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Profil, pulau nias

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- Concepts On The Development Of Airport Regions …

- Concepts On The Development Of Airport Regions
- Perubahan Posisi Bandara Terhadap Kota
- Evolusi Function dan Form Airport-Centric Commercial Development
- Aerotropolis Schematic
- Peran Bandara dalam Perekonomian Global
- Karakteristik Dasar Global City
- Peran Aero City/Aerotropolis
- Faktor Utama Pertumbuhan Kota Bandara
- Faktor-Faktor Penggerak Perkembangan Aero City
- Jenis Kegiatan di Aero City/Aerotropolis
- Kegiatan Terkait Keberadaan Bandara

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  • 1. Landasan Ilmiah 1
  • 2. • Kuala Lumpur, ( ), • Seoul (Incheon), • Hong Kong ( (Chek Lap Kok), p ) • Singapore (Changi), • Bangkok (Suvarnabhumi). Eff ficient Gatew Model t way M T The Ae erotrop polis model m Concepts On The Development Of Airport Regions • Frankfurt, • Zurich. 2
  • 3. Pengertian Dasar Aerocity y 3
  • 4. Definisi Aerotropolis An aerotropolis is an urban complex whose b l h layout, infrastructure and economy are centered on an airport. Analogous in shape to the traditional metropolis made up of a central city and its rings of commuter- heavy suburbs, the aerotropolis consists of an airport city core and outlying corridors and clusters of aviation-linked businesses and associated residential developments. 4 Sumber : Aerotropolis: The Way We’ll Live Next? Interview with John D. Kasarda, ATLANTIS - MAGAZINE BY POLIS PLATFORM FOR URBANISM, #22.3 December 2011). 4
  • 5. Perubahan Posisi Bandara Terhadap Kota 5
  • 6. Evolusi Function dan Form Airport-Centric Commercial Development 6
  • 7. Aerotropolis Schematic 7 7
  • 8. Taoyuan Taiwan version of Airport City Schematic 8 8
  • 9. Peran Aerocity Dalam Lingkup Makro/Regional g p g 9
  • 10. Peran Bandara dalam Perekonomian Global 1. Perekonomian suatu negara terkait dengan perekonomian global melalui kota-kota yang disebut sebagai : a. World city. b. Global city. c. c Alpha city city. 2. Untuk berhubungan dengan perekonomian global tersebut. Salah satu hal yang harus dimiliki negara tersebut adalah keberadaan kota, yang disebut sebagai : airport city, aerotropolis atau airport corridor. 3. Kesuksesan bandara bergantung kepada faktor-faktor seperti : a. Ketersediaan lahan untuk pengembangan di bandara. b. Lokasi bandara dalam lingkup jaringan praarana wilayah. c. c Struktur sosial-ekonomi wilayah sosial ekonomi wilayah. d. Kerangka kelembagaan pemerintahan setempat. e. Kerangka perencanaan (planning framework). 10
  • 11. Karakteristik Dasar Global City 1. Karakteristik Ekonomi. 2. Karakteristik Politis. 3. Karakteristik Budaya. 4. Karakteristik Prasarana. Evaluasi peringkat untuk 4 kategori alpha city didasarkan atas : kegiatan bisnis, SDM, pertukaran informasi, pengalaman budaya, dan kepastian politik. 11
  • 12. Bandara Soekarno Hatta & BIJB Bandara Kota Status Global City Soekarno- Hatta Jakarta Alpha Minus BIJB Majalengka/Bandung ? 12
  • 13. Peran Aero City/Aerotropolis Tenaga Kerja Pertumbuhan Ekonomi • • • • • • • • • Aerotropolis Bentuk Urban Baru Rantai Permintaan Global “Internet” Bandara adalah ruter Bandara lebih dari sebatas infrastruktur Penerbangan Zona pertemuan Angkutan umum Kecepatan t h d pasar K t terhadap Kota Bandara Off Airport Termin On Airport Terminal al l Off Airport On Airport Kota Bandara Aerotropolis Pariwisata Kawasan 13 Populasi Kawasan
  • 14. Dampak Ekonomi dari Penerbangan Komersial Dampak Langsung Permintaan pemasukan perantara dan hasil investasi dari aktivitas ekonomi di kawasan bandara Dampak Tidak Langsung Produksi, Produksi tenaga kerja dan hasil pendapatan dari lokasi pemesanan menuju penjual oleh perusahaan di bandara Dampak Pasti Produksi, tenaga kerja, dan hasil pendapatan dari • konsumsi belanja dari pendapatan oleh tenaga kerja bandara • Konsumsi belanja dari pendapatam oleh pekerja pedagangan bandara Dampak Keseluruhan Dampak Katalis Sumber : Looking in all the wrong places? Catalytic effects in the context of product cycle theory. Stephen J. Appold and John D. Kasarda
