Brain Tumor

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When most normal cells grow
old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes, this
process goes wrong. New cells form when the body doesn't need them, and old or
damaged cells don't die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms
a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.

Primary brain tumors can be benign or malignant:

Benign brain tumors do not contain cancer cells:

Usually, benign tumors can be removed, and
they seldom grow back.

Benign brain tumors usually have an obvious
border or edge. Cells from benign tumors rarely invade tissues around them.
They don't spread to other parts of the body. However, benign tumors can press
on sensitive areas of the brain and cause serious health problems.

Unlike benign tumors in most other parts of
the body, benign brain tumors are sometimes life threatening.

Benign brain tumors may become malignant.

Malignant brain tumors (also called brain
cancer) contain cancer cells:

Malignant brain tumors are generally more
serious and often are a threat to life.

They are likely to grow rapidly and crowd
or invade the nearby healthy brain tissue.

Cancer cells may break away from malignant
brain tumors and spread to other parts of the brain or to the spinal cord. They
rarely spread to other parts of the body.

Tumor Grade

Doctors group brain tumors by grade.
The grade of a tumor refers to the way the cells look under a microscope:

Grade I: The tissue is benign. The cells
look nearly like normal brain cells, and they grow slowly.

Grade II: The tissue is malignant. The
cells look less like normal cells than do the cells in a Grade I tumor.

Grade III: The malignant tissue has cells
that look very different from normal cells. The abnormal cells are actively
growing (anaplastic).

Grade IV: The malignant tissue has cells
that look most abnormal and tend to grow quickly.

Cells from low-grade tumors (grades I and
II) look more normal and generally grow more slowly than cells from high-grade
tumors (grades III and IV).

Over time, a low-grade tumor may become a
highgrade tumor. However, the change to a high-grade tumor happens more often
among adults than children.

You may want to read the NCI fact sheet Tumor
Grade.

Types of Primary Brain
Tumors

There are many types of primary brain
tumors. Primary brain tumors are named according to the type of cells or the
part of the brain in which they begin. For example, most primary brain tumors
begin in glial cells. This type of tumor is called a glioma.

Among adults, the most common types are:

Astrocytoma:
The tumor arises from star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes.
It can be any grade. In adults, an astrocytoma most often arises in the
cerebrum.

Grade I or II astrocytoma: It may be called
a low-grade glioma.

Grade III astrocytoma: It's sometimes
called a high-grade or an anaplastic astrocytoma.

Grade IV astrocytoma: It may be called a glioblastoma or
malignant astrocytic glioma.

