Fossil Fuel resources for sustainable development

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ENERGY RESOURSES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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Fossil Fuel resources for sustainable development

  1. 1. L E S S O N 3 Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 1 ENS 809- ENERGY RESOURSES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOSSIL FUELS
  2. 2. CONTENT Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 2  The conventional energy sources, their current utilization and environmental impacts, and their potentials.
  3. 3. Energy Sources Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 3  Primary Energy sources-  Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, coal)  Nuclear energy  Falling water, geothermal, solar  Secondary Energy sources-  Sources derived from a primary source like…  Electricity  Gasoline  Alcohol fuels (gasohol)
  4. 4. Commercial Energy Use by Source for the World and the United States Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 4
  5. 5. How Should We Evaluate Energy Resources? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 5  Supplies  Environmental impact  How much useful energy is provided?
  6. 6. Nonrenewable energy resources Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 6
  7. 7. Nonrenewable energy resources removed from the earth’s crust include: oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 7
  8. 8. What are fossil fuels? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 8 Industrial societies need a lot of energy and, at the moment, rely on fossil fuels as the main source of this energy. Fossil fuels are so useful because they contain stored chemical energy, which is converted into large amounts of useful heat energy when the fuels are burned. they are classed as non-renewable energy resources. Coal, oil and natural gas are fossil fuels. They are carbon-based materials that formed over millions of years from the remains of ancient plants and animals. The total amount of fossil fuels available is limited and so
  9. 9. Problems with Fossil Fuels  Non-renewable  At projected consumption rates, natural gas & petroleum will be depleted by the end of the 21st century  Impurities are major source of pollution  SO2 travels on air currents & falls with precip. as acid rain  Mercury bio-accumulates & biomagnifies thru ecosystems when it travels on air currents and fall as particulate dust or with precipitation elsewhere.  Burning fossil fuels produces large amounts of CO2, which contributes to global warming  Makes us rely on other countries for our energy needs. Makes us vulnerable. Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 9
  10. 10. TYPES OF FOSSIL FUELS Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 10 1. Liquid Hydrocarbons- Petroleum (oil) 2. Coal 3. Natural Gas
  11. 11. OIL Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 11
  12. 12. OIL  Liquid mixture of hydrocarbons with S, O, N impurities  Impurities can create SO2 and NOx air pollution  Impurities increase efficiency of fuel  Formed from remains of plankton, plants, animals in shallow seas millions of years ago.  May be pumped up or may be under pressure  Important producers: OPEC, Alaska, Siberia, Mexico Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 12
  13. 13. Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 13
  14. 14. Oil seep in California Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 14
  15. 15. Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 15 Asphalt Gases Lowest Boiling Point Highest Boiling Point Gasoline Aviation fuel Heating oil Diesel oil Heated crude oil Furnace Naphtha Grease and wax • Petroleum (crude oil) • Costs: • Recovery • Refining • Transporting • Environmental • Highest risks are in transportation • Refining yields many products • Asphalt • Heating oil • Diesel • Petrochemicals • Gasoline • … Oil
  16. 16. Where is the oil? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 16  “After more than 100 years of exploration in > 75% of the potential oil bearing sedimentary areas, including all of the largest and most accessible ones, we have found only 7 major provinces that contain more oil than the world used in a single year in the peak consumption years of the 1970’s.”
  17. 17. Where is the oil? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 17 World Oil Reserves, Dec. 2005 B.P. Estimate 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 North America Central/South America Europe Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia and Oceania BillionBarrels
  18. 18. Where is the oil? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 18 World Oil Reserves, Jan 2007 Oil and Gas Journal, includes tar sands in Canada 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 North America Central/South America Europe Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia and Oceania BillionBarrels
  19. 19. How long will it last? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 19  Things to take into account  Reserves  Rate of use  Recovery percent  Undiscovered Resources  Price  New Technology
  20. 20. How long will it last? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 20 World daily Crude Oil Production 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 thousandbarrels/day
  21. 21. How long will it last? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 21  Quick Calculation. According to the previous graph we use about 72 million barrels per day. Oil reserves are 1201.332 billion barrels.  This equates to approximately 45 years of oil!