  • 15. Faktor Utama Pengembangan Aerocity g g y 15
  • 16. Faktor Utama Pertumbuhan Kota Bandara Sumber penerimaan yang tidak terkait kegiatan penerbangan. Kebutuhan sektor komersial akan lahan. Pertumbuhan konstan penumpang dan kargo. Bandara yang berfungsi sebagai katalis dan magnet untuk perkembangan kegiatan bisnis di sekitarnya. 16
  • 17. Faktor Utama Pertumbuhan Kota Bandara Kegiatan terkait langsung dengan penerbangan. Kegiatan terkait dengan fungsi bandara. Kegiatan berorientasi bandara. g 17
  • 18. Airport City Success Factors 18 Sumber : Sustainable Airport Region, Managing Airport Cities: Benchmark Study 2008, Stephanie Betz 18
  • 19. Airport City Success Factors Kombinasi dari 8 faktor ini menentukan dalam penerapan, praktek, dan keberhasilan konsep Kota Bandara Kerangka Kerja 1 Struktur Pemegang Saham 4 Sistem Legal Interaksi ahli perencana 5 Kepemimpinan Organisasi p kompetensi Dari operator bandara p Relasi negara/ kota 2 Kondisi Infrastruktur Dalam konteks kota/ kawasan Hubungan lokal/ internasional 6 Perencanaan dan Budaya Pengembangan Faktor Keberhasilan Kota Bandara 7 Perjanjian Pemegang j j g g Fungsi Utama Bandara g 3 Profil penerbangan Posisi Struktur Jaringan Saham/ Stakeholder Kondisi Keruangan Persyaratan penerbangan/ non penerbangan ketersediaan 8 Visi dan Strategis Kerja sama dan komunikasi Sumber : Sustainable Airport Region, Managing Airport Cities: Benchmark Study 2008, Stephanie Betz 19
  • 20. Faktor Utama Pengembangan Aero City/Aerotropolis Key Factors That Facilitate Airport-Centric Development Kolaborasi Stakeholder Pengembangan kawasan 20 National Airspace System - Airport-centric Development Sumber dana Pengembangan bandara Hubungan
  • 21. Faktor-Faktor Penggerak Perkembangan Aero City 1. Long-haul jet aircraft connecting people, products, and enterprises world-wide. 2. Supply chain processes where parts and components are manufactured in a half-dozen different countries, assembled in a seventh country and distributed to a multitude of others. 3. The growth of world tourism. 4. “Must have it now” consumer age. 5. 5 Air cargo was the primar dri er as primary driver. 6. Rapid passenger and cargo growth. 7. New economy products (typically small, light, compact, high value-to-weight parts, components and assembled products) are i bl d d t ) increasingly shipped internationally by air in a fast and agile manner. i l hi di t ti ll b i i f t d il 8. The huge volume of time-critical products (including perishables) such as micro-electronics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices and aerospace equipment traversing international boundaries by air annually h resulted in air cargo accounting for approximately 35% of the value of t d ’ world trade. ll has lt d i i ti f i t l f th l f today’s ld t d 9. In order to gain a competitive advantage through the speedy global supply-chain connectivity that air cargo provides, high-tech manufacturers and other time-critical industries are locating at sites around or accessible to well-connected airports. ell connected airports 10. As their suppliers and logistics providers co-locate, they drive additional investment and employment growth in airport regions. 21
  • 22. Tahapan Pengembangan g g 22
  • 23. Metodologi (Ideal) Thinking Like Developers Sumber : 2013 AIRPORT ECONOMICS & HUMAN CAPITAL CONFERENCE, Airport City Real Estate 23 Development Opportunities & Challenges 23
  • 24. Metodologi (Ideal) Identifikasi Resiko Rencana Strategis Bandara Rencana Manajemen Resiko Rencana Marketing Rencana Bisnis Master Plan Rencana Guna Lahan Keterangan = Perencanaan dan Pengembangan Rencana SDM = Administrasi = Bisnis/ Keuangan Rencana Pengembangan dan Pelatihan 24
  • 25. Metodologi (Ideal) 25
  • 26. Three Stages of Aerotropolis Planning 26
  • 27. Integrated Aerotropolis Planning 27
