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  • penyangga
  • Bukti keterlibatan, menguntungkan, berbalas, pesta,mengikat kecuali kalau, membatalkan, pertunangan
  • Pertanda,kesuburan
  • Sutra, tandu ( sedan )
  • Kraker,friten,dancow ( sedan )
  • Naik tahta, kuburan yg indah
  • Gemuk, senyum lebar, dada telanjang, pertemuan, warisan
  • and you can take a picture with the panda
  • saberb, biara
  • yg menyangga
  • Gua kapur
  • belalai

Transcript

  • 1. X9 CHINA FIRLITA NURUL KHARISMA MAUDY PUTRI MONICA SMA NEGERI 1 PEMALANG
  • 2. The form of China country
  • 3. The form of Country On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established. The form of China country is Republic. It is commonly has been known as Taiwan. It is an independent in East Asia , that consist of Taiwan island , Penghu island , Kinmen island , Matsu island and small islands. • China Map
  • 4. Bordered of China Country China is bordered In the North by : - Kazakhastan - Russia - Mongolia
  • 5. Bordered of China Country China is bordered in the South by : - Nepal - Bhutan - India - Myanmar - Laos - Vietnam - South China Sea
  • 6. Bordered of China Country China is bordered in the West by : - Kryg - Tajik - Pakistan - India
  • 7. Bordered of China Country China is bordered in the East by : North Korea Japan Japan Sea East China Sea Pacific Ocean
  • 8. The Republic of China evolved into a democratic state during the 1980s without widespread conflict. It has a loose presidential system and universal suffrage. The President serves as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Yuan Legislative is the country's legislature .
  • 9. The ROC is a member of the WTO and APEC. It is one of the Four Asian Tigers, and has an industrialized advance economy. The largest 26th in the world, its advanced technology industry plays a key role in the global economy. The ROC is high ranked in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education and economic freedom .
  • 10. The head of the government Current leader Hu Jintao with former leader Jiang Zemin The primary leadership positions in China are: 1) the President; 2) the General Secretary of the Communist Party; and 3) the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, the de facto head of the military. China has a Prime Minister but he is generally regarded as the No. 2 or No. 3 person in power. He is nominated by the President and confirmed bt the National People’s Congress. The chairman of the National People’s Congress is considered the No. 2 leader in China.
  • 11. The presidency is often regarded as the weakest of the three primary leadership position. The leadership of the Communist Party is essential because the party rules the country. Leadership of the military is also essential because it provides the muscle behind the party. Both Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin retained the position of Chairman of the Central Military Commission as way of maintaining power behind the scenes after giving up the positions of president and party leader.
  • 12. These days the President is responsible for domestic and foreign policy. The Prime Minister is largely regarded as China’s economic czar. He is responsible for economic policy. There are no set rules on how long leaders can serve and how they are selected. These days a president and prime minister are limited to two five year terms and leaders have to rule by consensus. Years of disastrous one-man under Mao have made Chinese ascribe by the aphorism “tall trees attract wind.”
  • 13. Party Congresses are held every five years in the Great Hall of the People at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The last one, the 17th, was in autumn 2007. The next one, the 18th Party Congress is in 2013. The event lasts for about a week. More than 2,200 representatives attend. They are selected by the party congresses in each province. The Party Congress is arguably the most important event on the political calendar because it is the showcase event for the Chinese Communist Party and the Communist Party is the most powerful institution in China. Party Congresses formally ratify laws, establish policy, affirm leadership positions and select members of the Central Committee, Politburo, and Politburo Standing Committee. Important speeches are given. The main meetings are televised nationwide.
  • 14. Plenums in China Plenums are closed door meetings conducted by the Central Committee that last for around four days and are held once or twice a year. They can be very important. One in 1978 launched China’s economic reforms and paved the way for China to become the economic powerhouse that it is today. Plenums are held amidst tight security and heavy secrecy at the Great Hall of the People. No one except the participants knows what goes on there. Plenums are generally attended by the members of the Central Committee. Policy rubber stamped at Party Congress are often shaped during the plenums. The content of the meetings is kept tightly under wraps. There are no details in the press about the agenda or discussion just some vague statements about broad topics. Whatever information is released after the meetings are over.
