A miller world war 1


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A miller world war 1

  1. 1. Nationalism, Europe, about 1900Nationalism – belief that people should be loyal and proudto their own nationality… race… culture …. language group,rather than a king, empire, or multicultural government.
  2. 2. Tangled alliancesAfter Franco-Prussian war of 1871, Germany makes alliance withAustria-Hungry for protection against revenge from France.Later, Italy joins this alliance. It is called “Triple Alliance”Germany also makes a separate alliance with Russia. Germanythen builds a strong army which makes Russia nervous, so Russiaquits that alliance. Russia and France then make an allianceagainst Germany, Austria-Hungry, and Italy. Germany thenbuilds a strong Navy which makes England nervous, so Englandjoins alliance with Russia, and France against “Triple Alliance”called the “Triple Entente”. Russia also makes alliance with its‘little slavic cousin’ Serbia, in order to prevent Austria-Hungryfrom bullying little Serbia. As a result of these complicatedalliances, any minor conflict between any of these countries canresult in a large conflict involving every major European countryAND it’s colonial empire. “Powder Keg”
  3. 3. Ottoman Empire falls apart in EuropeDecline of Ottomans in Europe 1800 – 1914Many nationalities in the Balkan peninsula gain independenceIncrease of rivalries amoung new Balkan countries
  4. 4. European nationalities ca 1900
  5. 5. Nationalism and industry equals Imperialism
  6. 6. British Empire• http://ts3.mm.bing.net/th?id=H.4970867094324710&pid=1.7&w=211&h=111&c=7&rs=1
  7. 7. Spanish/Portugees Imperialism 1500
  8. 8. Assassination of archduke Ferdinand, June 1914• Serbian nationalist kills Austrian prince• Austria makes strong demands on Serbia• Serbia does not agree to all demands, soAustria declares war against Serbia
  9. 9. Slavic Culture• Cyrillic alphabet, invented by Byzantine(Greek) Christians to teach barbaric Slavsabout 600 A.D.
  10. 10. Slavic Culture• Cyrillic alphabet & East Orthodox Christianity
  11. 11. Slavic Culture• Eastern Orthodox Church
  12. 12. Phase 1, of WW1 August 1914• Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia• Russia orders mobilization, as a show of support forSerbia. This is dangerous to Germany/Austria• Russian mobilization is slow because Russia is big,has few railroads, poor communications, not veryindustrialized• Germany feels it must do something because it willbe too late after Russia is mobilized. Germany mustdefeat France quickly before Russian army is 100%mobilized
  13. 13. German Strategy• Germany must avoid a two front war
  14. 14. German Strategy, Schlieffen Plan• Schlieffen Plan –Germany must avoid fighting Russiaand France at the same time. Must quickly destroyFrance before Russia can mobilize. Must use 99% ofits army for a fast attack against France. Then Russia
  15. 15. Schlieffen Plan Fails• British and French soldiers stop Germans just beforeParis with the help of taxi cabs• Russia starts to attack Germany & Austria-Hungary• Germany starts moving troops to its eastern front &now has a two-front war nightmare• In France (western front), both sides dig trenches• Modern weapons make trench warfare a stalemateon the western front
  16. 16. GermanyStrengths• Highly industrialized• High tech, railroads,factories, good efficiency• Best military, smartgenerals• Connected borders withallies• Loyal people• U-boats/submarines• Plays defense in the westWeaknesses• Two front war• Not enough farmland• Blocked from world trade• Not enough resources ormanpower in the end after4 years of fighting
  17. 17. Austria-HungaryStrengths• Allies on both sides• Medium population• Medium industry• Medium amount ofresourcesWeaknesses• Several fronts• ? loyalty of minoritygroups ¿• Cut off from worldtrade
  18. 18. Ottoman EmpireStrengths• Large population• Access to world trade• Borders with alliesWeaknesses• Not industrialized• Rebel minority groups(arabs)
  19. 19. Englandstrengths• Highly industrialized• High tech• Largest colonial empire• world trade• Strong navyweaknesses• Is vulnerable to U-boats/submarines• Low on manpower• Must rely on colonialtroops• Foolish attacks
