2010).Motivation is purely and simply a leadership behavior. It stems from wanting to do what is right for people as well as for the organization. Leadership and motivation are active processes (Baldoni.J, 2008). 6.6 Empowerment Empowerment provides benefits to organizations and makes sense of belonging and pride in the workforce. In fact, it builds a Win - Win connection among organizations and employees; which is considered an ideal environment in numerous organizations and their employees. Empowering can flourish virtual human capacities. Empowered employees focus their job and work-life with additional importance and this leads to constant progress in coordination and work procedures. Employees execute their finest novelties and thoughts with the sense of belonging, enthusiasm, and delight, in empowered organizations. Adding up, they work with a sense of responsibility and prefer benefits of the organization to theirs (Yazdani,B.O. et al, 2011). 6.7 Trust Trust is defined as the perception of one about others, decision to act based on speech, behavior and their decision (Hassan et al, 2010). If an organization wants to improve and be successful, trust plays a significant role so it should always be preserved to ensure an organizations existence and to enhance employees’ motivation (Annamalai.T, 2010). It can make intrapersonal and interpersonal effects and influence on the relations inside and out the organization (Hassan et al, 2010). No matter how automated an organization may be, high productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness of the workforce so staff training is an indispensible strategy for motivating workers. One way managers can instigate motivation is to give appropriate information on the sentences of their actions on others (Adeyinka et al, 2007). 7. Research Question 1. Is there any association between organizational development and employee motivation?
    • 2. Is there any association between Leadership and employee motivation? 3. Is there any association between Rewards and employee motivation? 4. Is there any association between Trust and employee motivation? 5. Is there any association between Training and development and employee motivation? 6. Is there any association between Empowerment and employee motivation? 7. Is there any association between working environment and employee motivation? 8. Hypothesis 1. Ho: There is no association between organizational development and employee motivation. Ha: There is an association between organizational development and employee motivation. 1. Ho: There is no association between leadership and employee motivation. Ha: There is an association between leadership and employee motivation. 2. Ho: There is no association between Rewards and employee motivation. Ha: There is an association between Rewards and employee motivation. 3. Ho: There is no association between Trust and employee motivation. Hn: There is an association between Trust and employee motivation. 4. Ho: There is no association between Empowerment and employee motivation. Hn: There is an association between Empowerment and employee motivation. 5. Ho: There is no association between working Environment and employee motivation.
    • Hn: There is an association between working Environment and employee motivation. 9. Methods of the Study I reviewed only empirical work published in English language journals. I apologize if I have omitted Empirical work that should appear. However, I am confident that I have captured the available thrust of Motivation work during this time period. The data used in this study were based off of responses to a questionnaire and issued to 50 employees of the company. The questionnaire was split into four separate parts. Part I consisted of basic demographical questions that helped to analyze the data based on segments after the questionnaire was returned. Part II asked respondents to rank eight incentives from 1 to 7 based on how motivated they were by each factor. We asked respondents to rank a series of the statements from 1 to 7 based on their level of agreement (strongly disagree to strongly agree). The statements dealt with management styles in the workplace, incentives offered, employee satisfaction, and various motivating factors. It also included questions that asked respondents to choose the most appropriate answer based on their feelings about the effectiveness of communication in the workplace, how important they are to the company, how important their work is, and how motivated they are at their current position. 10. Data sources Step one was a broad scope of the literature using electronic databases and these search terms: Motivation AND employees, motivation AND organization, motivation AND work. The scope was limited to peer reviewed journal articles published in English between2007 and 2013. Databases included Science Direct, Emerald Insight, Scopus, The ACM Digital Library, EBSCOhost Databases, IEEE Xplore, ProQuest, Business and PsychInfo. This review focuses on published papers. 11. Inclusion and exclusion Articles were screened with an overall goal of finding a group of articles that focused specifically on Work motivation. Editorial, opinion, theoretical and qualitative and quantitative studies were included in this review. Articles focus specifically on motivation and job characteristics, motivation and employee characteristics, motivation and management practices. 