Diet and Exercise


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Diet and Exercise


These days, a wealth of nutrition information is at your finger tips. From diet books to newspaper articles, everyone seems to have an opinion about what you should be eating. It's no secret that good nutrition plays an essential role in maintaining health. 
While you already know it is important to eat a healthy diet, you may find it more difficult to sort through all of the information about nutrition and food choices. 


Regular physical activity helps improve your overall health and fitness, and reduces your risk for many chronic diseases.

Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at first, but the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans are more flexible than ever, giving you the freedom to reach your physical activity goals through different types and amounts of activities each week. It's easier than you think!

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Diet and Exercise

  1. 1. EducationHealth TopicsDiet and Exercise
  2. 2. 1Overview**Nutrition**These days, a wealth of nutrition information is atyour finger tips. From diet books to newspaperarticles, everyone seems to have an opinion aboutwhat you should be eating. Its no secret that goodnutrition plays an essential role in maintaininghealth.
  3. 3. 2Overview**Nutrition**While you already know it is important to eat ahealthy diet, you may find it more difficult to sortthrough all of the information about nutrition andfood choices.**Exercise**Regular physical activity helps improve your overallhealth and fitness, and reduces your risk for manychronic diseases.
  4. 4. 3Overview**Nutrition**Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedulemay seem difficult at first, but the 2008 PhysicalActivity Guidelines for Americans are more flexiblethan ever, giving you the freedom to reach yourphysical activity goals through different types andamounts of activities each week. Its easier thanyou think!
  5. 5. 4Physical ActivityPhysical activity is anything that gets your bodymoving. According to the 2008 Physical ActivityGuidelines for Americans, you need to do twotypes of physical activity each week to improveyour health–aerobic and muscle-strengthening.ForImportant Health BenefitsAdults need at least:
  6. 6. 5Physical Activity2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes)of moderate-intensity aerobic activity (i.e., briskwalking) every week andmuscle-strengtheningactivities on 2 or more days a week that work allmajor muscle groups (legs, hips, back, abdomen,chest, shoulders, and arms).1 hour and 15minutes (75 minutes) of vigorous-intensity aerobicactivity (i.e., jogging or running) everyweek andmuscle-strengthening activities on 2 ormore days a week that work all major musclegroups (legs, hips, back, abdome
  7. 7. 6Physical Activity10 minutes at a time is fineWe know 150 minuteseach week sounds like a lot of time, but you donthave to do it all at once. Not only is it bestto spread your activity out during the week, butyou can break it up into smaller chunks of timeduring the day. As long as youre doing youractivity at a moderate or vigorous effort for at least10 minutes at a time.
  8. 8. 7Physical ActivityGive it a tryTry going for a 10-minute brisk walk, 3times a day, 5 days a week. This will give you atotal of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity.For Even Greater Health BenefitsAdults shouldincrease their activity to:
  9. 9. 8Physical Activity5 hours (300 minutes) each week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity andmuscle-strengtheningactivities on 2 or more days a week that work allmajor muscle groups (legs, hips, back, abdomen,chest, shoulders, and arms).
  10. 10. 9Physical Activity2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes) each weekofvigrous-intensity aerobic activity andmuscle-strengthening activities on 2 or more days a weekthat work all major muscle groups (legs, hips, back,abdomen, chest, shoulders, and arms).
  11. 11. 10Physical ActivityAn equivalent mix of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity andmuscle-strengtheningactivities on 2 or more days a week that work allmajor muscle groups (legs, hips, back, abdomen,chest, shoulders, and arms).**Aerobic activity – what counts?**
  12. 12. 11Physical ActivityAerobic activity or "cardio" gets you breathingharder and your heart beating faster. From pushinga lawn mower, to taking a dance class, to biking tothe store – all types of activities count. As long asyoure doing them at a moderate or vigorousintensity for at least 10 minutes at a time.Intensity is how hard your body is working duringaerobic activity.
  13. 13. 12Physical ActivityHow do you know if youre doing light, moderate,or vigorous intensity aerobic activities?For most people, light daily activities such asshopping, cooking, or doing the laundry doesntcount toward the guidelines. Why? Your body isntworking hard enough to get your heart rate up.
