World War II


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World War II

  1. 1. WORLD WAR II
  2. 2. <ul><li>Hitler believes Germ should build a great empire (the THIRD REICH ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Need more land to East (Russia) & Slavic peoples should be used as slaves to build 3 rd Reich </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!! </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler creates new air force March 9, 1935. </li></ul><ul><li>Begins military draft (Against Treaty Of Versailles) . </li></ul><ul><li>Fr, GB warn </li></ul><ul><li>Germ, but </li></ul><ul><li>do nothing . </li></ul>
  5. 5. HITLER INVADES THE RHINELAND <ul><li>DON’T WRITE </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler knows they won’t use force. </li></ul><ul><li>Invades RHINELAND </li></ul><ul><li>March 1936 </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE! Fr won’t act w/o GB. </li></ul><ul><li>GB doesn’t support using force ( b/c Germ owns Rhine any way ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE UNHOLY ALLIANCE <ul><li>Hitler & MUSSOLINI (Italy) become allies, b/c they believe must create big empire </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1936: Germ & It sign treaty recognizing poli & eco interests called the Rome-Berlin Axis. . </li></ul><ul><li>Invades Ethiopia w/ Germ support, angering GB & FR </li></ul>
  10. 10. AUSTRIA <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!! </li></ul><ul><li>1937, Hitler threatens to invade Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Aus Chancellor put Nazis in charge of govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Govt then “invites” Germ troops to come in & maintain order. </li></ul><ul><li>Annexed March 13, 1938 </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!! </li></ul><ul><li>Next goal: destroy Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Demands Germ be given SUDENTENLAND (NW Cz) on Sept 15, 1938. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Policy of APPEASEMENT - belief that if you satisfy demands of unhappy nations, then unhappy powers will be content & there will be peace </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Fr, GB, Germ & It meet at MUNICH CONFERENCE. France & GB appease Hitler & give him Cz. </li></ul><ul><li>( See chart above for rest) </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler promises to make no more demands. BIG LIE! </li></ul><ul><li>Cz abandoned </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Neville Chamberlain , GB Prime Minister, says “ This will create peace for our time” </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Hitler thinks Euro weak & won’t stop him. Took over rest of CZ 1939 & d emands </li></ul><ul><li>Polish port of </li></ul><ul><li>DANZIG. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>GB & FR realize they need Soviets to stop Nazis & negotiate w/ USSR </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>ON Aug 29, 1939 Hitler & Stalin (USSR) sign Nazi-Soviet Non - Aggression Pact , promising not to attack each other (to prevent a 2 front war) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
  20. 21. <ul><li>Pact gave Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>E.Poland & Baltics </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Hitler invades Poland Sept 1, 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 3, GB & FR declare war. </li></ul>
  22. 23. JAPANESE PATH TO WAR <ul><li>Sept 1933: Japan attacks Manchuria for resources. </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations sends investigators . </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>US warns Japan that economic SANCTIONS (economic restrictions to enforce laws) will be used unless Japan w/draws to old borders </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Big Dilemma! </li></ul><ul><li>Japan must decide what they need more: Indochina’s </li></ul><ul><li>resources or US’s oil & iron </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Germany’s fast attacks shock world. </li></ul><ul><li>BLITZKRIEG -lightening war- used armored columns (called panzer divisions ) supported by planes. </li></ul><ul><li>Each division had 300 tanks </li></ul><ul><li>w/ forces & supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks through areas & then </li></ul><ul><li>bring in regular troops . </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>On 9/28/39, Poland surrenders & Germ & Soviets divide it up. </li></ul><ul><li>On 4/9/40, Hitler uses Blitzkrieg against Norway & Sweden . </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>On 5/10/40 launch attack on Netherlands, Belgium & Fr w/ main assault thru Luxembourg & ARDENNES FOREST . </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Panzers break thru weak FR defenses, cut across FR, & go around MAGINOL LINE (Heavy fortifications) on Germ/FR border. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Splits Allies in half, trapping FR & GB on Dunkirk beaches </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>6/22/40 - </li></ul><ul><li>Fr sign armistice & Germ occupies 3/5 of France. </li></ul><ul><li>Germ set up authoritarian regime </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Brits ask US for help. </li></ul><ul><li>US passed </li></ul><ul><li>NEUTRALITY ACTS & cannot take sides </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Hitler must get control of air to invade GB </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 1940 LUFTWAFFE launches attack (air force) </li></ul><ul><li>Hits bases, harbors, communication & industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Brits fight & suffer losses . </li></ul>
