What Is An Abstract

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What Is An Abstract

  1. 1. What is an abstract?
  2. 2. <ul><li>An abstract is a very concise statement of the major elements of your research project. It states the purpose, methods, and findings of your research project. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Abstracts for experimental research projects should include: <ul><li>A specific and detailed title. </li></ul><ul><li>A brief introduction to the topic-providing context or background. </li></ul><ul><li>A statement of the study's objectives--what is the research question? </li></ul><ul><li>A summary of results. </li></ul><ul><li>A statement of conclusions (or hypothesized conclusions). </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly some discussion of the relevance of the conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly some call for future research </li></ul>
  4. 4. Abstracts for research projects that are primarily text-based should include: <ul><li>A specific and detailed title. </li></ul><ul><li>A brief introduction to the topic-providing context or background. </li></ul><ul><li>A statement of the study's objectives--what is the research question? </li></ul><ul><li>A summary of the key subtopics explored—what argument are you proposing about the topic? </li></ul><ul><li>A brief reference to the nature of the source material and methodology (if relevant)—library research? analysis of fictional texts? interviews or observations? </li></ul><ul><li>A statement of conclusions (or hypothesized conclusions). </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly some discussion of the implications of the conclusions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Some things to avoid: <ul><li>Including too much introductory material </li></ul>Using too much jargon Not using complete sentences: Not giving the reader sufficient context and completeness
  6. 6. What types of abstracts are typically used? <ul><li>Descriptive Abstracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tell readers what information the report, article, or paper contains. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include the purpose, methods, and scope of the report, article, or paper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not provide results, conclusions, or recommendations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are always very short, usually under 100 words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>introduce the subject to readers, who must then read the report, article, or paper to find out the author's results, conclusions, or recommendations. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Informative Abstracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>communicate specific information from the report, article, or paper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include the purpose, methods, and scope of the report, article, or paper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide the report, article, or paper's results, conclusions, and recommendations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are short -- from a paragraph to a page or two, depending upon the length of the original work being abstracted. Usually informative abstracts are 10% or less of the length of the original piece. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow readers to decide whether they want to read the report, article, or paper. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Steps for Writing Effective Abstracts <ul><li>Reread the article, paper, or report with the goal of abstracting in mind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look specifically for these main parts of the article, paper, or report: purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the headings, outline heads, and table of contents as a guide to writing your abstract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you're writing an abstract about another person's article, paper, or report, the introduction and the summary are good places to begin. These areas generally cover what the article emphasizes. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>After you've finished rereading the article, paper, or report, write a rough draft without looking back at what you're abstracting. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't merely copy key sentences from the article, paper, or report: you'll put in too much or too little information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't rely on the way material was phrased in the article, paper, or report: summarize information in a new way. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Revise your rough draft to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>correct weaknesses in organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve transitions from point to point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drop unnecessary information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>add important information you left out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminate wordiness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fix errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Print your final copy and read it again to catch any glitches that you find </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Transitions help readers connect the ideas in a piece of writing; they're the glue that shows how pieces of your text fit together. Often all you'll need is a word or phrase to lead readers through your text. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>lead forward </li></ul><ul><li>lead through a sequence </li></ul><ul><li>lead through cause and effect relationships </li></ul><ul><li>compare and contrast </li></ul><ul><li>clarify or emphasize </li></ul><ul><li>lead to concessions, reservations, dismissals, or conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>lead to conclusions </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cues that lead readers forward from information they've already read to new information. <ul><li>Old Information Transition NewInformation </li></ul><ul><li>ADDITION </li></ul><ul><li>Actually, Further, </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, Furthermore, </li></ul><ul><li>Again, Incidentally, </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Indeed, </li></ul><ul><li>And In fact, </li></ul><ul><li>Besides Lastly, </li></ul><ul><li>Equally important, Moreover, </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, Not only this, but this as well </li></ul><ul><li>First, Second, Third, etc. What's more, </li></ul>
  14. 14. To move readers into specific examples <ul><li>Generalization Transition Examples </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>As an illustration, Namely, </li></ul><ul><li>Especially, Notably, </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Particularly, </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, Specifically, </li></ul><ul><li>Including To demonstrate, </li></ul><ul><li>In particular, To illustrate, </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cues that lead readers through a sequence To move readers from one time-frame to another <ul><li>Onetime Transition Another time </li></ul><ul><li>TIME </li></ul><ul><li>After a few hours, Immediately following, </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards, Initially, </li></ul><ul><li>At last In the end, </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, In the future, </li></ul><ul><li>Before In the meantime, </li></ul><ul><li>Before this ,In the meanwhile, </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, Last, Last but not least, Lastly, </li></ul><ul><li>During Later, </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, Meanwhile, </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, Next, Soon after, </li></ul><ul><li>First, Second, Third, etc. Previously, </li></ul><ul><li>First of all, Simultaneously, </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly Subsequently, </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately before, Then, </li></ul>
  16. 16. To draw readers' attention to a particular location or place <ul><li>One place Transition Another place </li></ul><ul><li>PLACE </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent, In the background, </li></ul><ul><li>Alongside, In the distance, </li></ul><ul><li>At the side, In the front, </li></ul><ul><li>Here/There In the foreground </li></ul><ul><li>In the back, Nearby, </li></ul>
  17. 17. To let readers know that a digression is about to begin or end <ul><li>Digression Transition back to Main point </li></ul><ul><li>Main point Transition begin Digression </li></ul><ul><li>DIGRESSION/RESUMPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Anyhow, Incidentally, </li></ul><ul><li>Anyway, To change the subject, </li></ul><ul><li>As I was saying, To get back to the point, </li></ul><ul><li>At any rate, To return to the subject, </li></ul><ul><li>By the way, To resume, </li></ul>

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