We are investigating matter Living is something that is alive OR was once alive OR man made from something that was once alive Is made up of cells How many things can you list that are able to be classified as living? Non-living Something that has never been alive IT can be man made or can exist naturally Is made up of atoms How many things can you list that are able to be classified as non-living?
We are investigating the states of matter SOLID LIQUID GAS Vocabulary Matter, all the things (substances) that are non-living, these are organised on the periodic table of the elements. Particle is all the tiny bits that make up a substance. Gasses can Fill a bigger or smaller container Can be squashed Change shape when the container changes Cant be cut or broken Particles move freely Particles are not touching. Solids can Stay the same amount when changing containers Can’t be squashed/compressed Can’t change shape Can be cut and/or broken Particles are touching and squashed together Particles can only vibrate a little LIQUIDS CAN
Stay the same amount when containers are changed
Can be squashed
Change shape to fit the container
Cant be cut or broken
Particles are touching
Can move a bit
Predict Observe Explain We are investigating whether flubberis a solid or a liquid
1 250 ml beaker 1 500ml beaker Spatula Sodium Borate PVA glue Hot water
Pour 100 ml of hot water into each beaker In the250ml beaker add 1.5 spatulas of Sodium Borate and stir until dissolved Add three drops of food colouring to the borate solution Add ½ cups of PVA glue to the 500ml beaker and stir to make a solution Add the borate solution to the glue solution and stir rapidly Grab out the mass of flubber and play with it until it is no longer wet and sticky. Carryout the list of tests and record the observations.
Record your observations Is Flubber a solid or a liquid? Explain your answer
Can Matter change states? Predict Make a guess, can matter change state ObserveWatch your experiment and record everything that happens Explain as a class explain what has happened and why. CAN A SOLID CHANGE TO A LIQUID OR A GAS? List of apparatus: Tripod Beaker Gauze Meth burner Watch glass Method: Place tripod over meth burner. Place gauze on tripod and then beaker on the gauze. Put a cube of ice in beaker and place the watch glass on the top. Light meth burner and observe. Record observations. Allow apparatus to cool and return to teachers table.
How to draw a diagram……. Diagrams need a title, to be drawn in pencil, needs to be labeled, using a ruler and need to be drawn on the diagram page directly opposite the experiment page you are working on.
Water Cycle in a beaker What happened to the ice as we heated it? What appeared on the side of the beaker and the watch glass? What is this process called? Can you give examples of this process in action? Explain what happened to H2O particles in the ice as it changed states. Hypothesise what would happen to the particles in a metal if we were to heat it.
Most matter can change states by heating to form gasses and cooling to form solids. Some solids like dry ice( CO2) turn from a solid to a gas with out becoming a liquid. This process is called sublimation.
Is the melting a substance a physical or chemical change When melting wax are we creating a reaction between two or more chemicals? Is melting wax a chemical or physical change? Explain your answer. If we change the shape of a substance is that a chemical or physical change? Explain your answer. If we melted a metal instead of wax would it be a chemical or physical change? Explain your answer. Apparatus
100g of candle wax
Wick cut to length
Method Sellotape your wick to the bottom of your mold and to the ice block stick Carefully melt the candle wax of your chosen colour Allow to cool for 5 minutes in a cold water bath Pour the wax into the mold and leave on bench to cool. When we melted the wax did we change the wax in any way? Explain your answer.
WAL about: What is the difference between a solution and a mixture? Questions What happened to the salt while we heated the water? What happened to the Sand while we heated the water? What happened to the salt and sand when we filtered the mixture? What would happen if we evaporated the salt water solution? Using your findings .Can you make a generalisation (a general rule) about what a solution is and what a mixture is? Predict Observe Explain How do we separate mixtures from solutions? List of apparatus 250ml beakers filter funnel filter papers Sand Sodium Chloride Measuring cylinder Method Measure 50mls of water and place in the beaker. Add two spatulas of sand, and two spatulas of salt to the beaker. Stir the beaker for five minutes. Heat the solution/mixture until it boils, remove from the heat then stir Allow to cool Fold filter paper in quarters as shown and place in filter funnel. Pour the solution/mixture through the filter and funnel into 250ml conical flask. Observe and record the results In your group try and explain what the difference between a solution and a mixture is. Tripod Meth burner Gauze tongs conical flasks
Is a substance that is suspended (mixed) in water. These are easily separated
Is a substance dissolved in water to make a liquid form of a substance. These are not easily separated without using heat.
