FIRLITA NURUL KHARISMA
MAUDY PUTRI MONICA
SMA NEGERI 1 PEMALANG
SYMBOL OF CHINA
Adopted in 1950, the Tiananman is the symbol of modern China. The
cogwheel and the ears of grain represent the working class and the peasantry
respectively and the five stars symbolize the solidarity of the various nationalities of
Red and Yellow as seen in the Chinese flag and emblem are its national colors.
The Giant Panda is the national animal of China. It's a mammal classified in
the bear family, native to central and southern China. It is easily known by its large,
distinctive black patches around the eyes, ears and on its rotund body.
The Chinese Dragon is the symbol of China's feudal monarchy. The dragon is
based on a 7,000-year-old Chinese legend, and has a horse's head, a snake's body
and chook's claws. It represented the emperor's power during the years of China's
feudal system and it is also a sign of auspiciousness and wealth among the people.
Nián gāo, Year cake or Chinese New Year's cake is a food prepared from glutinous rice
and consumed in Chinese cuisine. It is available in Asian supermarkets and from health
food stores. While it can be eaten all year round, traditionally it is most popular during
Chinese New Year. It is considered good luck to eat nian gao during this time, because
"nian gao" is a homonym for "higher year." The Chinese word 粘 (nián), meaning "sticky",
is identical in sound to 年, meaning "year", and the word 糕 (gāo), meaning "cake" is
identical in sound to 高, meaning "high". As such, eating nian gao has the symbolism of
raising oneself higher in each coming year (年年高升 niánnián gāoshēng).
Wine in China (葡萄酒; pinyin: pútáo jiǔ) refers to grape wines that are produced in China.
Grape wine has a long history in China, along with other Chinese alcoholic beverages.
Beginning in 1980, French and other Western wines began to rise in prominence in the
Chinese market, both in mainland China and Taiwan. French-taught Chinese winemakers
introduced wine to a market dominated mostly by beer, and have quickly expanded in scale
such that China, with its immense population, is set to become the largest wine market in the
The practice of drinking tea has had a long history in
China, having originated from there. The Chinese
drink tea during many parts of the day such as at
meals for good health or simply for pleasure.
Although tea originates from China, Chinese tea
generally represent tea leaves which have been
processed using methods inherited from ancient
China. According to popular legend, tea was
discovered by Chinese Emperor Shennong in 2737 BCE
when a leaf from a Camellia sinensis tree fell into
water the emperor was boiling. Tea is deeply woven
into the history and culture of China. The beverage is
considered one of the seven necessities of Chinese
life, along with firewood, rice, oil, salt, soy
Some writers classify tea into four
categories, white, green, oolong and black. Others add
categories for red, scented and compressed teas. All
of these come from varieties of the Camellia sinensis
plant. Chinese flower teas (花茶), while popular, are
not a true teas. Most Chinese teas are consumed in
China and are not exported, except to Chinesespeaking communities in other countries. Green tea is
the most popular type of tea used in China.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. In reality, Chinese history is
not as neat as is often described and it was rare indeed for one dynasty to end calmly and
give way quickly and smoothly to a new one. Dynasties were often established before the
overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they had been defeated.
In addition, China was divided for long periods of its history, with different regions being
ruled by different groups. At times like these, there was not any single dynasty ruling a
unified China. As a case in point, there is much dispute about times in and after the Western
Zhou period. One example of the potential for confusion will suffice:
This conventional date 1644 marks the year in which the Manchu Qing dynasty armies
occupied Beijing and brought Qing rule to China proper, succeeding the Ming dynasty.
However, the Qing dynasty itself was established in 1636 (or even 1616, albeit under a
different name), while the last Ming dynasty pretender was not deposed until 1662. This
change of ruling houses was a messy and prolonged affair, and the Qing took almost twenty
years to extend their control over the whole of China. It is therefore inaccurate to assume
China changed suddenly and all at once in the year 1644.
Event: Chinese New Year
Date: The first day of a year in lunar calendar, usually between late Jan and early Feb
Activities: fireworks display, visiting and greeting, Yangke dancing, lion and dragon
dancing, holding temple fairs and many other great folklore-inspection events.
