Cancer Screening
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Cancer Screening

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Cancer screening is an essential part of preventative health screening for women of all ages. Here you can read about screening for breast and gynecological cancers. 

Cancer screening is an essential part of preventative health screening for women of all ages. Here you can read about screening for breast and gynecological cancers. 

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Cancer Screening Presentation Transcript

  • 1. http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=607Fitango EducationHealth TopicsCancer Screening
  • 2. 1OverviewCancer screening is an essential part ofpreventative health screening for women of allages. Here you can read about screening for breastand gynecological cancers.
  • 3. 2Breast CancerIn the United States in 2008,* 210,203 womenwere diagnosed with breast cancer, and 40,589women died from the disease.† Except for skincancer, breast cancer is the most common canceramong American women. CDC supports breastcancer surveillance and research, and provides freeor low-cost mammograms to underserved women.
  • 4. 3Breast Cancer**Kinds of Screening Tests**Breast cancer screening means checking awomans breasts for cancer before there are signsor symptoms of the disease. Three main tests areused to screen the breasts for cancer. Talk to yourdoctor about which tests are right for you, andwhen you should have them.
  • 5. 4Breast Cancer**Kinds of Screening Tests**-- Mammogram. A mammogram is an X-ray of thebreast. Mammograms are the best method todetect breast cancer early when it is easier to treatand before it is big enough to feel or causesymptoms. Having regular mammograms canlower the risk of dying from breast cancer. If youare age 50 to 74 years, be sure to have a screeningmammogram every two years. If you are age 40–49 years, talk to your doctor about when and howoften you should have a screening mammogram.
  • 6. 5Breast Cancer**Kinds of Screening Tests**-- Clinical breast exam. A clinical breast exam is anexamination by a doctor or nurse, who uses his orher hands to feel for lumps or other changes.1-- Breast self-exam. A breast self-exam is when youcheck your own breasts for lumps, changes in sizeor shape of the breast, or any other changes in thebreasts or underarm (armpit).
  • 7. 6Breast Cancer**Kinds of Screening Tests**-- Which tests to choose: Having a clinical breastexam or a breast self-exam have not been found todecrease risk of dying from breast cancer.2 Keep inmind that, at this time, the best way to find breastcancer is with a mammogram. If you choose tohave clinical breast exams and to perform breastself-exams, be sure you also get regularmammograms.**Where Can I Go to Get Screened?**
  • 8. 7Breast Cancer**Kinds of Screening Tests**Most likely, you can get screened for breast cancerat a clinic, hospital, or doctors office. If you wantto be screened for breast cancer, call your doctorsoffice. They can help you schedule anappointment. Most health insurance companiespay for the cost of breast cancer screening tests.
  • 9. 8Breast Cancer**Kinds of Screening Tests**Are you worried about the cost? The NationalBreast and Cervical Cancer Early DetectionProgram (NBCCEDP) offers free or low-costmammograms and education about breast cancer.Find out if you qualify.
  • 10. 9Cervical CancerCervical cancer is the easiest female cancer toprevent, with regular screening tests and follow-up. Two screening tests can help prevent cervicalcancer or find it early—-- The Pap test (or Pap smear) looks for precancers,cell changes on the cervix that might becomecervical cancer if they are not treatedappropriately.
  • 11. 10Cervical Cancer-- The HPV test looks for the virus (humanpapillomavirus) that can cause these cell changes.
  • 12. 11Cervical CancerThe Pap test is recommended for all women, andcan be done in a doctors office or clinic. Duringthe Pap test, the doctor will use a plastic or metalinstrument, called a speculum, to widen yourvagina. This helps the doctor examine the vaginaand the cervix, and collect a few cells and mucusfrom the cervix and the area around it. The cellsare then placed on a slide or in a bottle of liquidand sent to a laboratory. The laboratory will checkto be sure that the cells are normal.