12. Screening A three-step screening process was used to obtain the final sample of articles. Step one was a broad search of the literature to identify abstracts that met the inclusion criteria. Titles and abstracts were printed, duplicates were eliminated and the remaining abstracts were screened using the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Full articles from the retained abstracts were printed and read carefully to further establish if they met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. 13. Data analysis Authors concur that a gold standard for completing integrative review data analysis does not exist (Connet al., 2003; Kirkevold, 1997; Whittemore and Knafl, 2009). The goal of this data analysis was to determine the state of knowledge related to work motivation within this sample. To accomplish this goal we sought to determine patterns, directions, similarities and differences among the articles within the sample. Using a framework developed by Whittemore and Knafl
    • (2008) as a guide, retained articles were read three times to determine the quality of the writing, to reduce and compare data within the articles and to analyze and synthesize themes and patterns within the literature sample. The quality of each group of articles (theoretical/editorial/opinion/research based) was assessed using screening assessment tools adapted by the authors for this review. Research articles’ quality was based on design, sample characteristics, measurement, statistical analysis and relevance to knowledge development(Kirkevold, 1997; Whittemore and Knafl, 2005; Whittemore, 2009). 14. Methodology SPSS version 17 statistical package is used to analyze the questionnaire data. Initially, the Cronbach’s alpha is used to test validity and reliability of employee motivation and customer satisfaction. Later, Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis is used to test the relationship between employee motivation (independent variable) and customer satisfaction (dependent variable) respectively. This techniques is also repeated to test influence of four components of employee motivation i.e. work environment, pay and benefit, management system and organizational vision (independent variable) on customer satisfaction (dependent variable). 15. Correlation Analysis
    • Correlations AVG_A_EM AVG_B_OE AVG_C_R AVG_D_l AVG_E_E AVG_F_T AVG_A_EM Pearson Correlation 1 .678** .718** .971** .676** .695** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 N 50 50 50 50 50 50 AVG_B_OE Pearson Correlation .678** 1 .675** .649** .672** .819** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 N 50 50 50 50 50 50 AVG_C_R Pearson Correlation .718** .675** 1 .685** .616** .650** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 N 50 50 50 50 50 50 AVG_D_l Pearson Correlation .971** .649** .685** 1 .643** .675** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 N 50 50 50 50 50 50 AVG_E_E Pearson Correlation .676** .672** .616** .643** 1 .713** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 N 50 50 50 50 50 50 AVG_F_T Pearson Correlation .695** .819** .650** .675** .713** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 N 50 50 50 50 50 50 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Correlation Ranges O - 0.49 0.50 - 0.79 0.80 - 1 15.1 Employee Motivation and Organizational Effectiveness Employee satisfaction and motivation towards work refers to prospects of the employee about the organization and his approaches frontward his service (Ali et al, 2011).Organizational effectiveness refers to locating targets and attaining them proficiently in spirited and energetic surroundings (Constant.D, 2001). A study was done to examine the relationship of organizational effectiveness and employee performance and motivation in the telecommunication and banking sector of Pakistan. A sample of 103 respondents was taken and Pearson correlation was applied. The results showed that there
    • exists significant positive correlation (0.287) between employee motivation and organizational effectiveness (Muhammad et al, 2011). The autocratic leadership styles, mechanistic design of organization and authoritarian rules as practiced in African organizations, are all where decision making is concerned only to top management and employees are just given orders to accomplish different tasks. In these types of organizational environment the employees may suppress innovativeness and their motivation hinders which has a direct negative effect on organizational performance, growth and effectiveness (Constant.D. et al, 2001). An internally satisfied, delighted and motivated worker or employee is actually a productive employee in an organization which contributes in efficiency and effectiveness of organization which leads to maximization of profits (Matthew.J. et al, 2009). Thus from the literature and various studies the third hypothesis is fully supported that there exists a positive relationship between employee motivation and organizational. In terms of level about organizational effectiveness in companies, the study found that out of sample of 50 employees Empowerment factor to be rated on the scale “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree”, 20 of the respondents perceived the pay and promotion to be “Agree “and 11 respondents perceived Empowerment to be “somewhat Agree”. Only a few 3 and 5 of the respondents rated the pay and promotion as “Disagree”. At last, the Correlation score is 0.678, so the organizational effectiveness is “somewhat Agree”. According to a Correlation score of 0.678, we can see that Trust Strongly influences Employee motivation in companies. The P value is .000 which is less than 0.01 which shows the significant relationship between dependent and independent variable. 