  14. 14. 13Physical ActivityModerate-intensity aerobic activity means youreworking hard enough to raise your heart rate andbreak a sweat. One way to tell is that youll be ableto talk, but not sing the words to your favoritesong. Here are some examples of activities thatrequire moderate effort:-- Walking fast-- Doing water aerobics
  15. 15. 14Physical Activity-- Riding a bike on level ground or with few hills-- Playing doubles tennis-- Pushing a lawn mower
  16. 16. 15Physical ActivityVigorous-intensity aerobic activity means yourebreathing hard and fast, and your heart rate hasgone up quite a bit. If youre working at this level,you wont be able to say more than a few wordswithout pausing for a breath. Here are someexamples of activities that require vigorous effort:-- Jogging or running-- Swimming laps
  17. 17. 16Physical Activity-- Riding a bike fast or on hills-- Playing singles tennis-- Playing basketball
  18. 18. 17Physical ActivityYou can do moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobicactivity, or a mix of the two each week. A rule ofthumb is that 1 minute of vigorous-intensityactivity is about the same as 2 minutes ofmoderate-intensity activity.
  19. 19. 18Physical ActivitySome people like to do vigorous types of activitybecause it gives them about the same healthbenefits in half the time. If you havent been veryactive lately, increase your activity level slowly. Youneed to feel comfortable doing moderate-intensityactivities before you move on to more vigorousones. The guidelines are about doing physicalactivity that is right for you.
  20. 20. 19Physical Activity**Muscle-strengthening activities – what counts?**Besides aerobic activity, you need to do things tostrengthen your muscles at least 2 days a week.These activities should work all the major musclegroups of your body (legs, hips, back, chest,abdomen, shoulders, and arms).
  21. 21. 20Physical Activity**Muscle-strengthening activities – what counts?**To gain health benefits, muscle-strengtheningactivities need to be done to the point where itshard for you to do another repetition withouthelp. A repetition is one complete movement ofan activity, like lifting a weight or doing a sit-up. Try to do 8—12 repetitions per activity thatcount as 1 set. Try to do at least 1 set of muscle-strengthening activities, but to gain even morebenefits, do 2 or 3 sets.
  22. 22. 21Physical Activity**Muscle-strengthening activities – what counts?**You can do activities that strengthen your muscleson the same or different days that you do aerobicactivity, whatever works best. Just keep in mindthat muscle-strengthening activities dont counttoward your aerobic activity total.There are many ways you can strengthen yourmuscles, whether its at home or the gym. You maywant to try the following:
  23. 23. 22Physical Activity**Muscle-strengthening activities – what counts?**-- Lifting weights-- Working with resistance bands-- Doing exercises that use your body weight forresistance (i.e., push ups, sit ups)-- Heavy gardening (i.e., digging, shoveling)-- Yoga
  24. 24. 23Physical Activity**What if you have a disability?**If you are an adult with a disability, regular physicalactivity can provide you with important healthbenefits, like a stronger heart, lungs, and muscles,improved mental health, and a better ability to doeveryday tasks. Its best to talk with your healthcare provider before you begin a physical activityroutine. Try to get advice from a professional withexperience in physical activity and disability. Theycan tell you more about the amounts and types ofphysical activity that are appropriat
  25. 25. 24Food GroupsAre you interested in healthy eating and having abalanced diet? If so, youll want to learn moreabout food groups.You may have grown up withthe "Basic 4": dairy group, meat group, graingroup, and the fruits and vegetables group. Asnutrition science has changed, so have these foodgroups.
  26. 26. 25Food Groups**What are the basic food groups?**Foods are grouped together when they sharesimilar nutritional properties. The DietaryGuidelines for Americans, 2010 has five foodgroups: vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy and aprotein group, which includes meat, poultry, fish,legumes and nuts.FoodGroupsExamplesVegetablesThe vegetables you eatmay be fresh, frozen, canned or dried and may beeaten whole, cut-up, or mashed. You should eat avariety of dark green, red and orange vegetables,as well as beans and peas (which are also consider
  27. 27. 26Food Groups**What are the basic food groups?***Oils are NOT a food group, but they provideessential nutrients such as vitamin E.**How much of each food group should I eat?**
  28. 28. 27Food Groups**What are the basic food groups?**The amount of food you need to eat from eachgroup depends on your age, sex, and level ofphysical activity. For information about the foodgroups and the recommended daily amountsvisit Daily Food Plans.