Meningioma:
The tumor arises i

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Brain Tumor

  1. 1. Fitango Education Health Topics Brain Tumorhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16
  2. 2. Overview When most normal cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body doesnt need them, and old orhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 1
  3. 3. Overview damaged cells dont die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor. Primary brain tumors can be benign or malignant: Benign brain tumors do not contain cancer cells:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 2
  4. 4. Overview Usually, benign tumors can be removed, and they seldom grow back. Benign brain tumors usually have an obvious border or edge. Cells from benign tumors rarely invade tissues around them.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 3
  5. 5. Overview They dont spread to other parts of the body. However, benign tumors can press on sensitive areas of the brain and cause serious health problems. Unlike benign tumors in most other parts of the body, benign brain tumors are sometimes life threatening.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 4
  6. 6. Overview Benign brain tumors may become malignant. Malignant brain tumors (also called brain cancer) contain cancer cells: Malignant brain tumors are generally more serious and often are a threat to life.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 5
  7. 7. Overview They are likely to grow rapidly and crowd or invade the nearby healthy brain tissue. Cancer cells may break away from malignant brain tumors and spread to other parts of the brain or to the spinal cord. Theyhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 6
  8. 8. Overview rarely spread to other parts of the body. **Tumor Grade** Doctors group brain tumors by grade. The grade of a tumor refers to the way the cells look under a microscope:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 7
  9. 9. Overview Grade I: The tissue is benign. The cells look nearly like normal brain cells, and they grow slowly. Grade II: The tissue is malignant. The cells look less like normal cells than do the cells in a Grade I tumor.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 8
  10. 10. Overview Grade III: The malignant tissue has cells that look very different from normal cells. The abnormal cells are actively growing (anaplastic). Grade IV: The malignant tissue has cellshttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 9
  11. 11. Overview that look most abnormal and tend to grow quickly. Cells from low-grade tumors (grades I and II) look more normal and generally grow more slowly than cells from high-grade tumors (grades III and IV).http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 10
  12. 12. Overview Over time, a low-grade tumor may become a highgrade tumor. However, the change to a high- grade tumor happens more often among adults than children. You may want to read the NCI fact sheet Tumor Grade.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 11
  13. 13. Overview **Types of Primary Brain Tumors** There are many types of primary brain tumors. Primary brain tumors are named according to the type of cells or thehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 12
  14. 14. Overview **Types of Primary Brain part of the brain in which they begin. For example, most primary brain tumors begin in glial cells. This type of tumor is called a glioma. Among adults, the most common types are: Astrocytoma:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 13
  15. 15. Overview **Types of Primary Brain The tumor arises from star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes. It can be any grade. In adults, an astrocytoma most often arises in the cerebrum. Grade I or II astrocytoma: It may be calledhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 14
  16. 16. Overview **Types of Primary Brain a low-grade glioma. Grade III astrocytoma: Its sometimes called a high-grade or an anaplastic astrocytoma. Grade IV astrocytoma: It may be called a glioblastoma or malignant astrocytic glioma.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 15
  17. 17. Overview **Types of Primary Brain Meningioma: The tumor arises in the meninges. It can be grade I, II, or III. Its usually benign (grade I) and grows slowly. Oligodendroglioma:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 16
  18. 18. Overview **Types of Primary Brain The tumor arises from cells that make the fatty substance that covers and protects nerves. It usually occurs in the cerebrum. Its most common in middle-aged adults. It can be grade II or III. Among children, the most common types are:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 17
  19. 19. Overview **Types of Primary Brain Medulloblastoma: The tumor usually arises in the cerebellum. Its sometimes called a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. It is grade IV. Grade I or II astrocytoma: In children,http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 18
  20. 20. Overview **Types of Primary Brain this lowgrade tumor occurs anywhere in the brain. The most common astrocytoma among children is juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. Its grade I. Ependymoma:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 19
  21. 21. Overview **Types of Primary Brain The tumor arises from cells that line the ventricles or the central canal of the spinal cord. Its most commonly found in children and young adults. It can be grade I, II, or III. Brainhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 20
  22. 22. Overview **Types of Primary Brain stem glioma: The tumor occurs in the lowest part of the brain. It can be a low-grade or high-grade tumor. The most common type is diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma .http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 21
  23. 23. Risks When youre told that you have a brain tumor, its natural to wonder what may have caused your disease. But no one knows the exact causes of brain tumors. Doctors seldom know why one person develops ahttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 22
  24. 24. Risks brain tumor and another doesnt. Researchers are studying whether people with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop a brain tumor. A riskhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 23
  25. 25. Risks factor is something that may increase the chance of getting a disease. Studies have found the following risk factors for brain tumors:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 24
  26. 26. Risks **Ionizing radiation:** Ionizing radiation from high dose x-rays (such as radiation therapy from a large machine aimed at the head) and other sources canhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 25
  27. 27. Risks **Ionizing cause cell damage that leads to a tumor. People exposed to ionizing radiation may have an increased risk of a brain tumor, such as meningioma or glioma.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 26
  28. 28. Risks **Family history** : It is rare for brain tumors to run in a family. Only a very small number of families have several members with brain tumors. Researchers are studying whether using cellhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 27
