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Class content 2009



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Chemistry Chemistry Presentation Transcript

  • Chemistry
  • We are investigating matter
    is something that is alive
    OR was once alive
    OR man made from something that was once alive
    Is made up of cells
    How many things can you list that are able to be classified as living?
    Something that has never been alive
    IT can be man made or can exist naturally
    Is made up of atoms
    How many things can you list that are able to be classified as non-living?
  • We are investigating the states of matter
    Matter, all the things (substances) that are non-living, these are organised on the periodic table of the elements.
    Particle is all the tiny bits that make up a substance.
    Gasses can
    Fill a bigger or smaller container
    Can be squashed
    Change shape when the container changes
    Cant be cut or broken
    Particles move freely
    Particles are not touching.
    Solids can
    Stay the same amount when changing containers
    Can’t be squashed/compressed
    Can’t change shape
    Can be cut and/or broken
    Particles are touching and squashed together
    Particles can only vibrate a little
    • Stay the same amount when containers are changed
    • Can be squashed
    /compressed slightly
    • Change shape to fit the container
    • Cant be cut or broken
    • Particles are touching
    • Can move a bit
  • Predict Observe Explain
    We are investigating whether flubberis a solid or a liquid
    • Apparatus
    1 250 ml beaker
    1 500ml beaker
    Sodium Borate
    PVA glue
    Hot water
    • Method
    Pour 100 ml of hot water into each beaker
    In the250ml beaker add 1.5 spatulas of Sodium Borate and stir until dissolved
    Add three drops of food colouring to the borate solution
    Add ½ cups of PVA glue to the 500ml beaker and stir to make a solution
    Add the borate solution to the glue solution and stir rapidly
    Grab out the mass of flubber and play with it until it is no longer wet and sticky.
    Carryout the list of tests and record the observations.
  • Record your observations
    Is Flubber a solid or a liquid? Explain your answer
  • Can Matter change states?
    Predict Make a guess, can matter change state
    ObserveWatch your experiment and record everything that happens
    Explain as a class explain what has happened and why.
    List of apparatus:
    Meth burner
    Watch glass
    Place tripod over meth burner.
    Place gauze on tripod and then beaker on the gauze.
    Put a cube of ice in beaker and place the watch glass on the top.
    Light meth burner and observe.
    Record observations.
    Allow apparatus to cool and return to teachers table.
  • How to draw a diagram…….
    Diagrams need a title, to be drawn in pencil, needs to be labeled, using a ruler and need to be drawn on the diagram page directly opposite the experiment page you are working on.
  • Water Cycle in a beaker
    What happened to the ice as we heated it?
    What appeared on the side of the beaker and the watch glass?
    What is this process called?
    Can you give examples of this process in action?
    Explain what happened to H2O particles in the ice as it changed states.
    Hypothesise what would happen to the particles in a metal if we were to heat it.
  • Most matter can change states by heating to form gasses and cooling to form solids. Some solids like dry ice( CO2) turn from a solid to a gas with out becoming a liquid. This process is called sublimation.
  • Is the melting a substance a physical or chemical change
    When melting wax are we creating a reaction between two or more chemicals?
    Is melting wax a chemical or physical change? Explain your answer.
    If we change the shape of a substance is that a chemical or physical change? Explain your answer.
    If we melted a metal instead of wax would it be a chemical or physical change? Explain your answer.
    • 100g of candle wax
    • 250mlbeaker
    • Wick cut to length
    • Candle mold
    • Candle hardner
    Sellotape your wick to the bottom of your mold and to the ice block stick
    Carefully melt the candle wax of your chosen colour
    Allow to cool for 5 minutes in a cold water bath
    Pour the wax into the mold and leave on bench to cool.
    When we melted the wax did we change the wax in any way? Explain your answer.
    • Tripod
    • Gauze
    • Methburner
    • Spatula
    • Measuring cylinder
  • WAL about: What is the difference between a solution and a mixture?
    What happened to the salt while we heated the water?
    What happened to the Sand while we heated the water?
    What happened to the salt and sand when we filtered the mixture?
    What would happen if we evaporated the salt water solution?
    Using your findings .Can you make a generalisation (a general rule) about what a solution is and what a mixture is?
    Predict Observe Explain
    How do we separate mixtures from solutions?
    List of apparatus
    250ml beakers
    filter funnel
    filter papers
    Sodium Chloride
    Measuring cylinder
    Measure 50mls of water and place in the beaker.