  22. 22. What are the environmental Concerns? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 22  Depends on what we use oil for? It will vary from country to country—however because 50% of oil is refined for gas, transportation is the most important
  23. 23. What are the environmental concerns? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 23  Oil Spills  Pollution  According to 1992 Worldwatch breathing in Bombay is equivalent to smoking 10 cigarettes/day  Global warming  Transportation infrastructure
  24. 24. What are the environmental concerns? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 24 Oil Spills  How do you clean up? http://www.ocean.udel.edu/oilspill/cleanup.html
  25. 25. Burning gasoline in cars/trucks Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 25  Produces the following  95% of CO  58% of hydrocarbons  32% of nitrous oxides  2% of sulphur dioxide  11.3% of the particulates
  26. 26. What are the environmental concerns? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 26
  27. 27. Disadvantages Need to find substitutes within 50 years Large government subsidies Environmental costs not included in market price Artificially low price encourages waste and discourages search for alternatives Pollutes air when produced and burned Releases CO2 when burned Can cause water pollution Ample supply for 42–93 years Low cost High net energy yield Easily transported within and between countries Low land use Technology is well developed Efficient distribution system Trade-Offs Conventional Oil Advantages Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 27
  28. 28. Oil Shale and Tar Sands Tar Sand: Mixture of clay, sand water and bitumen - a thick and sticky heavy oil. Extracted by large electric shovels, mixed with hot water and steam to extract the bitumen. Bitumen heated to convert to synthetic crude oil. Oil Shale: Oily rocks that contain a solid mix of hydro- carbons. Global supplies ~ 240 times conventional oil supplies.
  29. 29. Tar sands, also referred to as oil sands or bituminous sands, are a combination of clay, sand, water, and a solid, tar-like petroleum, called bitumen Tar Sand The bitumen is far too thick to flow out of the rock 85% of all tar sand deposits occur in Canada Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 29
  30. 30. Tar Sand It takes two tons of tar sand to produce one barrel of oil Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 30
  31. 31. Tar Sand The oil sands after surface removal are further broken up and then extracted from the rock pores by subjecting the material to hot water and other chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide The oil-bearing sand is piped into a large settling tank where the heavy sand settles to the bottom, water settles above that, and the oil floats to the top, where it can be removed for refining Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 31
  32. 32. Critics contend that measures taken to minimize environmental and health risks posed by large-scale mining operations are inadequate, potentially causing damage to archaeological sites and natural resources Tar Sand Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 32
  33. 33. The open-pit mining destroys the forest, the bogs, the rivers as well as the natural landscape Tar Sand Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 33
  34. 34. COAL Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 34
  35. 35. Coal – What is it? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 35  Solid fossil fuel formed in several stages  Land plants that lived 300-400 million years ago  Subjected to intense heat and pressure over many millions of years  Mostly carbon, small amounts of sulfur
  36. 36. Coal Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 36
  37. 37. Coal Coal currently provides 23% of the total U.S. energy needs Now that oil and gas are dwindling, many energy producers and users are looking again at the potential of coal Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 37
  38. 38. Formation of Coal Deposits Unlike petroleum, coal is not formed from marine organisms, but from the remains of land plants. A swampy setting, in which plant growth is lush and where there is water to cover fallen trees, dead leaves and other plant debris, is ideal for the initial stages to create coal Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 38
  39. 39. Formation of Coal Deposits The formation of coal from dead plant matter requires burial, pressure, heat and time The process works best under anaerobic conditions (no oxygen) since the reaction with oxygen during decay destroys the organic matter It is the carbon content of the coal that supplies most of its heating value The greater the carbon to oxygen ratio the harder the coal, the more reduced the state of the carbons and the more potential energy it contains Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 39
  40. 40. Formation of Coal Deposits The products of coalification are divided into four major categories based on the carbon content of the material Peat Lignite Bituminous Anthracite Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 40
  41. 41. Peat Peat forms in wetlands, variously called bogs, moors, muskegs, pocosins, mires, and swamps It contains a large amount of water and must be dried before use Historically, it has been used as a source of heat and burns with a long flame and considerable smoke Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter and is the first stage in the formation of coal Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 41