  29. 29. Risks **Family history** phones, having had a head injury, or having been exposed to certain chemicals at work or to magnetic fields are important risk factors. Studies have not shown consistent links between these possible risk factors and brain tumors, but additional research is needed.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 28
  30. 30. Symptoms The symptoms of a brain tumor depend on tumor size, type, and location. Symptoms may be caused when a tumor presses on a nerve or harms a part of the brain. Also, they may be caused when a tumorhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 29
  31. 31. Symptoms blocks the fluid that flows through and around the brain, or when the brain swells because of the buildup of fluid. -- These are the most common symptoms of brain tumors:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 30
  32. 32. Symptoms -- Headaches (usually worse in the morning) -- Nausea and vomiting -- Changes in speech, vision, or hearing -- Problems balancing or walking -- Changes in mood, personality, or ability tohttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 31
  33. 33. Symptoms concentrate -- Problems with memory -- Muscle jerking or twitching (seizures or convulsions) -- Numbness or tingling in the arms or legshttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 32
  34. 34. Symptoms Most often, these symptoms are not due to a brain tumor. Another health problem could cause them. If you have any of these symptoms, you should tell your doctor so that problems can be diagnosed and treated.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 33
  35. 35. Diagnosis If you have symptoms that suggest a brain tumor, your doctor will give you a physical exam and ask about your personal and family health history. You may have one or more of the following tests:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 34
  36. 36. Diagnosis Neurologic exam: Your doctor checks your vision, hearing, alertness, muscle strength, coordination, and reflexes. Your doctor also examines your eyes to look for swelling caused by a tumor pressing on the nerve that connects the eye and thehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 35
  37. 37. Diagnosis brain. MRI: A large machine with a strong magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside your head. Sometimes a special dye (contrasthttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 36
  38. 38. Diagnosis material) is injected into a blood vessel in your arm or hand to help show differences in the tissues of the brain. The pictures can show abnormal areas, such as a tumor. CThttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 37
  39. 39. Diagnosis scan: An x-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of your head. You may receive contrast material by injection into a blood vessel in your arm or hand. The contrast material makes abnormal areas easier to see. Your doctor may ask for other tests:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 38
  40. 40. Diagnosis Angiogram: Dye injected into the bloodstream makes blood vessels in the brain show up on an x-ray. If a tumor is present, the x-ray may show the tumor or blood vessels that are feeding into the tumor.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 39
  41. 41. Diagnosis Spinal tap: Your doctor may remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that fills the spaces in and around the brain and spinal cord). This procedure is performed with localhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 40
  42. 42. Diagnosis anesthesia. The doctor uses a long, thin needle to remove fluid from the lower part of the spinal column. A spinal tap takes about 30 minutes. You must lie flat for several hours afterward to keep from getting a headache. Ahttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 41
  43. 43. Diagnosis laboratory checks the fluid for cancer cells or other signs of problems. Biopsy: The removal of tissue to look for tumor cells is called a biopsy. A pathologist looks at the cells under a microscope to check for abnormal cells. A biopsy can showhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 42
  44. 44. Diagnosis cancer, tissue changes that may lead to cancer, and other conditions. A biopsy is the only sure way to diagnose a brain tumor, learn what grade it is, and plan treatment. Surgeons can obtain tissue to look for tumor cells in two ways:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 43
  45. 45. Diagnosis Biopsy at the same time as treatment: The surgeon takes a tissue sample when you have surgery to remove part or all of the tumor. See the Surgery section. Stereotactichttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 44
  46. 46. Diagnosis biopsy: You may get local or general anesthesia and wear a rigid head frame for this procedure. The surgeon makes a small incision in the scalp and drills a small hole (a burrhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 45
  47. 47. Diagnosis hole) into the skull. CT or MRI is used to guide the needle through the burr hole to the location of the tumor. The surgeon withdraws a sample of tissue with the needle. A needle biopsy may be used when a tumor is deep insidehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 46
  48. 48. Diagnosis the brain or in a part of the brain that cant be operated on. However, if the tumor is in the brain stem or certain other areas, the surgeon may not be able to remove tissue from the tumor without harming normal brain tissue.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 47
  49. 49. Diagnosis In this case, the doctor uses MRI, CT, or other imaging tests to learn as much as possible about the brain tumor.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 48
  50. 50. Treatment People with brain tumors have several treatment options. The options are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Many people get a combination of treatments.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 49
  51. 51. Treatment The choice of treatment depends mainly on the following: -- The type and grade of brain tumor -- Its location in the brain -- Its sizehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 50
  52. 52. Treatment -- Your age and general health For some types of brain cancer, the doctor also needs to know whether cancer cells were found in the cerebrospinal fluid. Your doctor can describe your treatmenthttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 51
  53. 53. Treatment choices, the expected results, and the possible side effects. Because cancer therapy often damages healthy cells and tissues, side effects are common. Before treatment starts, ask your health care team about possible side effects and how treatment may change your normalhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 52
  54. 54. Treatment activities. You and your health care team can work together to develop a treatment plan that meets your medical and personal needs. You may want to talk with your doctor about taking part in a clinicalhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 53