  29. 29. 28Dietary FatWhat counts as fat? Are some fats better thanother fats? While fats are essential for normalbody function, some fats are better for you thanothers. Trans fats, saturated fats and cholesterolare less healthy than polyunsaturated andmonounsaturated fats.
  30. 30. 29Dietary Fat**How much total dietary fat do I need?**The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005recommend that Americans keep their total fatintake within certain limits. This limit is defined asa percentage of your total calorie needs.
  31. 31. 30Dietary Fat**How much total dietary fat do I need?**Age GroupTotal Fat LimitsChildren ages 2 to 330%to 35% of total caloriesChildren and adolescentsages 4 to 1825% to 35% of total caloriesAdults,ages 19 and older20% to 35% of total calories
  32. 32. 31Dietary Fat**How much total dietary fat do I need?**You can meet this recommendation by following ahealthy meal plan that meets your calorie needsand is designed to provide 20% to 35% of caloriesfrom total fat. The USDA Food Guide ( and DASH eating plan are examplesof healthy meal plans that can meet your calorieneeds and provide the right amounts of fat.
  33. 33. 32Dietary Fat**How much total dietary fat do I need?** lets you enter your age, sex,height, weight, and activity level to get a meal planspecific to your calorie needs.DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)Eating Plan (PDF-980k) provides a healthy eatingplan with menu examples and recipes to get youstarted.
  34. 34. 33Dietary Fat**How much total dietary fat do I need?**If you have children, you may be concerned aboutwhether they should watch their fat intake. Forproper growth, children and teens need healthydiets that provide the recommended fatintakes. Children less than 2 years of age needmore calories due to rapid growth anddevelopment. For this reason, nonfat and low-fatmilks are not recommended for children two yearsand under.
  35. 35. 34Dietary Fat**How much total dietary fat do I need?**Quick Q& AIf some fats are healthier thanothers, can I eat as much of these fats as Iwant?No, its best to keep your total fat intakebetween 20 and 35% of your total calories eachday. A healthy eating plan such as MyPyramid (link)or the DASH eating plan (link) contain between 20and 35% of calories as fat. Check out these plans toget the right amounts of fat you need each day.
  36. 36. 35CarbohydratesNot sure what to think about carbohydrates thesedays? Youve come to the right section. Here arethe facts to separate the hype from the truth aboutcarbohydrates.What are carbohydrates?Your bodyuses carbohydrates (carbs) to make glucose whichis the fuel that gives you energy and helps keepeverything going. Your body can use glucoseimmediately or store it in your liver and musclesfor when it is needed.You can find carbohydrates inthe following:
  37. 37. 36CarbohydratesFruitsVegetablesBreads, cereals, and other grainsMilk and milk productsFoods containing added sugars (e.g., cakes,cookies, and sugar-sweetened beverages).
  38. 38. 37CarbohydratesHealthier foods higher in carbohydrates includeones that provide dietary fiber and whole grains aswell as those without added sugars. What aboutfoods higher in carbohydrates such as sodas andcandies that also contain added sugars? Those arethe ones that add extra calories but not manynutrients to your diet.
  39. 39. 38CarbohydratesQuick Q& AIve heard there are "good" carbsand "bad" carbs? Can you provide me moreinformation?Some diet books use "bad" carbs totalk about foods with refined carbohydrates (i.e.,meaning theyre made from white flour and addedsugars). Examples include white bread, cakes, andcookies. "Good" carbs is used to describe foodsthat have more fiber and complex carbohydrates.Complex carbohydrates are carbohydrates thattake longer to break down into glucose.Theseterms arent used in the D
  40. 40. 39CarbohydratesWhat are the types of carbohydrates?There aretwo main types of carbohydrates:Complex carbohydratesSimple carbohydrates
  41. 41. 40CarbohydratesComplex CarbohydratesStarch and dietary fiber arethe two types of complex carbohydrates. Starchmust be broken down through digestion beforeyour body can use it as a glucose source. Quite afew foods contain starch and dietary fiber such asbreads, cereals, and vegetables:Starch is in certain vegetables (i.e., potatoes, drybeans, peas, and corn).