  • 28. Jenis Kegiatan di Dalam Aerocity y 28
  • 29. Jenis Kegiatan di Aero City/Aerotropolis Example of Air and Surface Connectivity Benefitting Manufacturing, Repair, and Training 29
  • 30. Jenis Kegiatan di Aero City/Aerotropolis Synopsis of Logistics Clusters 30
  • 31. Jenis Kegiatan di Aero City/Aerotropolis Synopsis of Logistics Clusters Jalur J l Kapal Jalur Udara Perawatan Kontainer Perawatan Pesawat P t Pelayanan Logistik Perawatan Pesawat Transportasi Darat Penyediaan Logistik 31 Operasi Pelabuhan Jabel Ali and Dubai Airport FZ Authority Gudang & Penyimpanan Instasi Perawatan Operasi Kargo Bandara O iK B d UAE Customs Agen pemerintah lainnya
  • 32. Kegiatan Terkait Keberadaan Bandara 1. Core aeronautical activities are part of the technical operation of the airport, directly supporting the air traffic function. 1. Kegiatan inti penerbangan. 2. A relation to air-freight or air-passenger movements, (e.g., logistics and distribution activities or terminal retail and hotels). Their hotels) competitiveness and/or business revenues are closely tied to the scale of air traffic.irport related traffic.irport-related activities have a direct 2. Kegiatan terkait dengan bandara yang berhubungan dengan pergerakan penumpang dan barang. 3. Airport-oriented activities choose the airport area because of the image of the airport and its typically excellent ground accessibility accessibility. The price of land and surface connectivity, rather than relation to air traffic, are key the factors in determining those activities locating in the airport area. 3. Kegiatan berorientasi bandara. 32
  • 33. Rantai Keterkaitan Aktivitas Ekonomi 33
  • 34. Alternatif Pembiayaan Denver International Airport Public Sector City and Country of Denver, City of Aurora Brighton, Commerce City Bennet, Adams County State of Colorado Quasi – Governmental Metro Denver EDC, Commerce Cit ED Ad C City ED, Adams County ED Front Range Airport, E-470 Highway Authority DRCOG, RTD, DTP et al Land Owners DIA I.C. Fulenwider LNR A&C IC F l id LNR, A&C, Smith The Pauls Corp. Prologis, Oakwood Homes Majestic Realty Corp. et al End Users Developers, Investors, Tenants, Customers, et al Sumber : 2013 AIRPORT ECONOMICS & HUMAN CAPITAL CONFERENCE, Airport City Real Estate 34 Development Opportunities & Challenges 34
  • 35. Alternatif Pembiayaan Denver’s Economic Clusters Sumber : 2013 AIRPORT ECONOMICS & HUMAN CAPITAL CONFERENCE, Airport City Real Estate 35 Development Opportunities & Challenges 35
  • 36. Airport City Denver & Economic Clusters Sumber : 2013 AIRPORT ECONOMICS & HUMAN CAPITAL CONFERENCE, Airport City Real Estate 36 Development Opportunities & Challenges 36
  • 37. Airport City Denver & Economic Clusters 37 37
  • 38. Dasar-Dasar Penyusunan Rencana Tata Ruang Aerocity g y 38
  • 39. Konsep Struktur Ruang Analogous in shape to the traditional metropolis made up of a central city core and its rings of commuter-heavy suburbs, the aerotropolis consists of an airport-centred commercial core (airport city) and outlying corridors and clusters of aviation-linked businesses and associated residential development. 39
  • 40. Konsep Pola Ruang 1. The Aerotropolis incorporates aviation-linked business and industrial clusters at and around airports and along airport access corridors. 2. The aerotropolis has both spatial and functional forms. Its spatial form consists of aviation- oriented businesses and their associated residential developments which cluster around airports and outward along connecting transport corridors generating observable physical features. The functional form consists of a more diffuse airport-integrated economic region whose businesses are as closely linked to distant suppliers, custom ers, and enterprise partners as they are to those in their own region. , p p y g 3. Corporate headquarter functions. The full-range of office services and business support staff of a traditional corporate complex are available, including meeting rooms, computers and advanced telecom, secretarial and tech assistance. 