Of all the traditional Chinese festivals, the new Year was perhaps the most
elaborate, colorful, and important. This was a time for the Chinese to congratulate each other
and themselves on having passed through another year, a time to finish out the old, and to
welcome in the new year. Common expressions heard at this time are: GUONIAN to have
made it through the old year, and BAINIAN to congratulate the new year.
Event: Lantern Festival
Date: 15th of the first lunar month
Activities: Lanterns expositions, garden parties, firework displays and folk dances.
The New Year celebrations ended on the 15th of the First Moon with the Lantern Festival. In
the legend, the Jade Emperor in Heaven was so angered at a town for killing his favorite
goose, that he decided to destroy it with a storm of fire. However, a good-hearted fairy heard
of this act of vengeance, and warned the people of the town to light lanterns throughout the
town on the appointed day. The townsfolk did as they were told, and from the Heavens, it
looked as if the village was ablaze. Satisfied that his goose had already been avenged, the Jade
Emperor decided not to destroy the town. From that day on, people celebrated the
anniversary of their deliverance by carried lanterns of different shapes and colors through the
streets on the first full moon of the year, providing a spectacular backdrop for lion dances,
dragon dances, and fireworks.
Event: Dragon Boat Festival
Date: Date: 5th day of the 5th lunar month
Activities: Dragon Boat races and eating Zong Zi (pyramid shaped rice wrapped in reed or
Originally a religious practice, it is now purely recreational. The Dragon Boat festival celebrates
the death of the poet Qu Yuan, who drowned himself in the 3rd Century BC as a protest
against a corrupt government. The legends are that the towns people attempted to rescue
him by beating drums to scare fish away from eating his body and threw rice dumplings into
the river to tempt the fish away from their hero.
Event: Mid-Autumn Festival
Date: 15th of the 8th lunar month
Activities: Dragon Boat racing, enjoying moonlight and eating moon cakes.
Probably the second most important festival in the Chinese calendar, Zhong qiu has
ancient origins. Occurring on the 15th day of the 17th lunar month (usually some
time around the end of September/start of October) the Mid-autumn festival
celebrates the moon. Traditionally a time for poets and lovers, in Chinese symbolism
the moon symbolizes unity and wholeness and is a time for reunion of families.
Abundant meals are eaten during the festival and moon cakes, round pastries filled
with nuts, dried fruits, preserved flowers, sesame and/or marinated beef or bacon
Date: 12th of the 3rd lunar month, usually around April 4th or 5th.
Activities: Cleaning ancestors' graves and holding memorial ceremonies, spring outing, and
This is a time when ice and snow has gone and plants are beginning to grow again, and is a
time for respect to ancestors. The graves of deceased relatives are swept and tended, the
memory of the dead cherished and offering of food may be made. To assist ancestors in the
afterlife 'Bank of Hell' money is burned, thereby transferring money to the ancestors to spend
as they will. Qing Ming is often marked by an indulgence of the Chinese passion for kite flying.
Hui people praying Dongguan. Mosque Xining.
In modern People's Republic of China, the term "Hui people" refers to one of the officially
recognized 56 ethnic groups into which Chinese citizens are classified. Under this definition, the Hui
people are defined to include all historically Muslim communities in People's Republic of China that
are not included in China's other ethnic groups. Since China's Muslims speaking various Turkic,
Mongolian, or Iranian languages are all included into those other groups (e.g., Uyghurs, Tajiks, or
Dongxiang), the "officially recognized" Hui ethnic group consists predominantly of Chinese speakers.
In fact, the "Hui nationality" is unique among China's officially recognized ethnic minorities in that it
does not have any particular non-Chinese language associated with it.
Nonetheless, included among the Hui in Chinese census statistics (and not officially recognized as
separate ethnic groups) are members of a few small non-Chinese speaking communities. Among
them are several thousand Utsuls in southern Hainan province, who speak an Austronesian
language (Tsat) related to that of the Cham Muslim minority of Vietnam, and who are said to be
descended from Chams who migrated to Hainan. A small Muslim minority among Yunnan's Bai
people are classified as Hui as well (even if they are Bai speakers), as are some groups of Tibetan
The Hui people are concentrated in Northwestern China (Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang), but
communities exist across the country, e.g. Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Yunnan, etc.