Pink Eye

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Conjunctivitis is the medical name for pinkeye. It can cause swelling, itching, burning, discharge and redness of the protective membrane that lines the eyelids and covers exposed areas of the white of the eye.

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Pink Eye

  1. 1. Fitango Education Health Topics Pink Eyehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=211
  2. 2. OverviewConjunctivitis is the medical name for pinkeye. Itcan cause swelling, itching, burning, discharge andredness of the protective membrane that lines theeyelids and covers exposed areas of the white ofthe eye. 1
  3. 3. SymptomsIt can be hard to determine the exact cause ofevery case of conjunctivitis. This is because somesigns and symptoms of the condition can differdepending on the cause, and other signs andsymptoms are similar no matter what caused theconjunctivitis.Symptoms of conjunctivitis can include: 2
  4. 4. Symptoms-- Pink or red color in the white of the eye(s) (oftenone eye for bacterial and often both eyes for viralor allergic conjunctivitis)-- Swelling of the conjunctiva (the thin layer thatlines the white part of the eye and the inside of theeyelid) and/or eyelids-- Increased tearing 3
  5. 5. Symptoms-- Discharge of pus, especially yellow-green (morecommon in bacterial conjunctivitis)-- Itching, irritation, and/or burning-- Feeling like a foreign body is in the eye(s) or anurge to rub the eye(s) 4
  6. 6. Symptoms-- Crusting of eyelids or lashes sometimes occurs,especially in the morning-- Symptoms of a cold, flu, or other respiratoryinfection may also be present-- Sensitivity to bright light sometimes occurs 5
  7. 7. Symptoms-- Enlargement and/or tenderness, in some cases,of the lymph node in front of the ear. Thisenlargement may feel like a small lump whentouched. (Lymph nodes act as filters in the body,collecting and destroying viruses and bacteria.)-- Symptoms of allergy, such as an itchy nose,sneezing, a scratchy throat, or asthma may bepresent in cases of allergic conjunctivitis 6
  8. 8. SymptomsSometimes there are situations that can help yourhealthcare provider determine what is causing theconjunctivitis. For example, if a person withallergies develops conjunctivitis when the pollencount increases in the spring, this would be a signthat he or she might have allergic conjunctivitis.And if someone develops conjunctivitis during anoutbreak of viral conjunctivitis, this would be a signthat he or she might have viral conjunctivitis. 7
  9. 9. DiagnosisConjunctivitis has many causes, but in most casesit results from infection with a virus or bacteriumor from a reaction to an allergen. No matter thecause, conjunctivitis always involves inflammation(swelling) of the thin layer that lines the inside ofthe eyelid and covers the white part of the eye (theconjunctiva). But conjunctivitis also has other signsand symptoms, which may vary, depending on thecause. These signs and symptoms can be used todiagnose the type of conjunctivitis. 8
  10. 10. Diagnosis **Viral Conjunctivitis**Viral conjunctivitis can often be diagnosed fromsigns and symptoms, and patient history. Forexample, if conjunctivitis accompanies a commoncold or respiratory tract infection and if dischargefrom the eye is watery rather than thick, the causeis likely a virus. The history the patient gives (forexample, having contact with someone withconjunctivitis or having allergies) and examinationof the eye can also help a doctor make a firmdiagnosis. 9
  11. 11. Diagnosis **Viral Conjunctivitis**Laboratory tests are not usually needed todiagnose viral conjunctivitis. However, testing maybe done if a more severe form of viralconjunctivitis is suspected, such as conjunctivitiscaused by herpes simplex virus or varicella-zostervirus. This testing is done using a sample of thedischarge from an infected eye. 10
  12. 12. Diagnosis **Viral Conjunctivitis**Depending on the cause of viral conjunctivitis,some patients may have additional symptoms orconditions, such as the following:-- Common cold, flu, or other respiratory infection— conjunctivitis often occurs with respiratoryinfections; sometimes the lymph node near thefront of the ear is enlarged and painful. 11
  13. 13. Diagnosis **Viral Conjunctivitis**-- Pharyngoconjunctivial fever — conjunctivitis aswell as a fever and sore throat can occur with thissyndrome, which is most commonly caused byinfection with adenovirus serotypes 3, 4, and 7.-- Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis — this is a moresevere type of conjunctivitis; it is caused byinfection with adenovirus serotypes 8, 19, and 37. 12
  14. 14. Diagnosis **Viral Conjunctivitis**-- Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis — this type ofconjunctivitis is sometimes accompanied withnervous system involvement; it is associated withenterovirus 70 and coxsackievirus A24.-- Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis — this type ofconjunctivitis is associated with herpes simplexvirus and blister-like lesions on the skin; it mayaffect only one eye. 13
  15. 15. Diagnosis **Viral Conjunctivitis**-- Rubella and rubeola (measles) — conjunctivitiscan occur with these viral rash illnesses, which areusually accompanied by rash, fever, and cough.-- Newcastle disease — conjunctivitis canaccompany this disease, which usually occursamong poultry workers and veterinarians, not thegeneral population; Newcastle disease is caused byNewcastle disease virus. 14
  16. 16. Diagnosis **Bacterial ConjunctivitisBacterial conjunctivitis can usually be diagnosed bya doctor, nurse, or other healthcare provider fromsigns and symptoms, and patient history. Forexample, if conjunctivitis accompanies an earinfection and if discharge from the eye is thickrather than watery, the cause may be a bacterium.Although not routinely done, your healthcareprovider may obtain a sample of eye dischargefrom the conjunctiva for laboratory analysis todetermine which form of infection you have andhow best to treat it 15
  17. 17. Diagnosis **Bacterial ConjunctivitisDepending on the cause of bacterial conjunctivitis,some patients may have additional symptoms orconditions, such as the following:-- Hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis — this is amore severe type of conjunctivitis that developsrapidly and is accompanied by a lot of yellow-green discharge that returns even after beingwiped away from the eye(s). 16
  18. 18. Diagnosis **Bacterial Conjunctivitis-- Chronic bacterial conjunctivitis — often developsalong with another inflammatory condition(blepharitis) that promotes bacteria growing in theeyelid; flaky debris and warmth along the lid mayalso be present.-- Inclusion (chlamydial) conjunctivitis — morecommon in newborns; includes redness of theeye(s), swelling of the eyelids, and discharge ofpus, usually 5 to 12 days after birth. 17
  19. 19. Diagnosis **Bacterial Conjunctivitis-- Gonococcal conjunctivitis — more common innewborns; includes red eyes, thick pus in the eyes,and swelling of the eyelids, usually 2 to 4 days afterbirth.-- Trachoma — chronic follicular conjunctivitis thatleads to scarring in the conjunctiva and cornea;repeat infections occur in children less than 10years of age and is common in developingcountries. 18
  20. 20. Diagnosis **Allergic Conjunctivitis**Allergic conjunctivitis can be diagnosed from signsand symptoms, and patient history; for example,allergic conjunctivitis may occur seasonally whenpollen counts are high, and it can cause thepatients eyes to itch intensely. This type ofconjunctivitis is a common occurrence in peoplewho have other signs of allergic disease, such ashay fever, asthma, or eczema. Allergicconjunctivitis results from a persons reaction tosubstances they are allergic to, such as pollen, dustmites, animal da 19
  21. 21. Causes• Bacterial or viral infection• Allergies• Substances that cause irritation• Contact lens products, eye drops, or eyeointments 20

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