  • 15. Plenums that endorse five year plans, held every five years, have traditionally been important political events. The Central Committee members meet and endorse the five-year plan for the next five years.“The Fifth Plenum of the 16th Communist Party Central Committee” was held in September 2005. It was attended by 500 people, 200 committee members and presumably their aides and lower-ranking officials. They endorsed the five-year plan for 2006 to 2010. The plenum before that, “The Forth Plenum of the 16th Communist Party Central Committee,” was held in September 2004 and the one before that was in October 2003.
  • 16. The language, flag, and symbol of the country CHINESE LANGUAGE Vocabulary : 1. HALLO 2. GOOD MORNING 3. GOOD AFTERNOON 4. GOOD EVENING 5. EAT 6. DRINK 7. SCHOOL 8. STUDY 9. TEACHER 10. FAMILY 11. FATHER 12. MOTHER 13. BROTHER 14. SISTER 15. UNCLE 16. AUNT = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 你好 ( WEI ) 早安 ( ZAO SHANG HAO ) 下午好 ( XIA WU HAO ) 晚上好 ( WAN SHANG HAO ) 饮食 ( CHI ) 饮料 ( YIN ) 学校 ( XUE XIAO ) 研究 ( XUE XI ) 师范 ( JIAO SHI ) 家庭 ( JIA TING ) 父亲 ( BA BA ) 母亲 ( MU QIN ) 兄弟 ( XIONG DI ) 系统 ( MEI ) 舅爷 ( JIU FU ) 姨妈 ( SHEN MU )
  • 17. China's national flag was adopted in September, 1949. This flag was first flown in Tiananmen Square on October 1, 1949 - the day of the founding of the People's Republic of China. The rectangular flag has a red field with five golden-yellow stars (each with five points) in the upper left corner. The star on the left is larger than the other four. The red color of the flag symbolizes revolution. The large star symbolizes the Communist Party (which rules China) and the smaller stars represent the people of China.
  • 18. National Symbols of China A national symbol is anything that has become significant to a country's community. They intend to unite people by creating visual, verbal and iconic representations of a nation's people, values, goals and history. These are the symbols that define the Chinese people as a nation.
  • 19. SYMBOL OF CHINA Adopted in 1950, the Tiananman is the symbol of modern China. The cogwheel and the ears of grain represent the working class and the peasantry respectively and the five stars symbolize the solidarity of the various nationalities of China. Red and Yellow as seen in the Chinese flag and emblem are its national colors.
  • 20. NATIONAL ANIMAL The Giant Panda is the national animal of China. It's a mammal classified in the bear family, native to central and southern China. It is easily known by its large, distinctive black patches around the eyes, ears and on its rotund body. The Chinese Dragon is the symbol of China's feudal monarchy. The dragon is based on a 7,000-year-old Chinese legend, and has a horse's head, a snake's body and chook's claws. It represented the emperor's power during the years of China's feudal system and it is also a sign of auspiciousness and wealth among the people.
  • 21. The citizen
  • 22. The Economy of China The economy of the People’s Republic of China is the third largest in the world after the United States and Japan (2008) with a nominal GDP US$ 4.91 trilllion (2009) when measured in exchange-rate China is the largest trading nation in the world and the largest exporter and second largest importer of goods.
  • 23. The Economy People's Republic of China The two most important sectors of the economy have traditionally been agriculture and industry, which together employ more than 70 percent of the labor force and produce more than 60 percent of GDP. Taipei 101 is a symbol of the success of The Chainese
  • 24. A Taiwan High Speed 700T train Cocoa Garden The two sectors have differed in many respects. Technology, labor productivity, and incomes have advanced much more rapidly in industry than in agriculture.