  42. 42. 41CarbohydratesStarch is also found in breads, cereals, and grains.Dietary fiber is in vegetables, fruits, and wholegrain foods.Dietary FiberYou may have seen dietary fiber onthe label listed as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber.Soluble fiber is found in the following:
  43. 43. 42CarbohydratesOatmealOat branNuts and seedsMost fruits (e.g., strawberries, blueberries, pears,and apples)Dry beans and peas
  44. 44. 43CarbohydratesInsoluble fiber found in the following:Whole wheat breadBarleyBrown riceCouscousBulgur or whole grain cereals
  45. 45. 44CarbohydratesWheat branSeedsMost vegetablesFruits
  46. 46. 45CarbohydratesWhich type is best? Both! Each has importanthealth benefits so eat a variety of these foods toget enough of both. Youre also more likely to getother nutrients that you might miss if you justchose 1 or 2 high-fiber foods.
  47. 47. 46CarbohydratesHow much dietary fiber do I need each day? Itsrecommended that you get 14 grams of dietaryfiber for every 1,000 calories that you consumeeach day. If you need 2,000 calories each day, youshould try to include 28 grams of dietary fiber. Tofind out how many calories you need each day,visit and enter your age, sex,height, weight, and activity level in the My PyramidPlan tool. Then refer to the Easy Fiber Estimator tofind how many grams you need.
  48. 48. 47CarbohydratesAt first, you may find it challenging to eat all ofyour daily fiber grams. Just take it slowly and try tochoose higher-fiber foods more often. Over time,youll gradually be eating more fiber!Try these tips to jumpstart your intake of dietaryfiber:
  49. 49. 48CarbohydratesChoose whole fruits more often than fruit juice.Fresh, frozen, or canned—it doesnt matter— theyall count!Try to eat two vegetables with your evening meal.Keep a bowl of veggies already washed andprepared your refrigerator—try carrots,cucumbers, or celery for a quick snack.
  50. 50. 49CarbohydratesMake a meal around dried beans or peas (alsocalled legumes) instead of meat.Choose whole grain foods more often. Take a lookat the "whole grains buzz words list" below to helpyou decide. A good guide is to make at least ½ ofyour grain choices be whole grains.
  51. 51. 50CarbohydratesStart your day with a whole grain breakfast cereallow in added sugar. Top your cereal with fruit foreven more fiber. While bananas may come to yourmind first, you can add even more variety by alsotrying sliced peaches or berries. You can often findthese fruits year-round in the frozen foods sectionof your grocery store.
  52. 52. 51CarbohydratesWhole Grain "Buzz Words"The Dietary Guidelinesfor Americans recommend that you try to make atleast half of your daily grain choices as wholegrains.You can find out if the food you are eating is madeof whole grains by looking at the ingredients list ofthe food label. The whole grain should be the firstingredient listed. The following are some examplesof how whole grains could be listed:
  53. 53. 52CarbohydratesbuckwheatBrown ricebulgur (cracked wheat)milletwild ricepopcorn*
  54. 54. 53Carbohydratesquinoatriticalewhole-grain barleywhole-grain cornwhole oats/oatmealwhole rye
  55. 55. 54Carbohydrateswhole wheat*Popcorn is a whole grain that can have added fatand salt. Try air-popping your popcorn to avoidthese extras. If youre buying microwave popcorn,look for a lower-fat variety. You may also want totry the snack size bag to help with portion control.Grains Galore!Here are some explanations of less-familiar grains:
  56. 56. 55CarbohydratesBulgur. A staple of Middle Eastern dishes. Bulgurwheat consists of kernels that have been steamed,dried, and crushed. It has a tender and chewytexture.Millet. A staple grain in parts of Africa and Asia.Millet comes in several varieties and has a blandflavor that is a background to other seasonings.