4. Retail mall concepts have been merged into passenger terminals. Airport property beyond the terminal is being developed with hotel and entertainment facilities, conference and exhibition complexes, shopping centers, office buildings, and logistics and free trade zones. Airports also frequently offer complementary sets of f iliti f airport and airline employees ( t f facilities for i t d i li l (such as d care centers and h lth clinics), as well as h day t d health li i ) ll commercially serve residents in the local market area. 5. Cluster, rather than strip development, should be encouraged along airport transportation corridors with sufficient green space between clusters. Residential mixed use developments for airport area workers and clusters mixed-use frequent air travelers should be designed to human scale, encouraging social interaction and sense of neighborhood. In short, aerotropolis development and “smart growth” should go hand-in-hand. 40
  • 41. Konsep Sistem Transportasi 1. Air cargo hub. 2. Multimodal air logistics hub. g 3. Good surface transportation accessibility exists to the airport area. 4. 4 Rapid ground connectivity to much of the region and beyond is provided by the inter city rail station underneath the complex. 5. Dedicated airport expressway links (aerolanes) and high-speed airport high speed express trains (aerotrains) should efficiently connect airports to business and residential clusters, near and far. Special truck-only lanes should be added to airport expressways, as should improved interchanges to reduce dd d t i t h ld i di t h t d congestion. 41
  • 42. Isu Pengembangan Pola Ruang 1. Isu Kebisingan 2. Isu Keamanan dan Keselamatan a. Tall Structures (Bangunan Tinggi) b. Visual Obstructions and Electronic Interference (Gangguan Pandangan dan Pengaruh Elektronik) 1) Debu 2) Silau 3) Pancaran Cahaya 4) Asap, Uap dan Kabut c. Serangan Burung dan Satwa Liar 42
  • 43. Kesesuaian Guna Lahan Perumahan Jenis Guna Lahan Perumahan Kerentanan Pusat Ketinggian Kebisingan Aktivitas Struktur Rumah tunggal P KP TP Gambaran Halangan Kehidupan Liar dan Atraksi Burung Rumah tunggal (tergabung dan KP KP terpisah) Rumah susun (seperti dua atau lebih unit tempat tinggal dalam bangunan tunggal, apartemen seperti kondominium, elder, assisted living, townhouse) Kepadatan rendah (level 1-3) P KP TP KP KP Kepadatan menengah (level 4-12) Kepadatan tinggi (level 13 atau lebih) P P P P KP P P P KP KP Kelompok tempat tinggal (assisted living, kelompok fasilitas, bangunan p perawatan dan renovasi, kelompok p rumah tunggal) Taman Perumahan P P KP P KP P P TP KP P P = Pengaruh KP = Kemungkinan Pengaruh TP = Tidan Berpengaruh Sumber : Mead & Hunt Ins. Sumber : Airport City, http://ebooks.narotama.ac.id/files/Airport%20Engineering43 Planning,%20Design,%20and%20Development%20of%2021st%20Century%20Airports%20(4th%20Edition)/C hapter%2016%20Airport%20City.pdf 43
  • 44. Dasar Pertimbangan Pengembangan Pola Ruang Kesesuaian Guna Lahan Perdagangan Gambaran Kerentanan Pusat Aktivitas Ketinggian Struktur Halangan Kebisingan Aktivitas Komersil Penyedia Makanan dan Minuman P P KP KP Pelayanan Kendaraan TP KP TP KP Perkantoran (bisnis, pemerintahan, spesialis, kesehatan, atau lembaga keuangan) Kepadatan rendah (Level 2 -3) P KP TP KP Kepadatan menengah (level 3 – 12) P P KP KP Kepadatan tinggi (level 12 lebih) P P P KP Retail (pedagangan, lease, atau rentalan) Sales-oriented KP KP KP KP Pelayanan P KP KP KP Perbaikan/ P b ik / renovasi i P KP TP KP Perhotelan (hotel, motel, convention centre, gedung P P KP KP pertemuan, fasilitas pertunjukan) Kepadatan rendah (Level 2 -3) P P P P Kepadatan K d t menengah (l l 3 – 12) h (level KP KP TP KP Kepadatan tinggi (level 12 lebih) KP P KP KP Gudang terbuka dan display KP KP TP KP Pelayanan umum (terminal bus, stasiun, dan taxi) KP P KP KP Bengkel (bengkel pertokoan toko ban) (bengkel, pertokoan, TP KP TP KP Jenis Guna Lahan Komersial Kehidupan Liar dan Atraksi Burung P KP KP KP P KP P KP KP P KP KP KP KP KP P = Pengaruh KP = Kemungkinan Pengaruh TP = Tidan Berpengaruh Sumber : Mead & Hunt Ins. Sumber : Airport City, http://ebooks.narotama.ac.id/files/Airport%20Engineering44 Planning,%20Design,%20and%20Development%20of%2021st%20Century%20Airports%20(4th%20Edition)/C hapter%2016%20Airport%20City.pdf 44