    Add two spatulas of sand, and two spatulas of salt to the beaker.
    Stir the beaker for five minutes.
    Heat the solution/mixture until it boils, remove from the heat then stir
    Allow to cool
    Fold filter paper in quarters as shown and place in filter funnel.
    Pour the solution/mixture through the filter and funnel into 250ml conical flask.
    Observe and record the results
    In your group try and explain what the difference between a solution and a mixture is.
    Meth burner
    conical flasks
  • Separating mixtures
    Step 1
    Step 2
    • Is a substance that is suspended (mixed) in water. These are easily separated
    • Is a substance dissolved in water to make a liquid form of a substance. These are not easily separated without using heat.
  • Is Oobleck a solution or a mixture?
    1 bowl
    1 250 ml beaker
    Corn starch
    Cold water
    250ml conical flask
    Filter paper
    Fold filter paper in quarters, put in funnel and then into conical flask
    Fill beaker with corn flour to 100ml
    Tip into container
    Fill beaker with 50mls of water
    Add two drops of food colouring of your choice
    Pour half the water into corn starch
    Stir the mixture
    Slowly add water to the mixture until it forms a gluggy mixture.
    Pour 1/4 of the mixture into the filter funnel.
    Carry out the tests required and record your observations in the chart
  • Is Oobleck a solution or a mixture?
    Is Oobleck a solution or a mixture?
    Explain your answer.
    Oobleck is a mixture. The corn flour particles are suspended in the water particles. They just hang out together like friends at a party. When Oobleck is moved slowly it acts like a liquid but when it is moved quickly the water particles separate or are ‘pushed away’ from the corn flour particles. Making the corn flour a solid again. The water being pushed away separates the mixture.
  • Physical Vs Chemical
    A PHYSICAL CHANGE is something that happens to a substance when we play with it.
    A physical change is special as we can easily see or observe it and when we are finished we can still have the original chemical back.
    If we have a chemical dissolved in water can we get this back?
    See the teacher demo to answer this question?
    Is dissolving a substance a chemical or a physical change?
    Explain your answer….
  • What is a chemical change?
    11 small test tubes
    1 large test tubes
    Universal indicators soln
    12 soln’s
    Using a pipette measure 1ml of each soln into each test tube
    Measure 1.5 mls of universal indicator soln and place the large test tube
    Add 2 drops of universal indicator to each test tube record the changes
    Compare with the pH chart and record the results
    Add a piece of magnesium ribbon to the P3PO4 and a blue soln
    Observe the results
    Record your data on a graph either by hand or using xcel
    Measuring pH
    Answer these questions:
    If you had to, how would you group these results into three different groups?
    Why do you think the metal reacted in the orange solution and not the blue solution?
    Do you think it would have mattered which orange or blue solution you put the magnesium into. Would you have got the same or similar results?
    Has there been a chemical change in the testing of pH explain your reasoning.
  • Chemical change Vs Physical change
    A CHEMICAL CHANGE is something that happens to a substance when we play with it.
    A chemical change is special as we can only observe it and when we are carrying out experiments
    Once we have had a chemical change we can no longer get the original substance back, it is now something new.
    If we mix universal indicator solution with a substance to measure pH can we gat the original substance back?
    Explain your answer….
    If we mix an orange subatance with a bluesubstance we end up with a salt and water. Is this a chemical change or a physical change?
    Explain your answer.
    Can you make a generalisation (scientific rule) based on this idea?
    pH is a chemical property of a substance, this is used to determine its ability to react with other compounds. The orange substances are acids and blue/purple substances are Alkali. When we added the magnesium to the acid it dissolved but did nothing when it was added to the alkali. This is just one example of how acids and alkalis' react.
  • Is burning a physical or chemical change?
    • Apparatus
    Nichrome wire
    Small beaker
    Meth burner
    6 salts
    • Method
    ½ fill a beaker with tap water
    Dip the nichrome wire into the water
    Dip the nichrome wire into the salt
    Place over the hot part of the flame
    Observe and record the results
    Repeat for each of the salts
    Burn the piece of metal, what colour did it burn?
    Each of the substances you have just tested is made up of a metal and a chloride. How do we know that it is the different metals that produce a different colour and not the chloride.
    How can a flame test be used to identify different elements.
    Why do we need to clean the wire between each of the tests.
    Can you think of a practical use for this type of testing
    What is a chemical change? Why is it called a chemical change?