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Fitsum ristu lakew the semantic web

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  • 1. BY FITSUM R. LAKEW
  • 2. • The semantic web is a web that is able to describe things in a way that computers can understand. • The semantic web is not about links between web pages. • The semantic web describes the relationships between things and the properties of things. • The Semantic Web proposes to help computers "read" and use the Web. • The big idea is pretty simple -- metadata added to Web pages can make the existing World Wide Web machine readable.
  • 3. • Most of the web’s content today is designed for humans to read, not for computer programs to manipulate meaningfully. • Computers have no reliable way to process the semantics. • The Semantic Web will bring structure to the meaningful content of Web pages. • The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one. • In semantic web information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.
  • 4. • For the semantic web to function, computers must have access to structured collections of information. • Computers must have sets of inference rules that semantic web can use to conduct automated reasoning. • Traditional knowledge-representation systems centralized. • Challenge of semantic web to provide a language to: *Expresses both data and rules. *Rules to be exported onto the Web.
  • 5. • Two machine – readable tools for semantic web. 1. eXtensible Markup language (XML) *XML is a markup language like hypertext markup language (HTML). *XML complements (but does not replace) HTML by adding tags that describe data. *These tags are invisible to the people who read the document but visible to computers. *Tags are already in use on the Web, and existing bots. *bots that collect data for search engine, can read them.
  • 6. 2. Resource Description Framework (RDF) *The RDF (Resource Description Framework) is a language for describing information and resources on the web. *Putting information into RDF files, makes it possible for computer programs ("web spiders") *To search, discover, pick up, collect, analyze and process information from the web. *The Semantic Web uses RDF to describe web resources.  RDF uses triples consist of a subject, property and object. Like the subject, verb and direct object of a sentence.  In RDF, a document makes assertions that particular things .  Subject and object are each identified by a Universal Resource Identifier (URI), just as used in a link on a Web page.  The verbs are also identified by URIs.  The Semantic Web will enable machines to COMPREHEND semantic documents and data, not human speech and writings.
  • 7. • Ontology is a document or file that formally defines the relations among terms. • The most typical kind of ontology for the Web has a taxonomy and a set of inference rules. • The taxonomy defines classes of objects and relations among them. • The meaning of terms or XML codes used on a Web page can be defined by pointers from the page to an ontology. • Ontologies can enhance the functioning of the Web in many ways.
  • 8. • Semantic web gives advantage to enter personal preferences into a computerized agent. • An important facet of agents' functioning is the exchange of "proofs" written in the Semantic Web's unifying language. • Agents can use digital signatures to verify that the attached information has been provided by a specific trusted source. • The Semantic Web is more flexible, the consumer and producer agents can reach a shared understanding by exchanging ontologies. • Semantic descriptions of device capabilities and functionality will let us achieve such automation with minimal human intervention.  Properly designed, the Semantic Web can assist the evolution of human knowledge as a whole.
  • 9. • If properly designed, the Semantic Web can assist the evolution of human knowledge as a whole. • Human endeavor is caught in an eternal tension between the effectiveness of small groups acting independently and the need to mesh with the wider community. • A small group can innovate rapidly and efficiently, but this produces a subculture whose concepts are not understood by others. • The Semantic Web, in naming every concept simply by a URI, lets anyone express new concepts that they invent with minimal effort. • Its unifying logical language will enable these concepts to be progressively linked into a universal Web. • This structure will open up the knowledge and workings of humankind to meaningful analysis by software agents, providing a new class of tools by which we can live, work and learn together.
  • 10. • If properly designed, the Semantic Web can assist the evolution of human knowledge as a whole. • Human endeavor is caught in an eternal tension between the effectiveness of small groups acting independently and the need to mesh with the wider community. • A small group can innovate rapidly and efficiently, but this produces a subculture whose concepts are not understood by others. • The Semantic Web, in naming every concept simply by a URI, lets anyone express new concepts that they invent with minimal effort. • Its unifying logical language will enable these concepts to be progressively linked into a universal Web. • This structure will open up the knowledge and workings of humankind to meaningful analysis by software agents, providing a new class of tools by which we can live, work and learn together.