  • 45. Dasar Pertimbangan Pengembangan Pola Ruang Tabel Kesesuaian Guna Lahan Industri Guna Lahan Kerentanan Kebisingan Pusat Ketinggian Gambaran Aktivitas Struktur Halangan Aktivitas Industri/ Manufaktur Kawasan Pelayanan Industri (industry bubut, perbaikan TP P KP KP barang, pergudangan, dsb) Kawasan Produksi dan Manufaktur (manufaktur, proses, pabrik, perakitan) Manufaktur Teknik KP P KP P Manufaktur Umum TP P KP P Manufaktur Berat TP KP P P Pengolahan dan Pertambangan TP KP TP P Operasi Pen ela matan (firma peng mp lan Penyela-matan pengumpulan, TP TP KP KP penyimpanan, dan pembongkaran kendaraan, mesin – mesin, peralatan, dan material bangunan) Penyimpanan / Per-gudangan Industri (gudang kecil/ TP TP TP KP fasilitas gudang) Kargo (pusat distrbusi, pergud-angan/ kargo, dsb) TP KP KP KP Pembuangan (pusat daur ulang, pembuangan sampah, TP TP KP P p pusat transfer sampah, kompos, dsb) p p ) Grosiran (diskon, persewaan, atau rental barang untuk TP TP TP KP industri, institusi, atau investasi) Kehidupan Liar dan Atraksi Burung KP KP KP P P KP KP KP P KP P = Pengaruh KP = Kemungkinan Pengaruh TP = Tidan Berpengaruh Sumber : Mead & Hunt Ins. 45 45
  • 46. Dasar Pertimbangan Pengembangan Pola Ruang Tabel Kesesuaian Guna Lahan Institusi Guna Lahan Universitas dan Sekolah Tinggi Pelayanan Komunitas (publik, non profit, atau lembaga sosial) Pelayanan komunitas umum (perpustakaan, museum, pusat transit, TOD) Pelayanan komunitas khusus (persinggahan) Penitipan anak (perawatan anak, perawatan remaja, remaja PAUD) Penahanan (penjara, pusat rehabilitasi) Fasilitas Pendidikan (negeri dan swasta) Fasilitas pendidikan umum (SD negeri dan swasta/ MI, SMP/MTS, dan SMA/MA serta asrama dan pendidikan militer) Fasilitas pendidikan khusus (perekonomian, bisnis, atau kursus tanpa gelar) kursus, Rumah sakit (rumah sakit, klinik) Perkumpulan agama (kris-tiani, Hindustani, sinagog, muslim, masonik, dsb) P = Pengaruh KP = Kemungkinan Pengaruh 46 TP = Tidan Berpengaruh Sumber : Mead & Hunt Ins. Kerentanan Pusat Kebisingan Aktivitas Aktivitas Institusi P P Ketinggian Struktur Gambaran Halangan Kehidupan Liar dan Atraksi Burung P P P P P KP P P P P KP P TP TP KP P KP P P P KP P P P P P P P P P KP KP KP P P P P P P P P P KP 46
  • 47. Dasar Pertimbangan Pengembangan Pola Ruang Tabel Kesesuaian Guna Lahan Prasarana dan Transportasi Kerentanan Pusat Ketinggian Kebisingan Aktivitas Struktur Aktivitas pelayanan infrastruktur Utilitas dasar (cabang jaringan jaringan elektrik jaringan, elektrik, TP TP KP sanitasi dan gorong-gorong, menara air) Guna Lahan Fasilitas transmisi komunikasi (pemancar, nirkabel, tower darurat, dan antenna) Perparkiran (besmen, struktur parkir) Transportasi (jalan raya, jalan antar kota, jalan lokal, lokal dan jalan nasional) Utilitas (pembangkit tenaga listrik, generator angin, dan turbin) Gambaran Halangan Kehidupan Liar dan Atraksi Burung P P TP TP P P KP TP TP KP KP P TP KP KP KP TP TP TP P P TP P = Pengaruh KP = Kemungkinan Pengaruh TP = Tidan Berpengaruh Sumber : Mead & Hunt Ins. Sumber : Airport City, http://ebooks.narotama.ac.id/files/Airport%20Engineering47 Planning,%20Design,%20and%20Development%20of%2021st%20Century%20Airports%20(4th%20Edition)/C hapter%2016%20Airport%20City.pdf 47