15.2 Empowerment and Employee Motivation Employee empowerment and participation consists of contribution of employees in administration and decision making associated to policies, objectives and strategies of the organization. According to Chao et al. (1994), employees’ perceptive of the goals, standards and political principles of their firms were positively and significantly related to employee motivation and gratification towards work (Reena et al, 2009). Empowerment results in motivating employees that leads to constant expansion and organizational growth (Smith, B, 1997, Reena et al, 2009). Empowerment directs faster decision of customer troubles for the reason that employees did not dissipate time referring customer objections to managers. Increased autonomy enhances work productivity, amplifies employees’ wisdom of self-efficacy and their motivation to get upon and complete certain tasks (Mani, V, 2010). According to Brewer et al. (2009), managers should regard employees in decision-making procedures. Bhatti and Qureshi (2007) propose that employee participation in organization measures develop motivation and job-satisfaction level (Reena et al, 2009). Sanderson (2003) believed that empowerment creates motivation and energy in workforce to do their work efficiently and effectively (Amin. et al, 2010). Kuo et al. (2010) recommended that together the job characteristics of career revamp and employee empowerment are imperative characteristics in giving greater employee dedication and trustworthiness toward the organization and increased level of motivation (Reena et al, 2009). More the loyalty towards the organization and higher the motivation works best for the effectiveness and growth of a business.
    • Neuman (1989), Reena et al, (2009) judges participative decision making as a set of planned procedures for systematizing individual sovereignty and autonomy in the perspective of faction accountability and associated to system-wide control. Employee participation and empowerment not only direct to efficiency, effectiveness and innovation but they also boost employee gratification, work motivation and trust in the organization (Constant.D, 2001). John Baldoni in his book ‘Great motivation Secrets of Great Leaders’, has discussed that empowerment and recognition encourages and motivates people to work. He elaborates it that empowerment grants people with responsibility and authority to act as it puts people in control of their own destinies Also he wrote that its fundamental to our humanity that everyone needs to be recognized about how and what work they have done and next time they do it more efficiently for the sake of more recognition (John, B, 2005). Iberman(1995) summarizes Rules for success in which he gave much importance to employee involvement and empowerment in decision making and task completion as according to him it increases commitment and understanding (Matthew et al, 2005). The above literature and studies fully supports the second hypothesis that empowering employees increases their motivation towards work. . In terms of level about Recognition in companies, the study found that out of sample of 50 employees Empowerment factor to be rated on the scale “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree”, 20 of the respondents perceived the pay and promotion to be “Agree “and 11 respondents perceived Empowerment to be “somewhat Agree”. Only a few 3 and 5 of the respondents rated the pay and promotion as “Disagree”. At last, the Correlation score is 0.676, so the pay and promotion is “somewhat Agree”. According to a Correlation score of 0.676, we can see that Trust Strongly influences Employee motivation in companies. The P value is .000 which is less than 0.01 which shows the significant relationship between dependent and independent variable. 15.3 Leadership According to (Bennis, 1989; Block, 1987; Kanter, 1977; Kanter, 1979; Kanter, 1989; McClelland, 2007) approach to leadership that empowers subordinate as a main constituent of managerial and organizational effectiveness (Honold,L, 2007). Bowen & Lawler (1992) expressed empowerment as a site to permit employees to formulate decisions (Amin et al, 2010). Empowering is giving authority and liberating potential of employees. The main driving force of empowerment is having larger control over ‘how’ jobs are done and carried for more growth and productivity (Smith, B, 2007). It is the study of internal organization power and control which illustrated that the distribution of power and control enhances organizational effectiveness (Honold,L, 2007). Rappaport (1987) defined empowerment process as mastering on problems of organizations by people, organizations and societies (Amin et al, 2010). Empowering makes employees feel that they are appreciated and for making it possible continuous and positive feedback on their performance is essential (Amin et al, 2010). For victorious appliance of empowerment it is essential for an individual to do efforts and take actions in an environment where they are responsible for what they are doing (Amin et al, 2010). Employee contribution and their energetic participation in configuringup the organization are tremendously essential to the hale and hearty place of work (Matthew.J, 2009). In terms of level about Leadership in companies, the study found that out of sample of 50 employees Leadership factor to be rated on the scale “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree”,
