System concept and hardware
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Learning Area 2 : Computer System - System concept and Hardware

Learning Area 2 : Computer System - System concept and Hardware

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  • Input is any data or instruction entered into the computer system for processing.

Transcript

  • 1. L.A 2 COMPUTER SYSTEMS
  • 2. TOPICS
    • System Concept
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Installation
    • Current and Future Developments
  • 3. Define Computer Systems
    • A computer system is defined as combination of components designed to process data and store files.
  • 4. Meaning of Input Process Output Storage Input is any data or instruction entered into the computer system for processing. The processing unit controls all activities within the system. Output is data that has been processed into a useful form, called information Storage is a location which data, instruction and information are saved for future use
  • 5. Information Processing Cycle Process Output Input Storage Block diagram of Information Processing Cycle (CPU)
  • 6. Input
    • Input is any data or instruction that we enter into the computer system for processing.
    • Common way : typing on keyboard and pointing a mouse
    • Examples of input devices :
      • Mouse
      • Keyboard
      • Joystick
      • scanner
  • 7. Process
    • The processing unit control all activities within the system.
    • Control unit repeat a set of four basic operation call machine cycle :
      • Fetch
      • Decode
      • Execute
      • Store
    Fetch Decode Store Execute 1 2 3 4
  • 8. Process
    • To control and coordinates operations in a computer system.
    • To manage main memory
    • Fetch a program instruction or data item from memory
    • Decode the program instruction into signals that computer can execute
    • Execute the instruction
    • Store the results of instruction to the memory
    Fetch Decode Store Execute 1 2 3 4 3
  • 9. SYSTEM CONCEPT
    • Overview of Computer Systems
    • Data Representation
    • Introduction to Binary Coding
    • Data Measurement
    • Clock Speed Measurement
  • 10. Data Representation
    • Recognize only two discrete states: on or off
    • Use a binary system to recognize two states
    • Use Number system with two unique digits: 0 and 1, called bits (short for binary digits)
    How do computers represent data?
  • 11. Data Representation
    • Bit
      • the smallest unit of data.
      • represented by the numbers 1 and 0 (binary system).
      • They correspond to the states of on and off, true and false, or yes and no.
      • All digital data use the binary system to process the information. This information include letters, digits or special character .
    Bit, Byte and Character L.O :State the relationship of data representation: bit, byte and character.
  • 12. Data Representation
    • Byte
      • Eight bits grouped together as a unit
      • 8 bits = 1 byte
      • Provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s to represent 256 individual characters
        • Numbers
        • Uppercase and lowercase letters
        • Punctuation marks
        • Other .
    Bit, Byte and Character L.O :State the relationship of data representation: bit, byte and character.
  • 13. Data Representation
    • Character
      • One byte represents one character such as A, 7, 9 and +.
    Bit, Byte and Character Eight bits grouped together as a unit are called a byte . A byte represents a single character in the computer. bit byte character L.O :State the relationship of data representation: bit, byte and character.
  • 14. Introduction to Binary Coding
      • ASCII—American Standard Code for Information Interchange
      • EBCDIC—Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
      • Unicode—coding scheme capable of representing all world’s languages
    What are three popular coding systems to represent data? L.O :Explain the function of ASCII code. ASCII Symbol EBCDIC 00110000 0 11110000 00110001 1 11110001 00110010 2 11110010 00110011 3 11110011
  • 15. ASCII
      • WHAT IS ASCII?
      • ASCII pronounced as "ask-key" stands for the A merican S tandard C ode for I nformation I nterchange and was proposed by ASA (American Standard Association) in 963 and was finalised in 1968.ASCII is a standard of 7-bit code used to represent characters, which include letters, numbers and punctuation marks.
    L.O :Explain the function of ASCII code.
  • 16. ASCII
      • FUNCTIONS OF ASCII
      • ASCII was established to achieve compatibility between various types of data processing equipment making it possible for the components to communicate with each other successfully.
      • ASCII enables manufacturers to produce components that are assured to operate correctly in a computer.
      • ASCII makes it possible for humans to interact with a computer. It also enables users
      • to purchase components that are
      • compatible with their computer
      • configurations.
    L.O :Explain the function of ASCII code.
  • 17. ASCII
    • HOW ASCII WORKS IN A COMPUTER SYSTEM?
    Step 2. An electronic signal for the capital letter T is sent to the system unit. Step 3. The signal for the capital letter T is converted to its ASCII binary code (01010100) and is stored in memory for processing. L.O :Explain the function of ASCII code. Step 1. The user presses the capital letter T (shift+T key) on the keyboard. Step 4. After processing, the binary code for the capital letter T is converted to an image, and displayed on the output device. T