  35. 36. LUFTWAFFE
  36. 37. DON’T WRITE <ul><li>Hitler starts to bomb cities to get back at GB for raid in Berlin. </li></ul><ul><li>Because Germ stopped going after bases to get cities, GB rebuilds military strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler backs off in Sept </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Hitler thought Brits waiting for Soviet help </li></ul><ul><li>6/22/41- Hitler Invades USSR. </li></ul><ul><li>( Believed would win by winter ). </li></ul><ul><li>1800 mile attack, but capture 2 mil Rus soldiers </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Nov: Germ Army took Ukraine, 2nd attacked Leningrad & 3 rd army 25 miles from Moscow. </li></ul><ul><li>Winter hits early & Strong Rus resistance stops Germ . </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Dec. 7, 1941 Japan attacks US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to destroy Pacific fleet. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought US would accept Japan’s domination of Pacific </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>KAMIKAZE (divine wind) were suicide pilots. </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Japan took over much of SE Asia & W Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>US declares war Dec. 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Joins the ALLIES </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler declared war on US </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>New alliance- US, GB, & USSR are GRAND ALLIANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Agree to focus on military, not political issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Will fight until AXIS POWERS (Germ, It, Japan) have UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER - no conditions attached. </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>women enter workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>Some serve as nurses or WACS. </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>GENERAL ERWIN ROMMEL (Desert Fox) & his AFRIKA KORPs break thru Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Last big success for Germ . </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>Brits stop Rommel at EL ALAMEIN & he retreats. </li></ul><ul><li>US & Br invade N. Africa Nov 1942. </li></ul><ul><li>It & Germ armies surrender in May 1943. </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>Hitler goes after Stalingrad (industrial center). -worst battle of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Many starve during siege, but Nov 1942-Feb 1943 Soviets counterattack, encircling Germs & cutting off supplies during winter. </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>Germ army surrenders </li></ul><ul><li>& HITLER GIVES UP ON RUSSIA </li></ul>
  50. 51. US SUCCESS IN ASIA <ul><li>BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA - 5/7/42- US stops Japan’s advance to Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Midway Island 6/4/42 US destroys Japan’s navy. MAJOR TURNING POINT!!! </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>DOUGLAS MACARTHUR - US-move into Philippines thru S. Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Others move across Pacific w/ combo of US marines, & navy </li></ul><ul><li>to attack Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>held islands, </li></ul><ul><li>by island hopping . </li></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>Winston Churchill calls Italy “Soft underbelly of Europe “ </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!!! </li></ul><ul><li>AXIS forces surrender in Tunisia (1943) Allies move into Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Muss removed </li></ul><ul><li>from power. </li></ul><ul><li>King Victor Emmanuel offers to surrender </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE </li></ul><ul><li>Germs free Mussolini & set up puppet Germ state in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Germ sets up defenses, takes Allies until 6/4/44 to take Rome </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>Allies open 2 nd front w/ invasion of Fr from GB thru English Channel </li></ul>
  57. 58. GENERAL EISENHOWER <ul><li>Allied Forces under GEN DWIGHT EISENHOWER land at NORMANDY on 6/6/44- aka D-DAY </li></ul>
  58. 60. <ul><li>6/5/44- Stormy, men waiting in lSTs. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans nervous. Radio stations bombed, Luftwaffe grounded, telephone lines cut. Thought no invasion would occur </li></ul><ul><li>Commanders away attending a war game subject was naval assault on Normandy </li></ul><ul><li>At Calais, German radar picks up signals when Brits drop aluminum foil form planes & send up reflector balloons to look like troop transports </li></ul><ul><li>US & Brits launch parachute and glider drops behind beaches </li></ul>