  42. 42. Peat Peat deposits are found in many places around the world, notably in Russia, Ireland, Finland, Scotland, Poland, northern Germany, the Netherlands and Scandinavia, and in North America Approximately 60% of the world's wetlands have peat Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 42
  43. 43. Peat Peat is still mined as a fuel in Ireland and England The peat is stacked to slowly dry out Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 43
  44. 44. Lignite Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation It has a high inherent moisture content, sometimes as high as 66 percent, and very high ash content compared to bituminous coal Lignite is the second step in the formation of coal and is formed when peat is subjected to increased vertical pressure from accumulating sediments Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 44
  45. 45. Lignite Because of its low energy density, brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared to higher coal grades It is often burned in power stations constructed very close to the mines Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 45
  46. 46. Bituminous Bituminous Coal is the third stage of coal formation Additional pressure over time has made it compact and virtually all traces of plant life have disappeared It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite coal It is greatly used in industry as a source of heat energy Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 46
  47. 47. Bituminous Bituminous coal is usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 47
  48. 48. Bituminous Bituminous coal is a complex molecular mix of 60- 80% carbon, plus oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, plus some occasional impurities like sulfur Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 48
  49. 49. Coking Coal Coking is achieved by heating the coal in the absence of oxygen, which drives off volatile hydrocarbons such as propane, benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons, and some sulfur gases and a considerable amount of the contained water of the bituminous coal Coking coal is used in the manufacture of steel, where carbon must be as volatile-free and ash-free as possible When used for many industrial processes, bituminous coal must first be "coked" to remove volatile components Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 49
  50. 50. Anthracite Anthracite is formed during the forth stage of coal formation It is the most valuable and highest grade of coal, and has a carbon content of 92-98% Physically, anthracite differs from bituminous coal by its greater hardness and higher density Plus, it burns far more efficiently with less smoke Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 50
  51. 51. Fuel Efficiency As the coals becomes harder, their carbon content increases, and so does the amount of heat released Anthracite produces twice the energy (BTUs) of lignite Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 51
  52. 52. Coal-bed Methane During the formation of coal deposits, quantities of methane-rich gas are also formed Historically, methane has been considered as a hazardous nuisance In fact, currently it is usually burned off rather than recovered Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS
  53. 53. Coal Gasification One of the most advanced - and cleanest - coal power plants in the world is Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station in Florida It uses a coal gasification process that turns coal into a gas that can be cleaned of almost all pollutants Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 53
  54. 54. Coal Gasification The coal is heated inside a large oven and blasted with steam The coal is converted into carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas Hydrogen gas burns very easily Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 54
  55. 55. Coal Liquefaction Coal can also be converted into liquid fuels like gasoline or diesel by several different processes This is an attractive technology because it is well developed and thus could be implemented fairly rapidly and there are relatively large quantities of coal reserves Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 55
  56. 56. Coal & Environment A major problem with coal is the pollution associated with its mining and use. Coal is a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide In fact, coal releases more carbon dioxide per unit energy burned than natural gas or oil Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 56
  57. 57. Coal & Sulfur The sulfur content of coal can be as high as 3%, with some in the form of the iron sulfate mineral pyrite (FeS2) and some bound in the remaining organic matter When a coal containing sulfur is burned, sulfur gases, notably sulfur dioxide (SO2), are emitted These gases are poisonous and are extremely irritating to both eyes and lungs The pollutant of special concern with coal is sulfur Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 57
  58. 58. Acid Rain These sulfur gases also react with water in the atmosphere to produce sulfuric acid, which is a very strong acid This acid falls to earth as acid rain These trees near coal- fired power plants have been killed by acid rain Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 58