  • 25. The Export Commodity of China Industrial and Mineral Produtcs : - Cotton cloth - Cotton yarn - Tungsent - Antimony - Coal - Crude oil Animal Hubandary Sector : -Fish -Pig Agriculture Sector : -Rice - Tea -Wheat - Mille -Corn (maize) - Barly -Tobacco - Sorgum -Soybeans - Potatoes -Peanuts(groundnuts) - Cotton
  • 26. The Financial and Banking System The most of China’s financial institutions are state owned and governed of banking assets are state owned. The chief instruments of financial and fiscal control are the People’s Bank of China (PBC) and the Ministry of Finance.
  • 27. The Currency System The Renminbi (“ people’s currency “) is the currency of China , denominated as the yuan , subdivided into 10 jiao or 100 fen. The Renminbi is issued by the People’s Bank of China , the monetary authority of PRC. The Latinised symbol is “ ¥ “
  • 28. The art • Chinese Painting Chinese Painting has developed a unique style. It is painted on rice paper or thin silk with brushes, Chinese ink, and Chinese painting dye. In terms of topics, it involves portrait, landscape, flower, and bird, grass and insect, etc. On painting techniques, one is traditional Chinese realistic painting characterized byfine brushwork and close attention to detail, and the other is freehand brushwork. These two kinds have their own characteristics. Originated from late Zhou Dynasty, portraits gradually formed its own characteristics during Han Dynasty, Wei Dynasty, and the period of Six Dynasties.
  • 29. Nishang Yuyi Nishang Yuyi (the Song of Enduring Sorrow) is also a royal creation, written and choreographed by Tang Dynasty Emperor Xuan Zong (known privately as Li Longji) who reigned from 712-756. The dance, sometimes referred to as the Feather Dress Dance due to the fact that the costumes are adorned with soft, fluttery feathers, suggesting lighness and flight, concerns a legend about an emperor who dreams that he travels to the moon and there, in a palace, sees a group of beautiful, heavenly virgins dressed in feathers and rosy clouds dancing in the skies. When the emperor awakens from this dream and recounts it to his concubine, the concubine recreates the dance for the emperor.
  • 30. Paper Umbrella The colorfully decorated, almost gauze-like Chinese paper umbrella is as quintessentially Chinese as chop sticks. The collapsible Chinese paper umbrella is believed to have existed in China since before the beginning of the Christian era, though the first historical reference to the Chinese paper umbrella stems from the 21 CE mention of a paper umbrella made for the 4-wheeled "chariot" of Emperor Wang Mang (Wang Mang was a royal official who usurped the throne for a short period – generally referred to as the Wang Mang interregnum – creating the short-lived Xin (CE 9-24) Dynasty).
  • 31. Chinese Lanterns The Chinese lantern originated as an improvement over the more simple, more natural – and surely, more widespread – source of lighting: the open flame. The lamp/ lantern shade of course protects the flame inside from being extinguished in windy weather, but it also provides a better, more diffuse form of illumination than an open flame, the latter of which creates sharp contrasts between illuminated and non-illuminated parts of objects. Once created, however, it was inevitable that the lantern shade would be the object of artistic expression, most especially given the highly developed Chinese penchant for artistic embellishment, as any student of Chinese culture will know.
  • 32. Traditional Chinese Medicin (TCM) Traditional Chinese Medicine (abbreviated as TCM) is more than just a collection of roots and herbs that are believed to have healing powers. According to Chinese religious philosophy, all things in nature, both on this planet and beyond, are interrelated. Traditional Chinese Medicine embraces a number of other health-related concepts, in the broadest sense, concepts such as animism (the notion that all things possess a spirit), the yin and the yang (the notion of opposing forces in nature and of striking the right balance between the two), Qi Gong and Fengshui (both are based on the mind-overmatter notion that there exist exogenous forces in nature that can and should be harnessed in order to provide well-being, and that where these are not properly harnessed, or are ignored, they can in fact do harm), and even a cosmic dimension.