  57. 57. 56CarbohydratesQuinoa. A grain that has been traditionally used inSouth American cuisine. Its texture has beencompared to that of couscous.Triticale. A grain that is a hybrid of wheat and rye.It comes in several varieties including whole berry,flakes, and flour.Simple Carbohydrates
  58. 58. 57CarbohydratesSimple carbohydrates include sugars foundnaturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables milk,and milk products. Simple carbohydrates alsoinclude sugars added during food processing andrefining. Whats the difference? In general, foodswith added sugars have fewer nutrients than foodswith naturally-occurring sugars.How can I avoid added sugars?
  59. 59. 58CarbohydratesOne way to avoid these sugars is to read theingredient lists on food labels.Look for these ingredients as added sugars:Brown sugarCorn sweetenerCorn syrup
  60. 60. 59CarbohydratesDextroseFructoseFruit juice concentratesGlucoseHigh-fructose corn syrupHoney
  61. 61. 60CarbohydratesInvert sugarLactoseMaltoseMalt SyrupMolassesRaw sugar
  62. 62. 61CarbohydratesSucroseSugarSyrup--If you see any of these in the ingredient list, youknow the food has added sugars. The closer to thetop of the list, the more of that sugar is in thefood.
  63. 63. 62CarbohydratesYou can learn more about sugars on the food labelby visiting How to Understand and Use theNutrition Facts Label.Other tips for avoiding added sugars include—Choose water instead of sugar-sweetened sodas.
  64. 64. 63CarbohydratesChoose 4 fluid ounces (1/2 cup) of 100% fruit juicerather than a fruit drink.Have a piece of fruit for dessert and skip dessertswith added sugar.Choose breakfast cereals that contain no or lessadded sugars.
  65. 65. 64CarbohydratesIf you want to learn more about avoiding addedsugar in what you drink, check out Re-think yourDrink.You probably already know sugars and starches canplay a role in causing cavities. But its worthmentioning again, particularly as far as kids areconcerned. Be sure to also brush, floss, and drinkfluoridated water to help prevent cavities.
  66. 66. 65CarbohydratesHow much carbohydrate do I need?Your bestapproach is to follow a meal plan that gives you45% to 65% of the calories as carbohydrates. Howdo you do this? Check out these two meal or DASH eating plan. Both of thesecan give you the calories you need and the rightamounts of carbohydrate.
  67. 67. lets you enter your age, sex,height, weight, and activity level to get a meal planspecific to your calorie needs.DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)Eating Plan (PDF-980k) provides a healthy eatingplan with menu examples and recipes to get youstarted.
  68. 68. 67CarbohydratesHHS Health Facts: Choose CarbohydratesWisely (PDF-96k) explains why Its important tochoose carbohydrates wisely.
  69. 69. 68ProteinWhat do you think about when you hear the wordprotein? Maybe its an ad for some protein shakethat promises massive muscles? Or is it the lasthigh-protein diet craze you read about? With allthis talk about protein, you might think Americanswere at risk for not eating enough. In fact, most ofus eat more protein than we need.
  70. 70. 69ProteinProtein is in many foods that we eat on a regularbasis.This section will help you learn more aboutprotein. Youll find information about what foodshave protein and what happens when we eat moreprotein than we need. ****What is Protein?**
  71. 71. 70ProteinProteins are part of every cell, tissue, and organ inour bodies. These body proteins are constantlybeing broken down and replaced. The protein inthe foods we eat is digested into amino acids thatare later used to replace these proteins in ourbodies.Protein is found in the following foods:-- meats, poultry, and fish
  72. 72. 71Protein-- legumes (dry beans and peas)-- tofu-- eggs-- nuts and seeds-- milk and milk products
  73. 73. 72Protein-- grains, some vegetables, and some fruits(provide only small amounts of protein relative toother sources)As we mentioned, most adults in the United Statesget more than enough protein to meet their needs.Its rare for someone who is healthy and eating avaried diet to not get enough protein.
  74. 74. 73Protein**What are the types of protein?**Proteins are made up of amino acids. Think ofamino acids as the building blocks. There are 20different amino acids that join together to make alltypes of protein. Some of these amino acids cantbe made by our bodies, so these are known asessential amino acids. Its essential that our dietprovide these. In the diet, protein sources arelabeled according to how many of the essentialamino acids they provide:
  75. 75. 74Protein**What are the types of protein?**-- A complete protein source is one that providesall of the essential amino acids. You may also hearthese sources called high quality proteins. Animal-based foods; for example, meat, poultry, fish, milk,eggs, and cheese are considered complete proteinsources.