  59. 59. Ash Coal also produces a tremendous amount of solid waste The ash residue left after coal is burned is typically 5- 20% of the original volume It is primarily composed primarily of non-combustible silicate minerals, but also contains toxic metals Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 59
  60. 60. Ash If released with emission gases, the ash fouls the air When dumped onto the surface, the fine-grained ash weathers very rapidly, releasing toxic metals, such as selenium, creating a serious water-pollution threat The average coal-fired power plant produces one million tons of ash per year, which is usually buried Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 60
  61. 61. Ash TVA estimated that 5.4 million gallons of wet fly ash had escaped thru the breach Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 61
  62. 62. Ash About 40 private homes, buildings and other structures were damaged or destroyed by the ash flow. Some residents were forced to leave their homes forever 62
  63. 63. Ash TVA denies that the fly ash is dangerous to the environment or to human health However, TVA’s own records revealed that the 5.4 million gallons of fly ash contained 44,000 pounds of arsenic 49,000 pounds of lead 142,000 pounds of manganese 1.4 million pounds of barium compounds Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 63
  64. 64. Ash TVA has been cleaning up the disaster for almost 3 years, but the progress is very slow It will cost one billion dollars to clean the mess up 14 law suits have been files, but TVA claims immunity by the “principle of discretionary function” Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 64
  65. 65. Coal Mining Deaths Underground coal mining is notoriously dangerous The decrease in coal mining fatalities is due to: Better enforcement of safety regulations More surface strip mining of coal Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 65
  66. 66. In particular, coal mining has a bad history of dangerous working conditions, serious health problems and the highest death rate among miners Coal Mining Deaths Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 66
  67. 67. The Monongah No. 6 & No. 8 Mine disaster in West Virginia occurred at 10:20 am on December 6, 1907 and is the “the worst mining disaster in American history”. The official death count is 362, but it is believed that over 500 were killed 1907 Monongah Mine Disaster An electrical spark ignited methane and coal dust Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 67
  68. 68. Upper Big Branch Mine explosion occurred on April 5, 2010 and killed 29 miners. Due to the large concentration of toxic gases in the mine, MSHA investigators had to wait for over two months to enter the mine to investigate the explosion Upper Big Branch Mine Explosion Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 68
  69. 69. Coal Seam Fires Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 69
  70. 70. The Centralia fire closed highway 61 Coal Seam Fires in U.S. Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 70
  71. 71. A coal seam fire has been burning for more than a century near Glenwood Springs, Colorado It caused a major forest fire in 2002 Coal Seam Fires in U.S. Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 71
  72. 72. It is estimated that coal mine fires in China burn about 200 million tons of coal each year These fires release about 360 million metric tons of carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions per year Coal Seam Fires in China Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 72
  73. 73. How do you put out a coal seam fire? Coal Seam Fires Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 73
  74. 74. Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 74 Stack Waste heat Cooling tower transfers waste heat to atmosphere Pulverizing mill TurbineCoal bunker Generator Cooling loop Condenser Boiler Filter Toxic ash disposal Fig. 13-10, p. 306 Coal burning power plant
  75. 75. Fig. 13-10, p. 306 Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 75
  76. 76. Air Pollution from a Coal-Burning Industrial Plant in India Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 76
  77. 77. NATURAL GAS Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 77
  78. 78. NATURAL GAS  Mixture  50–90% Methane (CH4)  Ethane (C2H6)  Propane (C3H8)  Butane (C4H10)  Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) Saturday, June 21, 2014 FOSSIL FUELS 78
  79. 79. Sources of Natural Gas • Russia & Kazakhstan - almost 40% of world's supply. • Iran (15%), Qatar (5%), Saudi Arabia (4%), Algeria (4%), United States (3%), Nigeria (3%), Venezuela (3%); • 90–95% of natural gas in U.S. domestic (~411,000 km = 255,000 miles of pipeline). www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 79
  80. 80. What do we use natural gas for? Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 80 1. Produce electricity 2. Heat homes (inside homes, water heater) 3. Industry (heat for warmth and producing things) 4. Vehicles 5. Cooking
  81. 81. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS
  82. 82. Homework- Report Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 82 Describe in details the challenges towards a sustainable energy future and the strategies that can be put forward in enhancement of people's quality of life in relation to environmental climate change. Report due in 3 weeks time (Due on 9th July, 2014). Minimum of 5 pages in times new roman font 12, line spacing of 1.5.
  83. 83. Thanks! Saturday, June 21, 2014FOSSIL FUELS 83

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