  • 33. Chinese Acrobatics Chinese Acrobatics has its origins in Chinese Folk Dance, and, indeed, Chinese Folk Dance remains one of its main applications to this day. For example, the Dragon Dance employs dancers who are also acrobats, as acrobatic movement is required in order to bring the mock dragon to life, but acrobatics also plays a role in many other Chinese Folk Dances. In addition, just as the Chinese Folk Dance also transitioned to the Chinese Theatre, Chinese Acrobatics has also transitioned to the Chinese Theatre.
  • 34. Chinese calligraphy Chinese calligraphy has a long history and lasts about 1000 years. It can be considered as a unique artistic form of the treasury of Chinese culture. It is the representative of Chinese art and is reputed as the most ancient artistic form in the history of oriental world. Calligraphy has exerted wide influence world widely and has even been introduced to many neighboring countries. Picasso, the world famous master of art, once expressed that "If I once lived in China, I must had become a calligrapher rather than a painter". Chinese traditional calligraphy mainly falls into six categories: Seal Character, Official Script, Formal Script, Running Script, Formal Script, Running Script, and Cursive Hand.
  • 35. Event: Chinese New Year Date: The first day of a year in lunar calendar, usually between late Jan and early Feb Activities: fireworks display, visiting and greeting, Yangke dancing, lion and dragon dancing, holding temple fairs and many other great folklore-inspection events. Of all the traditional Chinese festivals, the new Year was perhaps the most elaborate, colorful, and important. This was a time for the Chinese to congratulate each other and themselves on having passed through another year, a time to finish out the old, and to welcome in the new year. Common expressions heard at this time are: GUONIAN to have made it through the old year, and BAINIAN to congratulate the new year.
  • 36. Event: Lantern Festival • Date: 15th of the first lunar month • Activities: Lanterns expositions, garden parties, firework displays and folk dances. • The New Year celebrations ended on the 15th of the First Moon with the Lantern Festival. In the legend, the Jade Emperor in Heaven was so angered at a town for killing his favorite goose, that he decided to destroy it with a storm of fire. However, a good-hearted fairy heard of this act of vengeance, and warned the people of the town to light lanterns throughout the town on the appointed day. The townsfolk did as they were told, and from the Heavens, it looked as if the village was ablaze. Satisfied that his goose had already been avenged, the Jade Emperor decided not to destroy the town. From that day on, people celebrated the anniversary of their deliverance by carried lanterns of different shapes and colors through the streets on the first full moon of the year, providing a spectacular backdrop for lion dances, dragon dances, and fireworks.
  • 37. Event: Dragon Boat Festival • Date: Date: 5th day of the 5th lunar month • Activities: Dragon Boat races and eating Zong Zi (pyramid shaped rice wrapped in reed or bamboo leaves • Originally a religious practice, it is now purely recreational. The Dragon Boat festival celebrates the death of the poet Qu Yuan, who drowned himself in the 3rd Century BC as a protest against a corrupt government. The legends are that the towns people attempted to rescue him by beating drums to scare fish away from eating his body and threw rice dumplings into the river to tempt the fish away from their hero.
  • 38. Event: Mid-Autumn Festival • Date: 15th of the 8th lunar month • Activities: Dragon Boat racing, enjoying moonlight and eating moon cakes. • Probably the second most important festival in the Chinese calendar, Zhong qiu has ancient origins. Occurring on the 15th day of the 17th lunar month (usually some time around the end of September/start of October) the Mid-autumn festival celebrates the moon. Traditionally a time for poets and lovers, in Chinese symbolism the moon symbolizes unity and wholeness and is a time for reunion of families. Abundant meals are eaten during the festival and moon cakes, round pastries filled with nuts, dried fruits, preserved flowers, sesame and/or marinated beef or bacon are eaten.