  • 48. Dasar Pertimbangan Pengembangan Pola Ruang Tabel Kesesuaian Guna Lahan Pertanian dan Ruang Terbuka Kerentanan Pusat Ketinggian Kebisingan Aktivitas Struktur Aktivitas Pertanian dan Ruang Terbuka Pertanian (pengolahan tanaman dan lumbung) Hubungan hewan dan tumbuhan TP TP KP Hubungan permukiman (gudang bahan P TP KP bakar/ fasilitas pemompaan, pembongkaran dan pengupasan, perdagangan hasil tani) Guna Lahan Gambaran Halangan Kehidupan Liar dan Atraksi Burung TP KP P P Banjir Sumber air (air permukaan) TP TP TP TP P Sumber daya buatan (pertambangan dan ekstraksi, kolam penam-pungan air, lahan basah) Sumber daya alami (danau, kolam, padang rumput, sungai, kali, lahan basah) Kawasan perlindungan hewan TP TP TP P P TP TP TP P P P KP TP P P P =P Pengaruh h KP = Kemungkinan Pengaruh TP = Tidan Berpengaruh Sumber : Mead & Hunt Ins. Sumber : Airport City, http://ebooks.narotama.ac.id/files/Airport%20Engineering48 Planning,%20Design,%20and%20Development%20of%2021st%20Century%20Airports%20(4th%20Edition)/C hapter%2016%20Airport%20City.pdf 48
  • 49. Dasar Pertimbangan Pengembangan Pola Ruang Tabel Kesesuaian Guna Lahan Olahraga dan Rekreasi Guna Lahan Kerentanan Kebisingan Aktivitas taman dan hiburan Hiburan komersil (fasilitas latihan fisik, rekreasi, dan budaya) Aktivitas di luar (perkemahan, fasilitas P tenis/berenang, bioskop terbuka, skatting, paviliun) KP Aktivitas dalam ruangan (fitness, klub kesehatan, bowling, skatting, billiard, taman bermain, teater tertutup) Golf (lintasan golf, lapangan golf mini) P Utilitas (taman bermain, lintasan balap, arena P olah raga) Taman (aquatic, fasilitas olah raga kawasan, P keber-tentanggaan, seko-lah, komunitas) Kasino TP Pusat Aktivitas Ketinggian Struktur Gambaran Halangan Kehidupan Liar dan Atraksi Burung KP KP P KP P KP P KP TP P TP P KP P P P KP P KP KP P KP P P Sumber : Airport City, http://ebooks.narotama.ac.id/files/Airport%20Engineering49 Planning,%20Design,%20and%20Development%20of%2021st%20Century%20Airports%20(4th%20Edition)/C hapter%2016%20Airport%20City.pdf 49
  • 50. Hal-Hal Yang Perlu Diwaspadai Dalam Pengembangan Aerocity g g y 50
  • 51. Hal-Hal Yang Harus Diwaspadai 1 2 Aerotropolis Ae ot opolis has to be more than a “b ild mo e “build it and they will come” airport dream. Success rests on market realities and adequate air service. The opportunities or constraints to aerotropolis roll-out are determined by natural ecological factors, surface p , p transportation infrastructure, ownership of land parcels, labor force characteristics, and local governance structures. 51 51
  • 52. Persoalan Terkait Pola Ruang Lack of alignment between airport, city and regional planning; Lack of integrated forward-looking spatial planning and joint-agreements; Lack of coordination between different levels of government and other stakeholders; Blighted conditions where small-scale older uses have been disenfranchised from wider improvement coalitions; Competition, conflict and confusion between local authorities over development philosophies and planning controls; Equitable financing of infrastructure provision; Traffic congestion at airports stimulated by airport-related commercial activity; Uncertainty regarding optimal character of on- and near-airport commercial development; and Resistance from ’high street‘ traders and local municipalities to expansion of retailing at airports. Sumber : The planning of airport regions and National Aviation Policy Issues and challenges in Australia 2008-2009, Robert Freestone and Douglas Baker. 52
  • 53. Diagram Konsep Pengembangan Aerocity g g y 53
  • 54. Runways: Regional Bones 54
  • 55. Safety and Navigation Implications 55
  • 56. The Noise Footprint 56
  • 57. A Need for Services 57
  • 58. Airport City Functions 58
  • 59. A City Airport Becomes an Airport City 59
  • 60. Perumusan Konsep Pengembangan p g g 60
  • 61. Development Principles Pittsburgh International Airport 1. Develop a multi-jurisdictional strategy 2. Plan primarily for airport related uses 3. Develop airport compatible uses 4. Concentrate development 5. Preserve natural areas 6. Develop sustainably 7. Provide connectivity 8. Encourage mixed-use development 9. 9 Encourage infill development 10. Make places, not sprawl. 61