  76. 76. 75Protein**What are the types of protein?**-- An incomplete protein source is one that is lowin one or more of the essential aminoacids.Complementary proteins are two or moreincomplete protein sources that together provideadequate amounts of all the essential amino acids.--
  77. 77. 76Protein**What are the types of protein?**For example, rice contains low amounts of certainessential amino acids; however, these sameessential amino acids are found in greater amountsin dry beans. Similarly, dry beans contain loweramounts of other essential amino acids that can befound in larger amounts in rice. Together, thesetwo foods can provide adequate amounts of all theessential amino acids the body needs.
  78. 78. 77Protein**What are the types of protein?**Quick Q& AIs it true that complementaryproteins must be eaten together to count as acomplete protein source?In the past, it wasthought that these complementary proteinsneeded to be eaten at the same meal for yourbody to use them together. Now studies show thatyour body can combine complementary proteinsthat are eaten within the same day.**How much protein do I need?**
  79. 79. 78Protein**What are the types of protein?**Maybe youve wondered how much protein youneed each day. In general, its recommended that10–35% of your daily calories come from protein.Here are examples of amounts of protein in food:1 cup of milk has 8 grams of protein
  80. 80. 79Protein**What are the types of protein?**A 3-ounce piece of meat has about 21 grams ofprotein1 cup of dry beans has about 16 grams of proteinAn 8-ounce container of yogurt has about 11grams of protein
  81. 81. 80Protein**What are the types of protein?**Added together, just these four sources wouldmeet the protein needs of an adult male (56grams). This doesnt count all the other foods thatadd smaller amounts of protein to his diet.Ratherthan just focusing on your protein needs, choosean overall healthy eating plan that provides theprotein you need as well as other nutrients.
  82. 82. 81Vitamins and MineralsVitamins are organic substances (made by plantsor animals), minerals are inorganic elements thatcome from the earth; soil and water and areabsorbed by plants. Animals and humans absorbminerals from the plants they eat. Vitamins andminerals are nutrients that your body needs togrow and develop normally.
  83. 83. 82Vitamins and MineralsVitamins and minerals, have a unique role to playin maintaining your health. For example Vitamin Dhelps your body absorb the amount of calcium (amineral) it needs to form strong bones. Adeficiency in vitamin D can result in a diseasecalled rickets (softening of the bones caused by thebodies inability to absorb the mineral calcium.) Thebody cannot produce calcium; therefore, it mustbe absorbed through our food. Other minerals likechromium, copper, iodine, iron, selenium, and zincare cal
  84. 84. 83Fruits and Vegetables"Eat your fruits and vegetables." Youve likelyheard this statement since childhood. Researchshows why it is good advice:Healthy diets rich in fruits and vegetables mayreduce the risk of cancer and other chronicdiseases.
  85. 85. 84Fruits and VegetablesFruits and vegetables also provide essentialvitamins and minerals, fiber, and other substancesthat are important for good health.Most fruits and vegetables are naturally low in fatand calories and are filling.Not sure how many fruits and vegetables youshould be eating each day?
  86. 86. 85Fruits and VegetablesVisit the Fruit and Vegetable Calculator. Here youcan calculate your fruit and vegetablerecommendations based on your calorie needs foryour age, sex, and activity level. This site also hashelpful tips and photographs of 1/2 cup and 1 cupfruit and vegetable examples.Want to know the amount of each food group youneed daily? Visit: MyPlate Daily Food Plan to findout and receive a customized Daily Food Plan.
  87. 87. 86Fruits and VegetablesCurious as to whether fruits and vegetables canhelp you manage your weight?
  88. 88. 87Fruits and VegetablesTake a look at this How to Use Fruits andVegetables to Help Manage your Weight brochureand learn about fruits and vegetables and theirrole in your weight management plan. Tips to cutcalories by substituting fruits and vegetables areincluded with meal-by-meal examples. You willalso find snack ideas that are 100 calories or less.With these helpful tips, you will soon be on yourway to adding more fruits and vegetables into yourhealthy eating plan.