  • 13. 12Cervical CancerIf you are getting the HPV test in addition to thePap test, the cells collected during the Pap test willbe tested for HPV at the laboratory. Talk with yourdoctor, nurse, or other health care professionalabout whether the HPV test is right for you.
  • 14. 13Cervical CancerWhen you have a Pap test, the doctor may alsoperform a pelvic exam, checking your uterus,ovaries, and other organs to make sure there areno problems. There are times when your doctormay perform a pelvic exam without giving you aPap test. Ask your doctor which tests you arehaving, if you are unsure.
  • 15. 14Cervical CancerIf you have a low income or do not have healthinsurance, you may be able to get a free or low-cost Pap test through the National Breast andCervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Find outif you qualify.**When to Get Screened**
  • 16. 15Cervical CancerYou should start getting regular Pap tests at age 21.The Pap test, which screens for cervical cancer, isone of the most reliable and effective cancerscreening tests available.
  • 17. 16Cervical CancerThe only cancer for which the Pap test screens iscervical cancer. It does not screen for ovarian,uterine, vaginal, or vulvar cancers. So even if youhave a Pap test regularly, if you notice any signs orsymptoms that are unusual for you, see a doctor tofind out why youre having them. If your Pap testresults are normal, your doctor may tell you thatyou can wait three years until your next Pap test.
  • 18. 17Cervical CancerIf you are aged 30 years or older, you may chooseto have an HPV test along with the Pap test. Bothtests can be performed by your doctor at the sametime. When both tests are performed together, it iscalled co-testing. If your test results are normal,your chance of getting cervical cancer in the nextfew years is very low. Your doctor may then tellyou that you can wait as long as five years for yournext screening. But you should still go to thedoctor regularly for a checkup.
  • 19. 18Cervical CancerIf you are 21–65 years old, it is important for youto continue getting a Pap test as directed by yourdoctor—even if you think you are too old to have achild or are not having sex anymore. However, ifyou are older than 65 and have had normal Paptest results for several years, or if you have hadyour cervix removed as part of a totalhysterectomy for non-cancerous conditions, likefibroids, your doctor may tell you that you do notneed to have a Pap test anymore.
  • 20. 19Cervical CancerFor more information, please read the U.S.Preventive Services Task Force overview of cervicalcancer screening recommendations.**How to Prepare for Your Pap Test**You should not schedule your Pap test for a timewhen you are having your period. If you are goingto have a Pap test in the next two days—
  • 21. 20Cervical Cancer-- You should not douche (rinse the vagina withwater or another fluid).-- You should not use a tampon.-- You should not have sex.-- You should not use a birth control foam, cream,or jelly.
  • 22. 21Cervical Cancer-- You should not use a medicine or cream in yourvagina.**Pap Test Results**
  • 23. 22Cervical CancerIt can take up to three weeks to receive your Paptest results. If your test shows that somethingmight not be normal, your doctor will contact youand figure out how best to follow up. There aremany reasons why Pap test results might not benormal. It usually does not mean you have cancer.
  • 24. 23Cervical CancerIf your Pap test results show cells that are notnormal and may become cancer, your doctor willlet you know if you need to be treated. In mostcases, treatment prevents cervical cancer fromdeveloping. It is important to follow up with yourdoctor right away to learn more about your testresults and receive any treatment that may beneeded.**Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines**
  • 25. 24Cervical CancerThe Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelineschart [PDF-62KB] compares recommendationsfrom theAmerican Cancer Society, U.S. PreventiveServices Task Force, and the American College ofObstetricians and Gynecologists regarding—-- When to start screening.-- Screening methods and intervals.
  • 26. 25Cervical Cancer-- When to stop screening.-- Screening after a total hysterectomy.-- Pelvic exams.-- Screening among women who have beenvaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • 27. 26Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**There is no way to know for sure if you will getovarian cancer. Most women get it without beingat high risk. However, several factors may increasea woman’s risk for ovarian cancer, including ifyou—-- Are middle-aged or older.
