Euro crisis


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Euro crisis

  1. 1. EURO ZONE CRISISPresented To:- Dr. Gauri ModwelPresented By:-Richa-342Firoz -326Anirban-309Dhruv-204Himani-220
  2. 2. CONTENTS• Important Dates• Stats for Eurozone Crisis• Greek Debt Crisis• Theory behind the Eurozone• The Eurozone crisis, was inevitable• The structure of the Eurozone: cause of crisis• Factors that havecontributed to the Eurozone crises
  3. 3. Important Dates 1970 1992 1998 2001 2002 2007
  4. 4. Criterias1) Keep the budget deficit below 3% of GDP2) Keep public debt below 60% of GDP3) Demonstrate long-term price stability4) Ensure interest rates remain within certain limits for at least 2 years
  5. 5. Stats for Eurozone Crisis1) April 2010, Eurozone unemployment reached an all-time high of 15.86 million2) Spain’s unemployment rate reached 19% and its annual budget deficit grew to more than 11% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)3) Italy’s public debt reached €1.812 trillion in April 20104) In 2007, public debt in the Eurozone was just over 65% of GDP, whereas by 2010 debt levels were predicted to rise to 85% of GDP5) Average budget deficit in the Eurozone fell from just above – 1% in 2007 to a predicted peak of –6.5% in 2010
  6. 6. Greek Debt Crisis• 2001,Greece became the 12th country to join the Eurozone• November 2009, the country’s public debt was predicted to rise to 124.9% of GDP (€300 billion) during 2010• Greek Government also announced that its 2009 budget deficit would be equivalent to 12.7% of its GDP, more than four times higher than the maximum allowed• needed to borrow €50 billion in 2010 just to service its debt• Greece’s credit rating was downgraded• country’s credit rating was repeatedly downgraded, eventually reaching ‘junk-status’ in April 2010
  7. 7. Cont…• Save €4.8 billion by cutting public sector pay (cutting salary bonuses by 30% and freezing state-funded pensions in 2010) and increasing taxes (on fuel, tobacco, alcohol, and raising VAT from 21% to 23%)• Widespread protests on 24 February and 11 March 2010 .• 2 people killed in protests in May 2010
  8. 8. Cont…• Why didn’t Greece leave the Euro?• The €110 billion Greek bailout. – In April 2010, the 16 Eurozone countries agreed to lend Greece €30 billion – On May 2010, €110 billion bailout package for Greece in the form of a ‘Stabilization Mechanism – Greece withdrew the first loan on 18 May 2010• The €690 billion European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) – European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) was established in May 2010 – Total of €750 billion emergency funding
  9. 9. Cont…• The EU’s economic response after setting up the EFSF – Europe 2020 strategy – ‘Economic governance’ – Stress-tests’ of European banks – Basel III Agreement
  10. 10. Theory behind the Eurozone Process of joining an EMU : • Full monetary and economic 1 sovereignty • Joining a trade bloc or single market 2 • Incorporation into an EMU 3
  11. 11. Benefits• Uniform interest rates• Transaction costs reduced and exchange rate fluctuation ended• Financial integration• The end of speculation and competitive devaluations• Economic cushioning from domestic political instability
  12. 12. Costs• Loss of devaluation power• Loss of power to set interest rates and control supply of money
  13. 13. The Eurozone crisis, was inevitable1)Labour mobility2) Openness with capital3) Wage and price flexibility4) Fiscal transfer mechanism5) Similar business cycles6) Similar economic structures
  14. 14. The structure of the Eurozone:cause of crisis1) Excessive borrowing2) Conflict over who is responsible for bank bail-outs3) Problems when separate countries pursue differentmacroeconomic policies4) National economic growth occurring at a faster rate in onecountry than in other countries5) Trade imbalances
  15. 15. Factors that have contributed to the Eurozone crises• ‘Stabilizing’ elements of the EMU were not rigorously enforced or adhered• The role of the ECB• The global financial crisis• Countries borrowed too heavily
  16. 16. Conclusion• The Eurozone is the most adventurous economic endeavor the world has seen• The Eurozone could take a number of paths• There have been suggestions that the Eurozone is on the way to economic recovery.• However, this recovery may be just the ‘calm before the storm’ with many states due to implement austerity measures from 2011• The recovery could yet be two tiered, and could threaten an already battered sense of unity within the Eurozone
  17. 17. Reference• i Eurostat News Release, 1 June 2010, 01062010-AP/EN/3-01062010-AP-EN.PDF• ii Public Finances in EMU 2010, 4_en.pdf, Table I.1.1, p14,• iii Eurostat, Harmonised unemployment rate, total percentage, tableSelection=1&plugin=1• iv Eurostat News Release, 22 April 2010, 22042010-BP/EN/2-22042010-BP-EN.PDF• v Banca D’Italia, The Public Finances, borrowing requirement and debt, 14 June 2010,, Tabl e 5, P10.• vi• vii• viii• ix Eurostat data, graph compiled by author.• x Eurostat data, graph compiled by author.• xi EU Commission Report, Report on Greek Government deficit and debt statistics, 8 January 2010, 010_REPORT_GREEK-EN.PDF
  18. 18. • xii EU Commission Assessment, Table 4: Debt dynamics,, 2009, p9.• xiii Greek Ministry of Finance, Update of the Hellenic Stability and Growth Programme, 15 January 2009, 15_sp_en.pdf, p16; and plan• xiv• xv Prime Minister George A. Papandreou, Meeting with the President of France Nicolas Sarkozy, Press Statement, 10 February 2010, statement-after-his-meeting-with-thw-president-of-france-nicolas-sarkozy/• xvi bbbminus-1940587.html• xvii• xviii• xix ‘A Member state’s exit from EMU, without a parallel withdrawal from the EU, would be legally inconceivable’, European Central Bank, Withdrawal and Expulsion from the EU and EMU: some reflections, 2009, p.9.• xx The Lisbon Treaty, Article 50, European-union-and-comments/title-6-final-provisions/137-article-50.html• xxi