Climate Change and Health Adaptation Strategy in Lao PDR

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Relationship between climate change and health
Impacts of Climate change on different
sectors in Lao PDR
Impacts of Climate change on Health in Lao
PDR
What we have done so far?
The way forward

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  • 1. By Dr Tayphasavanh Fengthong Director of Environmental Health Division Dr Sivixay Thammalangsy Director of Administrative Division Climate Change and Health Adaptation Strategy in Lao PDR The South East Asia Regional Workshop “ The Impact of Climate Change and Health”, 16-18 June 2009, Shangri-La Hotel, Jakarta,Indonesia
  • 2. Outlines Country description Relationship between climate change and health Impacts of Climate change on different sectors in Lao PDR Impacts of Climate change on Health in Lao PDR What we have done so far? The way forward
  • 3. Thailand Cambodia Vietnam China Myanmar Country description Lao PDR is a land-linked country, and shares border with China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand and Myanmar. Total area : 236,800 km2 Population: 5.62 mill Density : 24 p/sqkm 17 provinces including Vientiane Capital Capita income USD 500 /c/y Total fertility rate: 4.9%, Crude birth rates: 41% Crude death rates: 16%,
  • 4. Adult literacy rate: (F: 50%; M:74%) Population growth rate: 2.5% per year Life expectancy: 61 years (F: 63; M: 59) Population leaving in rural area: 72.8% 47 ethnic groups, covering 120 ethnic sub-groups and languages 11,000+ small villages and mostly with poor road access Agriculture = 80% of jobs, mostly subsistence farming in remote areas Country description
  • 5. Relationship between climate change and health
  • 6. Eyes (cataracts, etc.) Skin damage/cancer Land cover (forest, etc) Direct impacts Thermal stress: death, disease events, injury Storms, cyclones, floods, fires Sea-level rise: physical hazards, displacement Biodiversity changes, & ecosystem disruption Changes in host species, vectors (mosquitoes, etc.) Infectious disease risks Food yields: nutrition and health Human predation Stratospheric ozone depletion Poverty, slum, hygiene; physical hazards; infectious disease risks (mobility, density) e.g. pollination Avian ‘flu, Nipah virus, BSE, etc. Land use Water–sheds, systems Food-production systems Urbanisation; human settlements Global Climate and Environmental Changes pathways, health risks Climate change Immune suppression
  • 7. Regional Weather Changes: Heat waves Extreme weather Temperature Precipitation Health effects Temperature related illnesses and deaths Extreme weather events related health effects Air pollution related health effects Water and food born diseases Vector and rodent borne diseases Malnutrition Mental health Microbiological economics Microbiological Contamination pathways Transmission dynamics Agro-ecosystem hydrology Socio-economics demographics ClimateClimate change ModulatingModulating influences Climate change and Health Impacts Direct impact Indirect impact
  • 8. Impacts of Climate change On different sectors in Lao PDR
  • 9. Vulnerability = (Magnitude, Exposure, Adaptive Capacity) Why Lao PDR so vulnerable? - High dependence on NR - Low adaptive capacity as LDC A most recent study on climate change mapping for Southeast Asia, sponsored by the Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA), ranked Lao PDR as a most vulnerable country.