  • 28. 27Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Have close family members (such as yourmother, sister, aunt, or grandmother) on eitheryour mothers or your fathers side, who have hadovarian cancer.-- Have a genetic mutation (abnormality) calledBRCA1 or BRCA2.-- Have had breast, uterine, or colorectal (colon)cancer.
  • 29. 28Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Have an Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewishbackground.-- Have never given birth or have had troublegetting pregnant.-- Have endometriosis (a condition where tissuefrom the lining of the uterus grows elsewhere inthe body).
  • 30. 29Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**In addition, some studies suggest that women whotake estrogen by itself (without progesterone) for10 or more years may have an increased risk ofovarian cancer.If one or more of these factors is true for you, itdoes not mean you will get ovarian cancer. But youshould speak with your doctor about your risk.
  • 31. 30Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**There is no simple and reliable way to screen forovarian cancer in women who do not have anysigns or symptoms.**Cancer Screening**
  • 32. 31Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**Screening is when a test is used to look for adisease before there are any symptoms. Cancerscreening tests are effective when they can detectdisease early. Detecting disease early can lead tomore effective treatment. Diagnostic tests are usedwhen a person has symptoms. The purpose ofdiagnostic tests is to find out, or diagnose, what iscausing the symptoms. Diagnostic tests also maybe used to check a person who is considered athigh risk for cancer.
  • 33. 32Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**The Pap test does not check for ovarian cancer. Theonly cancer the Pap test screens for is cervicalcancer. Since there is no simple and reliable way toscreen for any gynecologic cancers except forcervical cancer, it is especially important torecognize warning signs, and learn what you cando to reduce your risk.Here is what you can do—
  • 34. 33Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Pay attention to your body, and know what isnormal for you.-- If you notice any changes in your body that arenot normal for you and could be a sign of ovariancancer, talk to your doctor about them and askabout possible causes, such as ovarian cancer.
  • 35. 34Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Ask your doctor if you should have a test, such asa rectovaginal pelvic exam, a transvaginalultrasound, or a CA-125 blood test if—-- You have any unexplained signs or symptoms ofovarian cancer. These tests sometimes help find orrule out ovarian cancer.
  • 36. 35Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**-- You have had breast, uterine, or colorectalcancer; or if a close relative has had ovarian cancer.**Prevention**There is no known way to prevent ovarian cancer.But these things may lower your chance of gettingovarian cancer—
  • 37. 36Ovarian Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Having used birth control pills for more than fiveyears.-- Having had a tubal ligation (getting your tubestied), both ovaries removed, or a hysterectomy (anoperation in which the uterus, and sometimes thecervix, is removed).-- Having given birth.
  • 38. 37Uterine Cancer**Risk Factors**There is no way to know for sure if you will getuterine cancer. Some women get it without beingat high risk. However, several factors may increasethe chance that you will get uterine cancer,including if you—-- Are older than 50.
  • 39. 38Uterine Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Are obese (have an abnormally high, unhealthyamount of body fat).-- Take estrogen by itself (without progesterone)for hormone replacement during menopause.-- Have had trouble getting pregnant, or have hadfewer than five periods in a year before startingmenopause.
  • 40. 39Uterine Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Take tamoxifen, a drug used to treat certaintypes of breast cancer.-- Have close family members who have haduterine, colon, or ovarian cancer.-- If one or more of these things is true for you, itdoes not mean you will get uterine cancer. But youshould speak with your doctor to see if he or sherecommends more frequent exams.
  • 41. 40Uterine Cancer**Risk Factors**There are no simple and reliable ways to test foruterine cancer in women who do not have anysigns or symptoms. The Pap test does not screenfor uterine cancer. The only cancer the Pap testscreens for is cervical cancer.**Screening**
  • 42. 41Uterine Cancer**Risk Factors**Screening is when a test is used to look for adisease before there are any symptoms. Diagnostictests are used when a person has symptoms. Thepurpose of diagnostic tests is to find out, ordiagnose, what is causing the symptoms.Diagnostic tests also may be used to check aperson who is considered at high risk for cancer.