  59. 61. <ul><li>6. Beaches at Normandy given code names: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno & Sword. Utah & Omaha taken by US, rest by Brits & Canadians. Use clickers to find way in dark </li></ul><ul><li>7. 1:11 AM germ general gets phone call. Word reaches Rommel at </li></ul><ul><li>2:15 AM, but doesn't </li></ul><ul><li>believe this is the </li></ul><ul><li>invasion. Sent message </li></ul><ul><li>to Runstedt </li></ul>
  60. 62. <ul><li>8. 2:55 sends message to Berlin.but not sure if attack is atNormandy or Calais. At 4:15, knows its Normandy </li></ul><ul><li>9. Sends message to Jodl, asking for reserves. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Jodl wakes up 6;30 & DENIES order. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Too late. 150,000 men, 1500 tanks, 5300 ships land. Huge success. Many die in the attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Good thing because one week later, Germans launch V-1 rockets on England and V-2s later. Flew up to 120 miles altitude and could not be stopped. </li></ul>
  61. 63. D-DAY INVASION
  62. 64. OMAHA BEACH
  64. 66. JUNE 6 th , 1944
  65. 68. BATTLE OF KURSK <ul><li>On July 12 th , Luftwaffe & artillery units bombed Soviets. </li></ul><ul><li>SS Divisions “were astonished to see masses of Soviet armor advancing towards them”. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Kursk was the largest tank battle. </li></ul>
  66. 69. <ul><li>Soviets move west & take Ukraine, Baltics & Warsaw by 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>Enter Berlin in Apr 1945 & swept thru Hungary, Romania </li></ul><ul><li>& Bulgaria </li></ul>
  67. 70. <ul><li>Hitler moves into bunker. </li></ul><ul><li>Commits suicide April 30, 1945, 2 days after Mussolini killed </li></ul>
  68. 71. <ul><li>5/7/45 Germany surrenders!! </li></ul>
  69. 72. Russians on the Reichstag
  70. 73. <ul><li>1945: HARRY S TRUMAN debates whether to use atomic bomb . </li></ul><ul><li>Would stop invasion of Japan with million deaths, but don’t know true effects. Many civilians would die </li></ul>
  71. 74. HARRY TRUMAN
  72. 75. <ul><li>8/6/45 drop bomb on HIROSHIMA , & NAGASAKI 3 days later. (levels cities, many die) </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Hero Hito surrenders. </li></ul><ul><li>Dropped by Paul Tibbets </li></ul>
  73. 76. HIROSHIMA
  74. 77. LITTLE BOY
  75. 78. Fat Man
  76. 79. Designation Mk-I &quot;Little Boy &quot; Mk-III &quot;Fat Man&quot; Width 28 in. 60.25 in. Length 120 in. 128 in . Weight 8,900 lb. 10,300 lb. Yield 15 - 16 Kt 21 Kt
  77. 83. Whats left of the city
  79. 85. NAGASAKI
  80. 86. Emperor Hirohito
  81. 87. AUDIE MURPHY
  82. 88. VICTORY !!!
  83. 89. WAR DEAD <ul><li>Total Servicemen worldwide: 16,112,566 </li></ul><ul><li>6-10 million in concentration </li></ul><ul><li>camps </li></ul><ul><li>20 million to </li></ul><ul><li>50 million </li></ul><ul><li>civilians </li></ul>
  84. 90. World War II Memorial
  85. 91. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  86. 92. <ul><li>Period of political tension starts after war over ideology (political ideas) called COLD WAR!! </li></ul>
  87. 93. <ul><li>TEHRAN CONFERENCE- Stalin, Roosevelt & Churchill (Big Three) met in Tehran in Nov 1943 to decide course of war. </li></ul>
  88. 94. <ul><li>Stalin & FDR want an US-Brit invasion of Germ thru France in spring 1944. </li></ul><ul><li>E. Europe would be freed by Soviets </li></ul>
  89. 95. <ul><li>YALTA CONFERENCE Met at Yalta in Russia (Feb 1945) </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>now in </li></ul><ul><li>E. Euro. </li></ul>
  90. 96. <ul><li>Stalin wants pro-soviet govts along USSR border to act as a buffer for protection. </li></ul>
  91. 97. <ul><li>FDR wants: SELF-DETERMINATION: each nation determines their govts. </li></ul><ul><li>Big 3 create & join UNITED NATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>First meeting set for San Francisco April 1945. </li></ul>
  92. 98. <ul><li>Germ must surrender unconditionally. </li></ul><ul><li>Germ divided into 4 zones ruled by FR, GB, USSR & US. </li></ul><ul><li>Free elections </li></ul><ul><li>in Poland </li></ul>
  93. 99. <ul><li>POTSDAM CONFERENCE - FDR dies & replaced by Harry Truman . </li></ul><ul><li>Truman wants free elections in E. Euro. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin says no, ( would not be pro-soviet) </li></ul>
  94. 100. <ul><li>Winston Churchill says an “ iron curtain ” has descended across the continent. </li></ul>
  95. 101. <ul><li>NUREMBURG TRIALS - Nazi leaders tried & convicted as war criminals in Nov ‘45-Sept ‘46. </li></ul><ul><li>Many executed </li></ul>
  96. 102. <ul><li>Oct. 1 - last day - judges announced verdicts - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 given death: Goring, von Ribbentrop, Keitel, Kaltenbrunner, Rosenberg, Franck, Frick, Streicher, Sauckel, Jodl, Seyss-Inquart, Bormann (were hung Oct. 16, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goering committed suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 given life: Raeder, Hess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 given 20 yrs: Baldur von Schirach, Speer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 given 15 yrs, 1 given 10 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 acquitted: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 more at Nuremberg - 175 convicted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 Germans convicted - 250 death </li></ul></ul>