  55. 55. Treatment trial, a research study of new treatment methods. See the Taking Part in Cancer Research section. Your doctor may refer you to a specialist, or you may ask for a referral. Specialists who treat brain tumors include neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuro- oncologists, medicalhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 54
  56. 56. Treatment oncologists, radiation oncologists, and neuroradiologists. Your health care team may also include an oncology nurse, a registered dietitian, a mentalhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 55
  57. 57. Treatment health counselor, a social worker, a physical therapist, an occupational therapist, a speech therapist, and aphysicalhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 56
  58. 58. Treatment medicine specialist. Also, children may need tutors to help with schoolwork. (The Rehabilitationsection has more information about therapists and tutors.)http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 57
  59. 59. Treatment **Surgery** Surgery is the usual first treatment for most brain tumors. Before surgery begins, you may be given general anesthesia, and your scalp is shaved. You probably wont need your entire head shaved.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 58
  60. 60. Treatment **Surgery** Surgery to open the skull is called a craniotomy. The surgeon makes an incision in your scalp and uses a special type of saw to remove a piece of bone from the skull. You may be awake when the surgeon removeshttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 59
  61. 61. Treatment **Surgery** part or all of the brain tumor. The surgeon removes as much tumor as possible. You may be asked to move a leg, count, say the alphabet, or tell a story. Your ability to follow these commands helps the surgeon protect important parts of the brain.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 60
  62. 62. Treatment **Surgery** After the tumor is removed, the surgeon covers the opening in the skull with the piece of bone or with a piece of metal or fabric. The surgeon then closes the incision in the scalp. Sometimes surgery isnt possible. If thehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 61
  63. 63. Treatment **Surgery** tumor is in the brain stem or certain other areas, the surgeon may not be able to remove the tumor without harming normal brain tissue. People who cant have surgery may receive radiation therapy or other treatment. You may have a headache or be uncomfortablehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 62
  64. 64. Treatment **Surgery** for the first few days after surgery. However, medicine can usually control pain. Before surgery, you should discuss the plan for pain relief with your health care team. After surgery, your team can adjust the plan if you need more relief.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 63
  65. 65. Treatment **Surgery** You may also feel tired or weak. The time it takes to heal after surgery is different for everyone. You will probably spend a few days in the hospital. Other, less common problems may occur afterhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 64
  66. 66. Treatment **Surgery** surgery for a brain tumor. The brain may swell or fluid may build up within the skull. The health care team will monitor you for signs of swelling or fluid buildup. You may receive steroids to help relieve swelling. A second surgery may be needed to drain the fluid. Thehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 65
  67. 67. Treatment **Surgery** surgeon may place a long, thin tube (shunt) in a ventricle of the brain. (For some people, the shunt is placed before performing surgery on the brain tumor.) The tube is threaded under the skin to another part of the body, usually the abdomen. Excess fluid is carried from thehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 66
  68. 68. Treatment **Surgery** brain and drained into the abdomen. Sometimes the fluid is drained into the heart instead. Infection is another problem that may develop after surgery. If this happens, the health care team will give you an antibiotic.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 67
  69. 69. Treatment **Surgery** Brain surgery may harm normal tissue. Brain damage can be a serious problem. It can cause problems with thinking, seeing, or speaking. It can also cause personality changes or seizures. Most of these problems lessen or disappear with time. But sometimes damage to the brain ishttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 68
  70. 70. Treatment **Surgery** permanent. You may need physical therapy, speech therapy, or occupational therapy. See the Rehabilitation section.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 69
  71. 71. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** Radiation therapy kills brain tumor cells with high-energy x-rays, gamma rays, or protons. Radiation therapy usually follows surgery.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 70
  72. 72. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** The radiation kills tumor cells that may remain in the area. Sometimes, people who cant have surgery have radiation therapy instead. Doctors use external and internal types of radiation therapy to treat brain tumors:http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 71
  73. 73. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** External radiation therapy: Youll go to a hospital or clinic for treatment. A large machine outside the body aims beams of radiation at the head. Because cancer cells may invade normal tissue around a tumor, the radiation may be aimed athttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 72
  74. 74. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** the tumor and nearby brain tissue, or at the entire brain. Some people need radiation aimed at the spinal cord also. The treatment schedule depends on your age, and the type and size of the tumor. Fractionated external beam therapy ishttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 73
  75. 75. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** the most common method of radiation therapy used for people with brain tumors. Giving the total dose of radiation over several weeks helps to protect healthy tissue in the area of the tumor. Treatments are usually 5 days a week forhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 74
  76. 76. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** several weeks. A typical visit lasts less than an hour, and each treatment takes only a few minutes. Some treatment centers are studying other ways of delivering external beam radiation therapy: Intensity-modulatedhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 75
  77. 77. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** radiation therapy or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy: These types of treatment use computers to more closely target the brain tumor to lessen the damage to healthy tissue. Protonhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 76
  78. 78. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** beam radiation therapy: The source of radiation is protons rather than x-rays. The doctor aims the proton beam at the tumor. The dose of radiation to normal tissue from a proton beam is less than the dose from an x-ray beam. Stereotactichttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 77