  • 10. Note: i) Unit = 1,000 tons; ii) CO2-eq = CO2 equivalent; iii) Conversion factors, 1 ton of CH4 = 21 tons of CO2-eq, 1 ton of N2O = 310 tons of CO2-eq. GHG in1990 CO2 CH4 N2O Total CO2-eq Energy 414.90 22.70 0.12 928.80 Agriculture 0.00 271.27 0.00 5,696.67 LULUCF 16,628.67 29.50 0.20 17,310.17 Waste 0.00 11.43 0.00 240.03 Total 17,043.57 334.90 0.32 24,175.67
  • 11. Agriculture sector GHG in 1990
  • 12. Land and Forestry changes Trend of forests in Lao PDR Released GHG in 1990
  • 13. Energy sector Energy consumption Energy consumption by sector Trends of energy consumption
  • 14. Industry sector
  • 15. Waste management sector • In 1990, CH4 released from landfill site and wastewater treatments equal to 11.20 and 0.23 tons with CO2eq = 2.4 mil tons (1% of National GHG released). • There were only landfill sites in 5 big urban cities: Vientiane, Luangprabang, Thakek, Savannakhet and Pakse. • In 2002, Cities in Vientiane Capital discharged yearly wastewater from industries = 8.22 mil m3. Industrial Wastewater 1.4% 2.5% 5.6% 90.5% textile industry beverage industry pulp & paper industry meat processing industry
  • 16. Annual Mean Temperature Trend in Major Cities for 1971 -2007 24 25 26 27 28 29 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year Temperature(Celsius) Pakse Savannakhet Vientiane Capital Vientiane Province Luangprabang Xayaboury Temperature increased
  • 17. Annual Mean-MaximumPrecipitation Trend in Major Cities from 1971 - 2007 (mmin 24 hours) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year Precipitations(mm) Pakse Savannakhet Vientiane Capital Vientiane Province Luangprabang Xayaboury
  • 18. Flooding on July 2008 in Lao PDR, more than 200,000 people and 75,000 ha affected Impact of climate change
  • 19. ແຫຼ ່ ງຂໍ ້ ມູ ນ: ກົ ມແຜນການ, ກະຊວງກະສິ ກໍ າ ແລະ ປ່ າໄມ້ ປີ 2005
  • 20. Impacts of Climate change On Health in Lao PDR
  • 21. Health situations Considerable progress has been achieved over the past ten years in improving the health system in the Lao PDR which are Maternal, infant and under five infant mortality rates (MMR, IMR and U5MR, respectively) have dropped significantly MMR IMR U5MR 1995 2000 2005 656 104 170 530 405 82 70 106 98
  • 22. Child and maternal malnutrition The malnutrition rate in children under five in Lao PDR is very high compared to other countries in South East Asia and Asia in general. Almost two in every five children under age five in Lao PDR are moderately and severely underweight (37.9 percent) Stunting: 41.2% Wasting: 7.4%
  • 23. 1377 4 3968 3 9176 21 17638 63 3414 10 5495 13 6349 6 6853 17 4185 22 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 Number 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Cases and deaths of DF, DHF and DSS by year from 200-2008 in Lao PDR cases deaths
  • 24. 12440 520 2941 15 2042 3 1572 7 1761 10 2018 0 1886 2 2931 6 7444 7 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Number 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Cases and deaths of severe diarrhea by year from 2000-2008 in Lao PDR cases deaths Source:Epidemiology Division, Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology Department of Hygiene andd Prevention, Ministry of Health
  • 25. Comparison of severe diarrhea from 2005- Œ2007 In 2005 2018 cases 02 deaths In 2006 1886 cases No death In 2007 2931 cases 06 deaths Source: Epidemiology Division, Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology Department of Hygiene andd Prevention, Ministry of Health
  • 26. 343 3 1361 20 1237 0 1278 0 1846 7 1576 1 1868 0 1429 1 1736 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Number 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Cases and deaths of typhoid by year from 2000-2008 in Lao PDR cases deaths Source:Epidemiology Division, Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology Department of Hygiene andd Prevention, Ministry of Health
  • 27. Comparison of typhoid from -2005 Œ- 2007 In 2005 1576 cases 01 death In 2006 1868 cases No death In 2007 1429 cases 01 death Source: Epidemiology Division, Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology Department of Hygiene andd Prevention, Ministry of Health
  • 28. 799 4 899 0 959 1 790 1 878 0 1108 0 942 0 1103 0 1732 1 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Number 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Cases ad deaths of dysentery by year from 2000-2008 in Lao PDR cases deaths Source:Epidemiology Division, Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology Department of Hygiene andd Prevention, Ministry of Health
  • 29. 296 8 239 1 615 0 300 3 334 0 1108 0 345 0 436 2 763 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Number 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Cases and deaths of food poisoning by year from 2000-2008in Lao PDR cases deaths Source:Epidemiology Division, Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology Department of Hygiene andd Prevention, Ministry of Health
  • 30. 394 3 366 2 451 0 382 2 391 3 488 0 453 0 644 0 966 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Number 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Cases and deaths of hepatitis by year from 2000-2008 in Lao PDR cases deaths Source:Epidemiology Division, Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology Department of Hygiene andd Prevention, Ministry of Health
  • 31. 0 0 4 0 37 0 75 0 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Number < 1 1 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 > 15 Age group Cases and deaths of hepatitis outbreak by age group in Vientiane Province, 2008, Lao PDR Cases Deaths 83 0 53 0 42 0 30 0 4 0 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Number Viengkham KeoOudom Phonhong Thoulakhom Hinheub Vanvieng District Cases and deaths of hepatitis outbreak by district in Vientiane Province, 2008, Lao PDR Case Death Source:Epidemiology Division, Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology Department of Hygiene andd Prevention, Ministry of Health
  • 32. What we have done so far?