  20. 20. FranceStrengths• Industrialized, not asmuch as Germany• Access to world trade• Colonial empire• Has the help of alliesWeaknesses• Invaded !• Looses 50% of itsindustry to the Germaninvaders• Foolish generals• High casualties• Many workers andsoldiers want tosurrender mutiny
  21. 21. RussiaStrengths• Very large population• Large army• Lots of spaceWeaknesses• Almost no industry• Poor roads, railroads,communications• Separated from allies• Rebellion andrevolution
  22. 22. United Statesstrengths• Large population• Massive industry• World trade• Not in dangerweaknesses• Inexperience withmodern war• Many isolationists
  23. 23. Massive U.S. IndustrySteel Production Iron, Steel, Coal Production
  24. 24. New Industrial Firepower Changes Warfare
  25. 25. Trench Warfare
  26. 26. French and British are always coming out of their trenches andattacking across ‘no mans land’ because they want to kick theGermans out of FranceEach time a French & British attack fails, the generals plan aneven larger attack that failsBattles such as Ypres,, Somme, Verdun
  27. 27. Battle of Verdun, 1916• Typical example of WW1 battles on the western front• 10 months long, German attack on strategic French city withmany forts and trenches surrounding the city• Different divisions in French army take turns providingdefense for the city, so after 10 months, the entire Frencharmy had fought there and gained a sense of hopelessness• 540,000 French dead 430,000 Germans dead• When it was over, no side gained anything, no new territoryfor anybodyBloodiest battle of the war. Total stalemate
  28. 28. Other major WW1 battles• Somme 1916 - British attack against Germans in France.Britain lost 57,000 soldiers on the 1st day …419,654 total.Germany 400,000 Britain gained 1.7 km• Ypres - 1917 British attack near the sea coast. 250,000 deadon both sides. Soldiers drowned in mud• Marne – 1914 and 1918 . Location where the German armywas stopped in 1914, scene of another battle where Frenchattacked in 1918. 350,000 French dead, 200,000 Germans• Gallipoli – 1915 French and British attack the OttomanEmpire and loose 200,000 soldiers• Tannenberg - 1914 Russians attack Germans and loose350,000 soldiers
  29. 29. NO MANS LAND
  30. 30. Germans had well built trenches and usually play defense & are ableto kill most attackers
  31. 31. WW1 airplanes 1914 - 1918• Used mostly for spying & shooting down other airplanes• Airplanes can see when the enemy is going to launch a majorattack…… this gives defenders time to prepare• Takes away the element of surprise & contributes to stalemate
  32. 32. WW1 Poison Gas 1914-1918• Use over a large area to make a gap in the enemy trenches soan army can move thru the gap• Gas is made heavier than air …….• So it moves down into trenches• Armies are afraid to use it at first• Causes skin to peel away• Blindness, burns lungs, death
  33. 33. Machine guns & flamethrowers• New technology such as the machine gun makes it almost impossible for anattacking army to cross no mans land and reach the enemy trench• The result is stalemate and suicidal attacks.• Must have Industry to have machine guns and ammunition• New inventions and tactics are required to cross no mans land• Inventions include the flamethrower & poisin gas for forcing the enemy out of histrench• Tanks, for crossing no mans land without getting killed
  34. 34. Tanks and Motor Vehicles• In response to stalemate, both sides combine the newtechnology of the internal combustion engine with armor• Must have a lot of steel, coal, industry, andengineers/technicians to build tanks• Tanks don’t appear until the end of the war, nobody reallyunderstands how to use them. Germans will experimentmore and develop tank tactics in the 1930’s before WW2
  35. 35. United States enters the war• Most Americans were isolationists (want to stay neutral)• America sells supplies to both sides at first, then only to the Britishand French because of the British blockade of the Central PowersGermany, Austria-Hungary, Ottomans)• Germany uses unrestricted submarine warfare (sinking any shipgoing to England)• Several American ships are eventually sunk in the Atlanticincluding the Lusitania, angering many Americans