    • 20 of the respondents perceived the pay and promotion to be “Agree “and 21 respondents perceived pay and promotion to be “somewhat Agree”. Only a few 4 and 5 of the respondents rated Leadership as “Strongly Agree”. At last, the mean score is 0.971, so the pay and promotion is “somewhat Agree”. According to a Correlation score of 0.971, we can see that Trust Strongly influences Employee motivation in companies. The P value is .000 which is less than 0.01 which shows the significant relationship between dependent and independent variable. 15.4 Rewards and Employee Motivation According to Maurer (2009) rewards and recognition are essential factors in enhancing employee job satisfaction and work motivation which is directly associated to organizational achievement (Jun et al., 2008).Kalimullah Khan conducted a study in which he examined the relationship between rewards and employee motivation in commercial banks of Pakistan. The study focused on four types of rewards of which one was recognition which he tested through Pearson correlation. The results showed that recognition correlates significantly (0.65) with employee work motivation (Kalimullah et al, 2010). The results showed that there exists a significant (r=0.13, p<0.05) relationship between recognition and employee work motivation (Rizwan et al, 2010). The P value is .000 which is less than 0.01 which shows the significant relationship between dependent and independent variable. An empirical study was conducted by Reena Ali to examine the impact of reward and recognition programs on employee motivation and satisfaction. A questionnaire was distributed to 80 employees of Unilever and data was analyzed through SPSS version 16. The results showed that there is a statistically significant (r=0.92,p<0.01) direct and positive relation between recognition and employee work motivation (Reena et al, 2009). A study was conducted in Pakistan to examine the job satisfaction among bank employees in Punjab. A structured questionnaire survey was used and data was gathered from 4 bank’s employees. The value of correlation coefficient for recognition was 0.251 which shows that its relationship with job satisfaction is positive. Job satisfaction is directly associated with internal work motivation of employees that enhances as the satisfaction of employees increases (Salman et al, 2010). That is why a study says that deficiency of appropriate recognition and rewarding reduces employees work motivation and job satisfaction. Hence, administration of organizations and institutions should build up the arrangement for giving that rewards and recognition to enhance employee job satisfaction and motivational level (Reena et al, 2009). The above literature, studies and discussion fully supports first hypothesis that recognizing employees work increases their motivation to accomplish tasks and execute responsibilities towards them by the organization. In terms of level about Rewards in companies, the study found that out of sample of 50 employees Trust factor to be rated on the scale “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree”, 30 of the respondents perceived the pay and promotion to be “Agree “and 11 respondents perceived pay and promotion to be “somewhat Agree”. Only a few 3 and 5 of the respondents rated Trust as “Strongly Disagree”. At last, the mean score is 0.718, so the pay and promotion is “somewhat Agree”. According to a Correlation score of 0.718, we can see that Trust Strongly influences Employee motivation in companies. 15.5 Trust In terms of level on pay back in companies, the study found that 50 Trust to be “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree”, 21 of the respondents perceived the pay and promotion to be
    • “Agree “and 21 respondents perceived pay and promotion to be “somewhat Agree”. Only a few 4 and 5 of the respondents rated the pay and promotion as “Strongly Agree”. At last, the Correlation score is 0.695, so the pay and promotion is “somewhat Agree”. According to a Correlation score of 0.695, we can see that Trust influences Employee motivation in companies. The P value is .000 which is less than 0.01 which shows the significant relationship between dependent and independent variable. 16. Regression Analysis Model Summary Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .975a .950 .945 .25907 a. Predictors: (Constant), AVG_F_T, AVG_C_R, AVG_E_E, AVG_D_l, AVG_B_OE The combined coefficient of correlation, r =0.975 explaining strong relationship between IVS+DV .Coefficient of determination R square =0.950 *100 =95.0% .Means the four independent variables explain roughly .95.0% of variance in dependent variable i.e.Employee Motivation. ANNOVA: ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 56.401 5 11.280 168.063 .000a Residual 2.953 44 .067 Total 59.354 49 a. Predictors: (Constant), AVG_F_T, AVG_C_R, AVG_E_E, AVG_D_l, AVG_B_OE b. Dependent Variable: AVG_A_EM Overall, our linear model is valid, i.e. F-test of anova output, P-value is less than 0.01. 17. Coefficients
    • Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) -.384 .268 -1.432 .159 AVG_B_OE .035 .073 .030 .479 .635 AVG_C_R .080 .060 .069 1.339 .187 AVG_D_l .893 .054 .868 16.665 .000 AVG_E_E .061 .057 .054 1.054 .298 AVG_F_T .001 .087 .001 .016 .987 a. Dependent Variable: AVG_A_EM Y=a+bx Y= -.384+.035x1+ .080x2 +.893x4 + .061x5+.001x6 According to this table only one independent variable is significant i.e. Leadership and the others are insignificant. 18. Conclusion Employee job satisfaction can improve service quality and increase employee satisfaction. In this circumstance, policy makers and managers have turned their attention to provide different kinds of facilities to their employees in order to satisfy their employees. This study tested factors affecting job satisfaction for pharmaceuticals companies. The results suggest that the factors had satisfactorily explained job satisfaction and that the policy makers and managers should focus on the factors that affect employee job satisfaction, if they want to enhance their businesses. Based on the results for the standardized values, we are able to see that work conditions, fairness, promotion, and pay, are key factors affecting pharmaceuticals companies employees’ job satisfaction. Money is a good motivator, actually all employees’ work for money, employees need the money, a good salary and good compensations are key factors in satisfying the employee. We can increase the employee salary and compensation to motivate the employee, the good pay back can be one of the key factors affecting job satisfaction, also in this way one can increase the service quality and organizational performance. The factor of work conditions is also proven to have significant influence over the pharmaceuticals companies. The physical design of the place does have certain impacts on job satisfaction. Because the work conditions in the pharmaceuticals companies include the employee relationships and work environment, all these factors relate to employee job satisfaction. A good work environment and good work conditions can increase employee job satisfaction and the employees will try to give their best which can increase the employee work performance. The importance and the need is therefore describing or defining the physical environment by identifying those elements or dimensions that make up the physical environment. Therefore, in the questionnaires several elements have been defined such as cleanliness, lighting, noise, and furniture arrangements. These elements are the determinant of whether it affects employee’s satisfaction. In pharmaceuticals companies, the employees hope they all receive equal treatment with respect to pay or promotion. If pharmaceuticals companies
    • create a fair competitive environment, like fair treatment, fair compensation, fair work hours, these will improve employee job attitudes; fairness can also motivate employees to be hard working. After this consideration, we can see that fairness can increase employee job satisfaction; satisfied employees offer good services for the organization. This can increase organizational performance, so fairness is a key factor affecting job satisfaction in pharmaceuticals companies. In pharmaceuticals companies job security as an aspect of job satisfaction was more important to male employees than to female employees. Employees from medium- and large-staff-sized organizations, compared with those from small staff-sized organizations, were more likely to cite job security as a very important contributor to their job satisfaction. 19. Recommendation Opportunities for future study have emerged as a result of this study. In addition to overcoming the limitations of data gathering, additional research is needed to observe the relationships between Employee satisfaction and organizational effectiveness, Trust, Recognition, job security, relationship with supervisor and co-workers. The limitations have contributed to the lack of arriving at many strongly statistically proven findings and conclusions. For future research the following suggestions should be considered: 1. It is suggested that for future research a proportionate stratified random sample be used to compare several public sector institutions using a larger sample. 2. The research is needed to further investigate the potential relationships and affects these variables and other extraneous variables, such as role ambiguity, job level, contingent rewards and co-work have on job satisfaction. 3. Qualitative investigators must conduct research regarding the job satisfaction of pharmaceuticals companies. This research method will provide a different perspective of employees, job satisfaction and contribute a more in-depth understanding of how employees view their job. 4. Create favorable work conditions for the company. Guide the employee to communicate effectively, build a good interpersonal environment within the company, in order to create good work conditions. 5. To improve the pay treatment of pharmaceuticals companies employees. Pharmaceuticals companies should improve the overall salary packages of employees; on the other hand, two shifts or three shifts is a way to reduce the workload of employees. 6. To improve fairness in pharmaceuticals companies, create a scientific performance appraisal system in the organization. Utilize the other developed countries’ scientific performance systems, and use these systems to evaluate employee work performance and evaluate employee service quality. 7. Ensure rightsizing strategy within the organization where have shortage of employees and train- up them appropriately for future positions.