  • 33. Regional Weather Changes: Heat waves Extreme weather Temperature Precipitation Health effects Mental health Health effects Temperature related illnesses and deaths Extreme weather events related health effects Air pollution related health effects Water and food born diseases Vector and rodent borne diseases Malnutrition Mental health Microbiological Contamination pathways Transmission dynamics Agro-ecosystem hydrology Socio-economics demographics ClimateClimate change ModulatingModulating influences Evaluation of adaptation Health specific adaptation measuresResearch needs Driving forces • Population dynamics • Unsustainable Economic development Natural causes GHG emissions Adaptive capacity Mitigative capacity Mitigation measures
  • 34. 1.First National Communication on Climat Change-FNC (completed) 2.Technology need Assessment for Mitigating Greenhouse Gases (completed) 3.Public Awareness on Climate Change (completed) 4.National Adaptation Programmes of Action-NAPA (On going) 5.National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA) (On going) 6.Clean Development Mechanism –CDM (on going) 7.Second National Communication on Climat Change-SNC) (Start implementation) Projects underProjects under UNFCCCUNFCCC
  • 35. 88. Draft Policy/Strategy and National. Draft Policy/Strategy and National Environment and Health Action PlanEnvironment and Health Action Plan-- NEHAPNEHAP 1.1. TWG onTWG on Air QualityAir Quality 2.2. TWG on Water, Hygiene and SanitationTWG on Water, Hygiene and Sanitation 3.3. TWG on Solid and Hazardous WasteTWG on Solid and Hazardous Waste 4.4. TWG on Toxic Chemical and Hazardous SubstancesTWG on Toxic Chemical and Hazardous Substances 5.5. TWG on Climate Change, Ozone Depletion and Ecosystem ChangeTWG on Climate Change, Ozone Depletion and Ecosystem Change 6.6. TWG On Preparedness And Response In Environment Health EmergenciesTWG On Preparedness And Response In Environment Health Emergencies.. Draft National Strategy and Action Plan on Climate Change Draft Strategy on Climate Change and Health Adaptation
  • 36. Plan Implementation NSCCC Chair NSCCC Secretariat (DOE) MPI Vice Chair WREA Standing Vice Chair MAF Vice Chair Climate Change Office 8 TWGs Min. of Agriculture & Forest Min. of Energy & Mines Min. of Public Works & Transport Water Resources Environment Authority Min. of Planning & Investment Land Administration Authority Min. of Health Min. of Finance Universities Private sectors International Organizations TA Vice Minister of Health DOHP EHD NEW HEC MC LEC CD FDDPIDC
  • 37. 1. Finalize Draft Strategy on Climate Change and Health Adaptation: – Educate and aware public and policy makers about climate change and health impacts including co- benefits with concerned sectors – Enhance risk communication and management – Improve disaster public health preparedness, planning and emergency response. – Undertaking vulnerability studies of existing water supply and sanitation systems and ensuring that new systems are built to reduce vulnerability – Strengthen food safety program The Way Forward
  • 38. – Enhance surveillance system – Conduct a study on health impact of climate change – Encourage active participation of concerned agencies to mitigate climate change and Work in partnership with other agencies. – Thermal stress management – Strengthen health care services at different levels 2. Disseminate and Implement Policy/Strategy andPolicy/Strategy and National Environment andNational Environment and ntHealth ActionHealth Action PlanPlan--NEHAPNEHAP 3. Disseminate National Nutrition Policy/Strategy and Finalize and Implement Nutrition Action Plan The Way Forward