Is Oobleck a solution or a mixture? Apparatus 1 bowl 1 250 ml beaker Corn starch Cold water Spatula 250ml conical flask Funnel Filter paper Method Fold filter paper in quarters, put in funnel and then into conical flask Fill beaker with corn flour to 100ml Tip into container Fill beaker with 50mls of water Add two drops of food colouring of your choice Pour half the water into corn starch Stir the mixture Slowly add water to the mixture until it forms a gluggy mixture. Pour 1/4 of the mixture into the filter funnel. Carry out the tests required and record your observations in the chart
Is Oobleck a solution or a mixture? Is Oobleck a solution or a mixture? Explain your answer. Oobleck is a mixture. The corn flour particles are suspended in the water particles. They just hang out together like friends at a party. When Oobleck is moved slowly it acts like a liquid but when it is moved quickly the water particles separate or are ‘pushed away’ from the corn flour particles. Making the corn flour a solid again. The water being pushed away separates the mixture.
Physical Vs Chemical A PHYSICAL CHANGE is something that happens to a substance when we play with it. A physical change is special as we can easily see or observe it and when we are finished we can still have the original chemical back. If we have a chemical dissolved in water can we get this back? See the teacher demo to answer this question? Is dissolving a substance a chemical or a physical change? Explain your answer….
What is a chemical change? Apparatus 11 small test tubes 1 large test tubes Universal indicators soln 12 soln’s Pipette Method Using a pipette measure 1ml of each soln into each test tube Measure 1.5 mls of universal indicator soln and place the large test tube Add 2 drops of universal indicator to each test tube record the changes Compare with the pH chart and record the results Add a piece of magnesium ribbon to the P3PO4 and a blue soln Observe the results Record your data on a graph either by hand or using xcel Measuring pH Answer these questions: If you had to, how would you group these results into three different groups? Why? Why do you think the metal reacted in the orange solution and not the blue solution? Do you think it would have mattered which orange or blue solution you put the magnesium into. Would you have got the same or similar results? Has there been a chemical change in the testing of pH explain your reasoning.
Chemical change Vs Physical change A CHEMICAL CHANGE is something that happens to a substance when we play with it. A chemical change is special as we can only observe it and when we are carrying out experiments Once we have had a chemical change we can no longer get the original substance back, it is now something new. If we mix universal indicator solution with a substance to measure pH can we gat the original substance back? Explain your answer…. If we mix an orange subatance with a bluesubstance we end up with a salt and water. Is this a chemical change or a physical change? Explain your answer. Can you make a generalisation (scientific rule) based on this idea? pH is a chemical property of a substance, this is used to determine its ability to react with other compounds. The orange substances are acids and blue/purple substances are Alkali. When we added the magnesium to the acid it dissolved but did nothing when it was added to the alkali. This is just one example of how acids and alkalis' react.
Is burning a physical or chemical change?
Nichrome wire Small beaker Meth burner 6 salts
½ fill a beaker with tap water Dip the nichrome wire into the water Dip the nichrome wire into the salt Place over the hot part of the flame Observe and record the results Repeat for each of the salts Burn the piece of metal, what colour did it burn? Each of the substances you have just tested is made up of a metal and a chloride. How do we know that it is the different metals that produce a different colour and not the chloride. How can a flame test be used to identify different elements. Why do we need to clean the wire between each of the tests. Can you think of a practical use for this type of testing What is a chemical change? Why is it called a chemical change?