  36. 36. America enters the warRevolution in Mexico before and during WW1. 1910-19171 Mexican warlord who controlled a faction of rebels in northernMexico named Pancho Villa attacked a small border town inNew Mexico to steal guns and horsesU.S. already angry at Germany for unrestricted submarine warZimmerman Telegram – German govt sends message to Germanambassador in Mexico, “tell Mexicans we will send them $$$and weapons if Germany and the U.S. ever go to war so Mexicocan invade Texas-Arizona-California”British intercepted the message and give it to the U.S.U.S. has had enough with Germany and declares war on theCentral Powers
  37. 37. Russian Revolution of 1917• Bolshevick (communist) revolution in Russia• Russians are tired of the horrible conditions of war, soldiersmutiny, and workers go on strike• Germany sends Vladimir Lenin communist organizer to Russiato start the overthrow of the Russian Czar and government
  38. 38. Russian Revolution 1917• Communists take over the Russian government and make a deal with the CentralPowers (Germany, Austria, Ottomans)Treaty of Brest-Litovsk – Germany can keep the Russian territory it has conquered,and Russia agrees to stop fighting in the warGermany can now use ALL of its army to attack and destroy France before theAmerican army arrives in France
  39. 39. Germany Makes 1 Last AttackGermans realized that their only possible chance of victory was todefeat the Allies before the massive human and material resources ofthe United States could be put in France.Germany had the temporary advantage in numbers afforded by thenearly 50 divisions freed by the Russian surrender( Treaty of Brest-Litovsk).MONTH - YEAR NUMBER OF U.S. SOLDIERS INFRANCENovember 1917 20,000January 1918 90,000March 1918 300,000May 1918 900,000July 1918 1,800,000
  40. 40. Collapse of Central PowersOttoman Empire• Ottoman Empire – fighting in Armenia against Russians• Many atrocities commited against Armenia (genocide)• British invade Ottoman territory and help encourage a largeArab rebellion against the Ottomans• Ottomans collapse and are divided into several countries
  41. 41. COLLAPSE OF CENTRAL POWERSAUSTRIA-HUNGARY• After Ottoman collapse, too much pressure on Austria-Hungary. High prices for everything, food shortages,different nationalities declare independence. -August 1918
  42. 42. Collapse of Central PowersGERMANY, November 1918• Germany will take troops out of Russia now that Russia is out of the war• 1 last attack on France before the majority of the American army canarrive in spring 1918.• Attack fails, American army keeps arriving in France• Germany exhausted, leaders know they cant match allied war production.• Workers strike, food shortages, Kaiser abdicates, Germany surrenders
  43. 43. Aftermath of WW1• 8.5 million soldiers dead 21 million wounded• Europe is bankrupted no $$$• Spanish Influenza kills 20 million worldwide• Treaty of Versailles, hard on Germany• Several new countries in Europe and middle east• Russia is now communist “Soviet Union”• America is more powerful than before
  44. 44. Global conflict, page 418• Fighting in Africa between European colonies
  45. 45. European powers use many troops from colonies• Example: British still control the oceans despite the danger ofGerman submarines and use many troops from India,Australia, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand, etc……
  46. 46. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ukGfxhJMvL4• Russian soldier mutiny or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k7B-nlmdX0g• http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=ASg0H-XsQ5E&NR=1 Indiana jones gas and flamethrowers• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uP_0DkpFOKs good video 6 minutes• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cXZX7HhjUc air dogfight• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oeJkpsOqQgc cool french trench war• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SS1dO0JC2EE shell shock• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGkVzL9H7HM U.S. ENTRY• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wmcbdt3taR4• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qgs1KNwpBW4 us entry ¾ 10 minlong