  • 43. 42Uterine Cancer**Risk Factors**Since there is no simple and reliable way to screenfor any gynecologic cancers except for cervicalcancer, it is especially important to recognizewarning signs and learn what you can do to reduceyour risk.
  • 44. 43Uterine Cancer**Risk Factors**If you have symptoms or believe you may be athigh risk for uterine cancer, your doctor mayperform an endometrial biopsy or a transvaginalultrasound. These tests can be used to helpdiagnose or rule out uterine cancer. Your doctormay do this test in his or her office, or may referyou to another doctor. The doctor might performmore tests if the endometrial biopsy does notprovide enough information, or if symptomscontinue.
  • 45. 44Uterine Cancer**Prevention**There is no known way to prevent uterine cancer.But these things may reduce your chance ofgetting uterine cancer—-- Using birth control pills.-- Maintaining a healthy weight and beingphysically active.
  • 46. 45Uterine Cancer**Prevention**-- Taking progesterone, if you are taking estrogen.-- Ask your doctor about how often you should bechecked for uterine cancer, especially if you thinkthat you have factors that increase your chance ofgetting it.
  • 47. 46Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**There is no way to know for sure if you will getvaginal or vulvar cancer. Some women get thesecancers without being at high risk. However,several factors may increase the chance that youwill get vaginal or vulvar cancer, including if you—-- Have HPV.
  • 48. 47Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Have had cervical precancer or cervical cancer.-- Have a condition that weakens your immunesystem (such as HIV, the virus that can lead toAIDS), making it hard for your body to fight offhealth problems.-- Smoke.-- Have chronic vulvar itching or burning.
  • 49. 48Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**If one or more of these things is true for you, itdoes not mean you will get vaginal or vulvarcancer. But you should speak with your doctor tosee if he or she recommends more frequentexams.**Screening**There is no simple and reliable way to test forvaginal or vulvar cancers in women who do nothave any signs or symptoms.
  • 50. 49Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**Screening is when a test is used to look for adisease before there are any symptoms. Cancerscreening tests are effective when they can detectdisease early. Detecting disease early can lead tomore effective treatment. Diagnostic tests are usedwhen a person has symptoms. The purpose ofdiagnostic tests is to find out, or diagnose, what iscausing the symptoms. Diagnostic tests also maybe used to check a person who is considered athigh risk for cancer.
  • 51. 50Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**The Pap test does not screen for vaginal or vulvarcancers. Since there is no simple and reliable wayto screen for any gynecologic cancers exceptcervical cancer, it is especially important torecognize warning signs, and learn what you cando to reduce your risk.Here are steps you can take—
  • 52. 51Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Pay attention to your body, and know what isnormal for you.-- If you notice any changes in your body that arenot normal for you and could be a sign of eithervaginal or vulvar cancer, talk to your doctor aboutthem and ask about possible causes.
  • 53. 52Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**-- Visit your doctor regularly for a checkup. Duringyour checkup, your doctor may perform a pelvicexamination to look for signs of vaginal and vulvarcancer.-- When vaginal and vulvar cancers are found early,treatment is most effective.
  • 54. 53Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**If your doctor says that you have vaginal or vulvarcancer, ask to be referred to a gynecologiconcologist—a doctor who has been trained to treatcancers like these. This doctor will work with youto create a treatment plan.**Cancer Prevention**
  • 55. 54Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a commonvirus with more than 100 different kinds or types.More than 30 of the types can be passed from oneperson to another during sex. Almost all cervicalcancers and some vaginal and vulvar cancers arecaused by HPV.
  • 56. 55Vaginal or Vulvar Cancer**Risk Factors**There is a vaccine that protects against the types ofHPV that most often cause cervical, vaginal, andvulvar cancers. It is given in a series of three shots.The vaccine is recommended for 11 and 12 yearold girls. It is also recommended for girls andwomen aged 13 through 26 who did not get any orall of the shots when they were younger. (Note:The vaccine can be given to girls beginning at age9.)