  • 62. Conceptual Development Program Pittsburgh International Airport Flex and distribution Bonded warehouses Freight forwarders Free trade zone assembly and shipping Just-in-time electronics repairs Just-in-time manufacturing Technology companies information technology robotics bio medical bio-medical Energy Satellite university campuses Hospitals and trauma centers Aerotropolis support services and uses hotels entertainment conference centers retail and food mixed income housing Headquarters International National Regional E-Fulfillment centers Destination entertainment R & D parks Corporate campuses 62
  • 63. Proposed Business Environment Piedmont Triad Aerotropolis 63
  • 64. Rincian Jenis Kegiatan Di DalamAerocity y 64
  • 65. Basic Design Principles for an Aerotropolis 1. Improving transportation capacity whether by highway or rail. There are those who believe that limiting capacity limits travel. That may be true but the congestion caused by limited capacity causes more emissions than adequate capacity. 2. Minimizing the needed ground movement. With the increase in especially business air travel, airports have become an important part of the metropolitan movement travel equation. 3. g y g p g Per movement aircraft emissions and noise are generally decreasing but planning air routes and land use in combination can still reduce exposure. 65
  • 66. Proses Perkembangan Aerocity 1. Pengembangan kawasan komersial yang pesat di dan di sekitar gerbang bandara menjadikan kegiatan tersebut sebagai generator pertumbuhan perkotaan dan menjadikan bandara sebagai : a. p pusat lapangan pekerjaan yang penting, p g p j y gp g, b. kawasan perbelanjaan, c. perdagangan, serta d. destinasi bisnis, serta bandara membangun sebuah “brand image” tersendiri untuk menarik kegiatan bisnis yang tidak berkaitan dengan kebandarudaraan. 2. Sifat alami dari pasar lokal dalam kegiatan industri dan komersial memiliki peran penting dalam keberlangsungan kota bandara dan kegiatan di dalamnya. 3. Area di sekitar bandara juga dapat menarik kegiatan bisnis, pekerja-pekerja profesional dan penduduk yang lebih banyak dibanding dengan área lain, pembangunan kegiatan komersial di dalam kawasan bandara merefleksikan kebutuhan dari pekerjaan, pekerja dan penduduk terhadap pelayanan yang disediakan oleh bisnis yang berbasis bandara. pelayanan-pelayanan tersebut meliputi pelayanan perumahan, rekreasi, kuliner, perdagangan, kesehatan, penitipan anak dan dokter hewan. 66
  • 67. Proses Perkembangan Aerocity 4. Kebutuhan–kebutuhan untuk kegiatan bisnis yang berbasis pada bandara saat ini disediakan di dalam kawasan campuran (mixed use) yang luas di dalam área bandara, sebagai sentra pembangunan metropolitan. Pergeseran ini membuat pembangunan kota bandara sebagai model perencanaan kreartif dan p g p g g p atribut-atribut managemen yang berbeda. a. Perkantoran dan Kegiatan Bisnis, meliputi Kawasan Bisnis b. Logistik dan Distribusi, meliputi Freight Forwarding, 3 PL’s, Flow-thru c. Produksi Barang, meliputi Kawasan Industri. 67
  • 68. Jenis Kegiatan di Dalam Aerocity Aerotropolis menjadi generator utama pengembangan kawasan karena merupakan kawasan cepat tumbuh berbasis bandara atau sering disebut airport-centric commercial development. Kawasan ini menciptakan secara mandiri : 1. significant employment, 2. 2 shopping, h i 3. trading, 4. 4 business meeting meeting, 5. entertainment, and 6. leisure destinations, sehingga menjadi kota handal dan menjadi daya tarik global (melalui airplane network) dan lokal (melalui multimodal lokal). 68
  • 69. Daftar Kegiatan Komersial Kota Bandara 1. Pertokoan 2. Restoran 3. Kegiatan entertainmen dan kebudayaan 4. Hotel dan akomodasinya 5. 5 Bank dan penukaran mata uang asing 6. Gedung Perkantoran 7. Convention and exhibition centers 8. Hiburan, rekreasi dan pusat kebugaran 9. Logistik dan distribusi 10. 10 Pengawetan makanan dan pendinginan 11. Katering dan kuliner 12. Perdagangan bebas dan sejenisnya 13. Lapangan golf 14. Factory outlets 15 P l 15. Pelayanan k l keluarga, seperti kli ik k ti klinik kesehatan d penitipan anak h t dan iti k 69
