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Brain damage

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of acquired brain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an …

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of acquired brain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue.  Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain.   A person with a mild TBI may remain conscious or may experience a loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes. 

Other symptoms of mild TBI include headache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking.  A person with a moderate or severe TBI may show these same symptoms, but may also have a headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the extremities, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.



NINDS


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  • 1. http://www.fitango.com/categories.php?id=305Fitango EducationHealth TopicsBrain damage
  • 2. 1OverviewTraumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of acquiredbrain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causesdamage to the brain. TBI can result when the headsuddenly and violently hits an object, or when anobject pierces the skull and enters braintissue. Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate,or severe, depending on the extent of the damageto the brain. A person with a mild TBI may remainconscious or may experience a loss ofconsciousness for a few seconds or minutes.
  • 3. 2OverviewOther symptoms of mild TBI includeheadache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, badtaste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change insleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, andtrouble with memory, concentration, attention, orthinking. A person with a moderate or severe TBImay show these same symptoms, but may alsohave a headache that gets worse or does not goaway, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions orseizures, an inabil
  • 4. 3OverviewNINDS
  • 5. 4TreatmentAnyone with signs of moderate or severe TBIshould receive medical attention as soon aspossible. Because little can be done to reverse theinitial brain damage caused by trauma, medicalpersonnel try to stabilize an individual with TBI andfocus on preventing further injury.
  • 6. 5TreatmentPrimary concerns include insuring proper oxygensupply to the brain and the rest of thebody, maintaining adequate blood flow, andcontrolling blood pressure. Imaging tests help indetermining the diagnosis and prognosis of a TBIpatient. Patients with mild to moderate injuriesmay receive skull and neck X-rays to check for bonefractures or spinal instability. For moderate tosevere cases, the imaging test is a computedtomography (CT) scan. Moderately to severelyinjured patients receive rehab
  • 7. 6TreatmentNIND
  • 8. 7Living and CopingApproximately half of severely head-injuredpatients will need surgery to remove or repairhematomas (ruptured blood vessels) or contusions(bruised brain tissue). Disabilities resulting from aTBI depend upon the severity of the injury, thelocation of the injury, and the age and generalhealth of the individual. Some common disabilitiesinclude problems with cognition(thinking, memory, and reasoning), sensoryprocessing (sight, hearing, touch, taste, andsmell), communication (expression and
  • 9. 8Living and CopingMore serious head injuries may result in stupor, anunresponsive state, but one in which an individualcan be aroused briefly by a strong stimulus, such assharp pain; coma, a state in which an individual istotally unconscious, unresponsive, unaware, andunarousable; vegetative state, in which anindividual is unconscious and unaware of his or hersurroundings, but continues to have a sleep-wakecycle and periods of alertness; and a persistentvegetative state (PVS), in which an individual stay
  • 10. 9Living and CopingNINDS