    • Questionnaire for Employee motivation NOTE: Completing this survey is voluntary. Your answers may help determine methods to reward and recognize for your motivation. DEAR EMPLOYEE: This questionnaire aims at analyzing and assessing your organization‘s employee motivation factors. This survey is purely conducted for academic purpose. The responses to this questionnaire will be kept strictly confidential. INTRODUCTION: The study undertakes various efforts to analyze all of them in great details. From the study, the studies we will able to find some of the important factors which motivate the employees. Factors like financial incentives and non financial incentive, performance appraisal system, good relationship with employees; promotional opportunities in the present job, employee participation in decision making are very much effect the level employee motivation. Part A-Employee Profile 1. Name of the employee:______________________. 2. Since how many years you have been working in this organization? a. 0-5 Years b. 5-10 Years c. 10-15 Years d. More than 15 Years 3. What department do you work in? (Optional) _____________________________ 4. To which management level do you belong? a. Entry level b. Officer c. Management d. Senior Management level Part C, Responses for main variables of research
    • These are answered by circling the number that best characterizes the situation in your organization. Questions containing a statement by 1- 7 point, For example Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) The questionnaire is divided into the following segments: 1. Employee Motivation I. I put my best effort in the workplace to perfume the given tasks during job. II. Our Management is really interested in motivating the employees. III. Rate the statement “Top Management is interested in motivating the employees”. 2. Organizational Effectiveness I. Job security exists in the company. II. Effective promotional opportunities are provided on equal basis in the organization. III. Performance appraisal activities are helpful to get motivated. 3. Rewards I. I think that the incentives and other benefits influence my performance at work.
    • II. I m satisfied with the incentives provided by the Organization. III. Do you think non-cash rewards (i.e. gifts from the company, extra vacation time, tickets to an amusement park, etc.) can be effective in motivating employees to be more productive? 4. Leadership I. I am satisfied with the support from Leaders/managers. II. Management involves us in decision making which are connected to our department. III. Our Leaders/managers recognize and acknowledge our work. 5. Empowerment I. I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day. II. I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work right. III. I have had opportunities to learn and grow.
    • 6. Trust I. My supervisor, co workers at work, seems to care about me as a person. II. I am happy with my job overall. III. Organizational Policies motivates for achieving its aims and objectives. Refrences
    • Lane KA, Esser J, Holte B, McCusker MA (2010). A study of nurse faculty job satisfaction in community colleges in Florida. Teach. Learn. Nurs., 5: 16-26. AL-Hussami M (2008). A Study of nurses' job satisfaction: The relationship to organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and level of education. Eur. J. Sci. Res., 22(2): 286-295. Chakrabarty S, Oubre DT, Brown G (2008). The impact of supervisory adaptive selling and supervisory feedback on salesperson performance. Ind. Mark. Manage., 37: 447-454. Azoulay, P., Graff Zivin, J., & Manso, G. (2011). “Incentives and creativity: Evidence from the academic lifesciences.” Rand Journal of Economics, Retrieved from:http://www.mit.edu/~manso/hhmi.pdf. Ederer, F., & Manso, G. (2011). “Is pay-for-performance detrimental to innovation?” Retrieved from: http://www.mit.edu/~manso/em.pdf. Grant, A., & Gino, F. (2010). “A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitudeexpressions motivate prosocial behavior.” A Little Thanks Goes A Long Way: Explaining WhyGratitude Expresses Pro Social Behavior, 98(6), 953. Retrieved from: http://www.management.wharton.upenn.edu/grant/GrantGino_JPSP2010.pdf.