  • 70. Skema Tipe Kegiatan Kota Bandara 1. Kegiatan di dalam kota bandara : a. Pelayanan konsumen. b. Kawasan perdagangan, meliputi pertokoan. c. Real estate, meliputi perkantoran, hotel dan bongkar muat. d. d Multi moda meliputi taxi trem, bus dan kereta api. moda, taxi, trem api e. Infrastruktur terminal, meliputi terminal. f. 2. Infrastruktur dasar, meliputi jalan raya. Kegiatan di luar kota bandara : a. Hotel dan penginapan. b. Kegiatan pertemuan, meliputi eksibisi dan konferensi. c. Kegiatan perdagangan, meliputi pusat perbelanjaan. 70
  • 71. Penerjemahan “Penggerak” Menjadi “Kegiatan” 71
  • 72. Pembiayaan Aerocity y 72
  • 73. Alternatif Pembiayaan Tahapan Pengembangan Berdasarkan Sumber Pembiayaan He advises them on how to achieve the “Airport City’s Triple Bottom Line.” The first point is that major airports now receive more of their revenue from nonaeronautical sources than from aeronautical sources. Secondly, rapid commercial development at and around major airports transforms them into leading urban growth generators as airport areas become significant employment, shopping, and business destinations in their own right. The airport area finally develops a “brand image” attracting even non-airport linked businesses. Thus, Kasarda is advocating for nothing less than creating whole new airport-themed urban zones within regions. b i hi i Sumber : Aerotropoli, The Logic of Globalization and the Rise of Dr. John Kasarda, By John Patrick Good Globalization Spaces Final Research Paper December 18, 2007 73
  • 74. Sumber Pembiayaan Airport-lead, Airport-funded. For those communities whose Airport has taken a lead role in the creation of an Aerotropolis, those efforts are also primarily, if not entirely, funded by that Airport. In these communities, the very active marine port authorities in those communities compliment the economic development efforts coordinated by their airports. Large scale private developers developers. These Aerotropolis communities have benefitted from vast tracts of available, developable land and the participation of a few real estate developers. These developers have privately financed. large scale communities, business parks, industrial facilities, and logistics parks where there once was desert or farmland. Combination of Public and Private sector financial contributions. In th I those communities where private sector involvement is strong and available land is at a premium, companies and units of iti h i t t i l ti t d il bl l d i t i i d it f government have made financial contributions to the Aerotropolis organization operating in that community. State and Federal grants/tax incentives. For a number of Aerotropolis communities, the ability to offer tax incentives or the award of grant money has been given by the State or Federal Government. Sumber : 2013 AIRPORT ECONOMICS & HUMAN CAPITAL CONFERENCE, Airport City Real Estate Development Opportunities & Challenges 74
  • 75. Alternatif Pembiayaan Non-Airline Revenue Target Sumber : 2013 AIRPORT ECONOMICS & HUMAN CAPITAL CONFERENCE, Airport City Real Estate 75 Development Opportunities & Challenges
  • 76. Alternatif Pembiayaan Hierarchy of Airport Participation Sumber : 2013 AIRPORT ECONOMICS & HUMAN CAPITAL CONFERENCE, Airport City Real Estate 76 Development Opportunities & Challenges 76
  • 77. Implementation & Governance Sumber : 2013 AIRPORT ECONOMICS & HUMAN CAPITAL CONFERENCE, Airport City Real Estate 77 Development Opportunities & Challenges 77
  • 78. Airport Management/Development Models Sumber : 2013 AIRPORT ECONOMICS & HUMAN CAPITAL CONFERENCE, Airport City Real Estate 78 Development Opportunities & Challenges 78
  • 79. Penyusun Nama :Ir. Fitri Indra Wardhono Pendidikan :Sarjana Teknik Strata Pertama Bidang Teknik Planologi Email :fitriwardhono@yahoo.com Blog :fitriwardhono.wordpress.com

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