  • 18.
    • KILOBYTE (KB)
    • In mathematics, 1 KB = 1000 bytes.
    • In computer, 1 KB = 1024 bytes or can be said as:
    • 1 KB = 2 10 bytes
    • This is how we get the calculation for 1024 bytes.
    • MEGABYTE (MB)
    • 1 MB = 1 048 576 bytes or it can be said as:
    • 1 MB = 2 20 bytes
    • GIGABYTE (GB)
    • 1 GB = 1 073 741 824 bytes or it can be said as:
    • 1 GB = 2 30 bytes
    • TERABYTE (TB)
    • 1 TB = 1 099 511 627 776 bytes or it can be said as:
    • 1 TB = 2 40 bytes
    Data Measurement L.O :State the units of data measurement Why is 1024 bytes = 1KB? 2 0 = 1 2 1 = 2 2 2 = 4 2 3 = 8 2 4 = 16 2 5 = 32 2 6 = 64 2 7 = 128 2 8 = 256 2 9 = 512 2 10 = 1024
  • 19. Clock Speed Measurement L.O :State the units of clock speed measurement Every microprocessor contains a system clock. The system clock controls the speed of all the operations within a computer. The speed of the clock is measured by how many cycles per second the clock makes. The clock speed unit is measured in hertz . A hertz is one cycle per second. megahertz (MHz) equals to one million cycles of the system clock Gigahertz (GHz) equals to one billion cycles of the system clock
  • 20. Which is faster ? Pentium 4 running at 2.4 GHz is approximately one-third faster than a Pentium 4 running at 1.8 GHz. One way of comparing the performance of personal computers is by comparing their microprocessor speeds . Microprocessor speeds are determined by their clock speed and are usually expressed in gigahertz (GHz), billion of machine cycles per second.
  • 21. HARDWARE
    • Input Device
    • Output Device
    • Motherboard
    • Storage
  • 22. Input Devices
    • Input is any data or instruction that you enter into the memory of a computer.
    • Four types of input:
    L.O :Identify the input devices used for text, graphic, audio and video Text graphic sound video
  • 23. Input Devices
    • Input devices are any electronic device connected to a computer and produces input signals.
    • Examples :
    L.O :Identify the input devices used for text, graphic, audio and video
  • 24. Input Devices
    • Input devices for text :
    L.O :Identify the input devices used for text, graphic, audio and video
    • Input devices for graphic :
  • 25. Input Devices
    • Input devices for audio :
    L.O :Identify the input devices used for text, graphic, audio and video
    • Input devices for video :
  • 26. Input Devices
    • Pointing devices :
    L.O :Identify the input devices used for text, graphic, audio and video mouse Pointing stick touchpad joystick trackball
  • 27. Output Devices
    • output is the result of data processing activity when it is presented external to the system .
    • Four types of output:
    L.O :Identify the input devices used for text, graphic, audio and video
  • 28.
    • An output device is hardware that is capable of delivering or showing information to one or more users.
    Output Devices Monitor printer LCD DLP Photo printer speaker headphone woofer
  • 29. L.O :Identify the location of ports A port is an interface on a computer to which you can connect a device such as printer, flash drive and mouse
  • 30.
    • What is the motherboard?
    Motherboard
      • Main circuit board in system unit
      • Contains adapter cards, processor chips, and memory chips
      • Also called system board
    L.O :Identify the Location of the CPU, expansion slots, expansion cards, RAM slots, ports and connectors on the motherboard
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33. L.O : Explain types and function of Primary Storage
  • 34.
    • Computer storage is the holding of data in an electromagnetic form for access by a computer processor
    • Function
      • To help users to store program and data
      • keep current data while being processed by the processor until the information is saved in a storage media
      • stores instructions from a computer program
    • 2 types of storage
      • Primary storage (RAM, ROM)
      • Secondary storage (magnetic medium, optical medium, flash medium)
    Storage
  • 35. Primary Storage
    • Random access memory ( RAM ) ?
    The more RAM a computer has, the faster it responds Also called main memory or primary storage Most RAM is volatile, it is lost when computer’s power is turned off Memory chips that can be read from and written to by processor
  • 36. Primary Storage
    • Read only memory ( ROM ) ?
    Memory chips that store permanent data and instructions Nonvolatile memory , it is not lost when computer’s power is turned off Three types: Firmware — Manufactured with permanently written data, instructions, or information EEPROM ( e lectrically e rasable p rogrammable r ead- o nly m emory)— Type of PROM containing microcode programmer can erase PROM ( p rogrammable r ead- o nly m emory)— Blank ROM chip onto which a programmer can write permanently
  • 37.
    • Secondary storage is another alternative storage to keep your work and documents
    • It is non-volatile, which means that it does not need power to maintain the information stored in it.
    • It will store the information until it is erased
    Secondary Storage
  • 38.
    • Type of secondary storage:
    Secondary Storage