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Tobacco use can lead to nicotine dependence and serious health problems. Cessation can significantly reduce the risk of suffering from smoking-related diseases. Tobacco dependence is a chronic condition that often requires repeated interventions, but effective treatments and helpful resources exist. Smokers can and do quit smoking. In fact, today there are more former smokers than current smokers.

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  1. 1. EducationHealth TopicsStrategies
  2. 2. 1OverviewTobacco use can lead to nicotine dependence andserious health problems. Cessation cansignificantly reduce the risk of suffering fromsmoking-related diseases. Tobacco dependence isa chronic condition that often requires repeatedinterventions, but effective treatments and helpfulresources exist. Smokers can and do quit smoking.In fact, today there are more former smokers thancurrent smokers.
  3. 3. 2Nicotine DependenceNicotine is the psychoactive drug in tobaccoproducts that produces dependence. Mostsmokers are dependent on nicotine.Nicotine dependence is the most common form ofchemical dependence in the UnitedStates. Research suggests that nicotine may be asaddictive as heroin, cocaine, or alcohol.
  4. 4. 3Nicotine DependenceQuitting smoking is difficult and may requiremultiple attempts. Users often relapse because ofstress, weight gain, and withdrawal symptoms.Examples of nicotine withdrawal symptoms includeirritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, andincreased appetite.
  5. 5. 4Benefits of CessationBreaking free from nicotine dependence is not theonly reason to quit smoking. Cigarette smokecontains a deadly mix of more than 7,000chemicals; hundreds are toxic and about 70 cancause cancer. Cigarette smoke can cause serioushealth problems, numerous diseases, and death.
  6. 6. 5Benefits of CessationFortunately, people who stop smoking greatlyreduce their risk for disease and premature death.Although the health benefits are greater for peoplewho stop at earlier ages, cessation is beneficial atall ages.**Smoking cessation is associated with thefollowing health benefits:**Smoking cessation lowers the risk for lung andother types of cancer.
  7. 7. 6Benefits of CessationSmoking cessation reduces the risk for coronaryheart disease, stroke, and peripheral vasculardisease. Coronary heart disease risk is substantiallyreduced within 1 to 2 years of cessation.Smoking cessation reduces respiratory symptoms,such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness ofbreath. The rate of decline in lung function isslower among persons who quit smoking.
  8. 8. 7Benefits of CessationSmoking cessation reduces the risk of developingchronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),one of the leading causes of death in the UnitedStates.Smoking cessation by women during theirreproductive years reduces the risk for infertility.Women who stop smoking during pregnancy alsoreduce their risk of having a low birth weight baby.
  9. 9. 8Smokers attempt to quitAmong current U.S. adult smokers, 68.8% reportthat they want to quit completely, and millionshave attempted to quit smoking. Starting in 2002,the number of former smokers has exceeded thenumber of current smokers.Percentage of adult smokers who stopped smokingfor more than 1 day in 2010 because they weretrying to quit:
  10. 10. 9Smokers attempt to quit52.4% of all adult smokers (23.7 million people)62.4% of smokers aged 18–24 years56.9% of smokers aged 25–44 years45.5% of smokers aged 45–64 years
  11. 11. 10Smokers attempt to quit43.5% of smokers aged 65 years or olderPercentage of high school smokers who stoppedsmoking for more than 1 day in 2009 because theywere trying to quit:50.8% of all high school students who smoke
  12. 12. 11Methods to Quit SmokingThe majority of cigarette smokers quit withoutusing evidence-based cessationtreatments.1However, the following treatmentsare proven effective for smokers who want help toquit:Brief clinical interventions (i.e., when a doctortakes 10 minutes or less to deliver advice andassistance about quitting)
  13. 13. 12Methods to Quit SmokingCounseling (e.g., individual, group, or telephonecounseling)Behavioral cessation therapies (e.g., training inproblem solving)Treatments with more person-to-person contactand intensity (e.g., more time with counselors)
  14. 14. 13Methods to Quit SmokingCessation medications found to be effective fortreating tobacco dependence include thefollowing:Nicotine replacement products1Over-the-counter(e.g., nicotine patch, gum, lozenge)Prescription (e.g., nicotine inhaler, nasal spray)
  15. 15. 14Methods to Quit SmokingPrescription non-nicotine medications, such asbupropion SR (Zyban®) and varenicline tartrate(Chantix®).The combination of medication and counseling ismore effective for smoking cessation than eithermedication or counseling alone.
  16. 16. 15Helpful ResourcesPublicationsThe following CDC publications are helpfulcessation resources for public health practitioners,businesses, and organizations. Visit CDCs onlinepublications catalog to order free copies of theseand other cessation-related materials:
  17. 17. 16Helpful ResourcesA Practical Guide to Working with Health-CareSystems on Tobacco-Use TreatmentYouth Tobacco Cessation—A Guide for MakingInformed DecisionsTelephone Quitlines: A Resource for Development,Implementation, and EvaluationQuitline Services
  18. 18. 17Helpful Resources1-800-QUIT-NOW is a free telephone supportservice that can help individuals who want to stopsmoking or using tobacco. Callers have access toseveral types of cessation information andservices, including:Free support and advice from experiencedcounselorsA personalized quit plan
  19. 19. 18Helpful ResourcesSelf-help materialsSocial support and coping strategiesThe latest information about cessationmedicationsOver-the-counter nicotine replacementmedications for eligible participants (in more thanhalf of U.S. states)
  20. 20. 19Helpful ResourcesCessation ServicesCDCs How to Quit Web pages provide a variety ofcessation tips, tools, and is a Web site dedicated to helpingsmokers quit.