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Lecture 1 Units 1-21. Present of be (to be)2. Present Simple tense;3. Too / either * Actually = 1) to give new or surprising information; 2) to correct things4. Verb forms: V+to+V; V+V(ing); Modal V+V5. At; in6. Object pronoun / Everybody; nobody * Really = to make stronger; * Not really = to answer “no” politely
1.To beI am a student. Am I …? I am not … You are a student. Are you…? You are not … He is a student. Is he …? He is not … She is a student. Is she …? She is not … It is a desk. Is it …? It is not … We are friends. Are we …? We are not … You are friends. Are you …? You are not … They are friends. Are they …? They are not ...
2.The Present Simple tenseI watch TV. Do I …? I do not …/ don’t... You watch TV. Do you…? You do not … He watches TV. Does he …? He does not … She watches TV. Does she …? She does not … It gets cold. Does it …? It does not … We like music. Do we …? We do not … You like music. Do you …? You do not … They like music. Do they …? They do not ...
3.Too - either I am a student. - I am too. I am not a hip-hop fan. - I am not either. I play tennis. - I do too. I don’t play chess. - I don’t either. I can cook. - I can too. I can’t sing. - I can’t either. I have a brother. - I have too. I haven’t a sister. - I haven’t either.
4. Verb forms V+to+VI want to play tennis. I’d like to play tennis. V+ V(ing)I like playing tennis. Can + V (Modal verbs)I can play tennis very well / I can’t play tennis at all.
5.At / in Be good + at I’m good at physics. Are you good at chemistry? I’m not good at biology. Be interested + in I’m interested in literature. Are you interested in art? I’m not interested in drama.
6.Object pronoun /Every + ..;No+ ..; I –me You –you He –him Everybody likes them. She –her Everyone We –us Nobody You –you No one They –themHe is a good singer. I like him.She is not a good singer. I don’t like her.
Lecture 2 Unit 31. Present Simple2. Present Continuous3. When / If * to show surprise: Oh! Gosh! Really! Oh, my gosh! Wow! You’re kidding! Oh, wow! Are you serious? No way! No! informal
1.The Present Simple tense To talk about “all the time” : How do you stay in shape? I walk everywhere. I never eat junk food. Pr.S with: like To talk about routines: love Do you get regular exercise? know need Yes, I do. I exercise 6 days a week. want No, we don’t. We don’t exercise at all.
2.The Present Continuous tense To talk about “now”: What sports are you playing these days? I am doing karate. It’s getting me in shape. To talk about temporary events: Is she trying to lose weight? Yes, she is. She is drinking diet drinks. No, she’s not. She’s not trying to lose weight.
3.When / If What do you do when you have a cold? When I have a cold , I take medicine. I take medicine when I have a cold. What do you do if you get a really bad cold? If I get a really bad cold, I go to see a doctor. I go to see a doctor if I get a really bad cold.If conditionals:-If + Ps.S, … Pr.S (when*)/0- If + Pr.S, … F.S/1- If + P.S, … F.S in Past
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/zero-conditional.html The Zero ConditionalWe can make a zero conditional sentence with two present simple (Pr.S) verbs(one in the if clause and one in the main clause): If + present simple, .... present simple.This conditional is used when the result will always happen.So, if water reaches 100 degrees, it always boils. Its a fact. Im talking in general,not about one particular situation. The result of the if clause is always the mainclause. The if in this conditional can usually be replaced by when withoutchanging the meaning. For example: When water reaches 100 degrees, it boils.(It is always true, there cant be a different result sometimes). If I eat peanuts, IAm sick. (This is true only for me, maybe, not for everyone, but its still true thatIm sick every time I eat peanuts). Here are some more examples:If people eat too much, they get fat. If you touch a fire, you get burned.People die if they dont eat. You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen.Snakes bite if they are scared. If babies are hungry, they cry
Lecture 3 Units 4-51. Future with “going to”2. Indirect objects / indirect object pronouns3. Present Continuous for future * I don’t know. Maybe. I’m not sure. It depends. = not sure about answer4. Past Simple /was; were; did; /.5. Time expressions.6. Determiners. /All; All of / *Well; I mean; No, wait; = to correct things you said
1.Future tense with “going to”We use “going to” when we want to talk abouta plan (planned actions) for the future andwe are certain that something is going to happen in the future. I am going to buy something special. 4 future forms: You are going to get a present. will-future, She is going to go out with her friends. going to-future, He is going to work out in a gym. Simple Present We are going to send some flowers. (timetable) You are going to make a cake. Present Progressive They are going to have s party. (arrangement) What are you going to do for your birthday? Are you going to invite your friends? Yes, we are. / No, we are not.
2.Indirect objects I’m going to buy my mother something special. Alicia isn’t going to give Dave anything. Let’s send Mom and Dad some flowers.Indirect object pronouns:I-me; you-you; he-him; she-her; we-us; they-them I’m going to buy her something very special. Alicia isn’t going to give him anything. Let’s send them some flowers.
3. Present Continuous for the Future1) “Going to + V” Future plans (factual information):What are you going to do for New Year’s Eve? We’re going to go somewhere for dinner. We’re going to meet some friends at a restaurant. Predictions:It’s going to be fun. It’s going to snow tomorrow.2) Present Continuous: Future plans with specific times or places (fixed plans):What are you doing for New Year’s Eve? We’re going to The Sea Grill for dinner. We’re meeting friends at 8.30.
4.Past Simple tense (to be) Where were you born? I was born in Sao Paolo. I wasn’t born in Seattle. Where were your parents born? They were born in Hong Kong. They weren’t born in the US.
5. Time expressions Did you live there for a long time? Yes, I did./No, I didn’t. I lived there for six years. Did she move here last year? Yes, she did./No,she didn’t. She moved in May. She moved in 2002. How long did you live in Sao Paulo? We lived there until I was six, from 1986 to 1992. Then we came to the US. When did they come here? They came here when Ling was sixteen, about three years ago.
V(+ed) Irregular V ! We use the Past Simple tense for: Actions which happened or finished at a definite time in the past. We started work at 8.30 yesterday. Lisa bought a house last year. Actions which happened repeatedly in the past but don’t happen anymore. (+ AF) He usually played football in his free time. (But he doesn’t play football anymore.)did “used to” + V
6. Determiners1) General: All students learn a language. Most Mongolians need English. Some students take Korean. But: A few students take Japanese. A lot of people speak English well. No students speak Portuguese.2) Specific: All (of) the students in my university learn English. Most of the people in my town know English. Some of the students in my class take Korean. But: A few of my classmates take Japanese. A lot of the people None of my friends speak three languages . speak English well.
Lecture 4 Unit 61. Is there…? / Are there…? ; Any ; one / some ;2. Location expressions. (Direction prepositions)3. Offers or requests: Using “Can” (more often) “could” (more polite) *Excuse me. I’m sorry? Did you say..? What did you say? = to check information
Any? One /some Is there an Internet café near here? Yes, there is. Here is one on Peace Avenue. No, there isn’t (one). Are there any cash machines around here? Yes, there are. There are some outside the bank. No, there aren’t (any).
Location expressions Is there a department store near here? Yes, there is. Here is one on Peace Avenue. No, there isn’t (one). Are there any restaurants around here? Yes, there are. There are some outside the bank. No, there aren’t (any).
Behind In front of Next to Between Inside Outside On First street On the corner of First and Main Across the street from Opposite
Offer / request Can I help you? Can you help me? (Yes, thanks) (Sure.) What can I do? Can you tell me how to get to the bank? How can I help ? Could you give me directions? Imperative: Go. Walk. Turn.
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