  79. 79. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** radiation therapy: Narrow beams of x-rays or gamma rays are directed at the tumor from different angles. For this procedure, you wear a rigid head frame. The therapy may be given during a single visit (stereotactic radiosurgery) or over several visits.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 78
  80. 80. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** Internal radiation therapy (implant radiation therapy or brachytherapy): Internal radiation isnt commonly used for treating brain tumors and is underhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 79
  81. 81. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** study. The radiation comes fromradioactive material usually contained in very small implants called seeds. The seeds are placed inside the brain and give off radiation for months. They dont need to be removed once the radiation is gone.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 80
  82. 82. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** Some people have no or few side effects after treatment. Rarely, people may have nausea for several hours after external radiation therapy. The health care team can suggest ways to help you cope with this problem. Radiation therapy also may cause you to become veryhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 81
  83. 83. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** tired with each radiation treatment. Resting is important, but doctors usually advise people to try to stay as active as they can. Also, external radiation therapy commonly causes hair loss from the part of the head that was treated. Hair usually growshttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 82
  84. 84. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** back within a few months. Radiation therapy also may make the skin on the scalp and ears red, dry, and tender. The health care team can suggest ways to relieve these problems. Sometimes radiation therapy causes brainhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 83
  85. 85. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** tissue to swell. You may get a headache or feel pressure. The health care team watches for signs of this problem. They can provide medicine to reduce the discomfort. Radiation sometimes kills healthy brain tissue. Although rare, thishttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 84
  86. 86. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** side effect can cause headaches, seizures, or even death. Radiation may harm the pituitary gland and other areas of the brain. For children, this damage could cause learning problems or slow down growth and development. In addition,http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 85
  87. 87. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** radiation increases the risk of secondary tumors later in life. **Chemotherapy** Chemotherapy, the use of drugs to kill cancer cells, is sometimes used to treat brain tumors. Drugs may be given inhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 86
  88. 88. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** the following ways: By mouth or vein (intravenous): Chemotherapy may be given during and after radiation therapy. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel throughout the body. They may be given in anhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 87
  89. 89. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** outpatient part of the hospital, at the doctors office, or at home. Rarely, you may need to stay in the hospital. The side effects of chemotherapy depend mainly on which drugs are given and how much. Common side effects includehttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 88
  90. 90. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, headache, fever and chills, and weakness. If the drugs lower the levels of healthy blood cells, youre more likely to get infections, bruise or bleed easily, and feel very weak and tired.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 89
  91. 91. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** Your health care team will check for low levels of blood cells. Some side effects may be relieved with medicine. In wafers that are put into the brain: For some adults with high-grade glioma, the surgeon implants several wafers intohttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 90
  92. 92. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** the brain. Each wafer is about the size of a dime. Over several weeks, the wafers dissolve, releasing the drug into the brain. The drug kills cancer cells. It may help prevent the tumor from returning in the brain after surgeryhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 91
  93. 93. Treatment **Radiation Therapy** to remove the tumor. People who receive an implant (a wafer) that contains a drug are monitored by the health care team for signs of infection after surgery. An infection can be treated with an antibiotic http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/brain/ page7http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 92
  94. 94. Rehabilitation Rehabilitation can be a very important part of the treatment plan. The goals of rehabilitation depend on your needs and how the tumor has affected your ability to carry out daily activities.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 93
  95. 95. Rehabilitation Some people may never regain all the abilities they had before the brain tumor and its treatment. But your health care team makes every effort to help you return to normal activities as soon as possible.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 94
  96. 96. Rehabilitation Several types of therapists can help: -- Physical therapists: Brain tumors and their treatment may cause paralysis. They may also cause weakness and problems with balance. Physical therapistshttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 95
  97. 97. Rehabilitation help people regain strength and balance. -- Speech therapists: Speech therapists help people who have trouble speaking, expressing thoughts, or swallowing. -- Occupational therapists: Occupationalhttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 96
  98. 98. Rehabilitation therapists help people learn to manage activities of daily living, such as eating, using the toilet, bathing, and dressing. -- Physical medicine specialists: Medical doctors with special training help people with brain tumors stay as active ashttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 97
  99. 99. Rehabilitation possible. They can help people recover lost abilities and return to daily activities. Children with brain tumors may have special needs. Sometimes children have tutors in the hospital or at home. Children whohttp://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 98
  100. 100. Rehabilitation have problems learning or remembering what they learn may need tutors or special classes when they return to school.http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=16 99

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