  • 39. Event: Qingming • Date: 12th of the 3rd lunar month, usually around April 4th or 5th. • Activities: Cleaning ancestors' graves and holding memorial ceremonies, spring outing, and flying kites • This is a time when ice and snow has gone and plants are beginning to grow again, and is a time for respect to ancestors. The graves of deceased relatives are swept and tended, the memory of the dead cherished and offering of food may be made. To assist ancestors in the afterlife 'Bank of Hell' money is burned, thereby transferring money to the ancestors to spend as they will. Qing Ming is often marked by an indulgence of the Chinese passion for kite flying.
  • 40. Xining. • • • Hui people praying Dongguan. Mosque In modern People's Republic of China, the term "Hui people" refers to one of the officially recognized 56 ethnic groups into which Chinese citizens are classified. Under this definition, the Hui people are defined to include all historically Muslim communities in People's Republic of China that are not included in China's other ethnic groups. Since China's Muslims speaking various Turkic, Mongolian, or Iranian languages are all included into those other groups (e.g., Uyghurs, Tajiks, or Dongxiang), the "officially recognized" Hui ethnic group consists predominantly of Chinese speakers. In fact, the "Hui nationality" is unique among China's officially recognized ethnic minorities in that it does not have any particular non-Chinese language associated with it. Nonetheless, included among the Hui in Chinese census statistics (and not officially recognized as separate ethnic groups) are members of a few small non-Chinese speaking communities. Among them are several thousand Utsuls in southern Hainan province, who speak an Austronesian language (Tsat) related to that of the Cham Muslim minority of Vietnam, and who are said to be descended from Chams who migrated to Hainan. A small Muslim minority among Yunnan's Bai people are classified as Hui as well (even if they are Bai speakers), as are some groups of Tibetan Muslims. The Hui people are concentrated in Northwestern China (Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang), but communities exist across the country, e.g. Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Yunnan, etc.
  • 41. Legendary Chinese Heroes
  • 42. Legendary Chinese Heroes Lin Zexu (1785 – 1850 AD) Lin Zexu- an official loyal to the Daoguang Emperor of China, he was the most famous for his active fight against foreign-imported opium.
  • 43. Legendary Chinese Heroes A Ming Dynasty Admiral who was also a great envoy. He was responsible for establishing diplomatic and trading links with South East Asian countries. Zheng He (1371 – 1435 AD)
  • 44. Legendary Chinese Heroes Wen Tianxiang (1236 – 1283 AD) A Song Dynasty Prime Minister who refused to surrender to his enemy when the nation was falling
  • 45. Legendary Chinese Heroes A Song Dynasty General who is well known for his loyalty to his nation. Yue Fei (1103 – 1142 AD)
  • 46. Legendary Chinese Heroes Guan Yu is a commander of war a Three Kigndoms General who was righteous. Guan Yu (160 – 219 AD)
  • 47. Legendary Chinese Heroes A lady General who is well known as a filial daughter who served the army in place of her old and ailing father. Hua Mulan (386 – 436 AD)
  • 48. Legendary Chinese Heroes Qu Yuan (340 – 278 BC) A Warring States scholar who committed suicide when his nation fell after the emperor failed to take his advice.
  • 49. Legendary Chinese Heroes Bao Gong (Bao Zheng) (999-1062 AD) Bao Gong highly admired for his strictness in upholding justice and opposing corruption even when the wrongdoer is powerful.
  • 50. Legendary Chinese Heroes Confucius is a well known Chinese philosopher. Confucius (551 - 479 BC)
  • 51. Legendary Chinese Heroes Mao Zedong one of the most important figures in modern world history, a great revolutionary leader whose thought is the highest expression of Marxism . Mao Zedong (1893-1976 AD)
  • 52. The process of marriage • FIRST STEP IN MARRIAGE CEREMONIES IN CHINA IS THE PROPOSAL the proposal is the Process where it was placed in the hands of go-between, who acted as a buffer on both sides. The important parties in proposal and betrothal negotiations is the parents of the prospective bride and groom, rather than the bride and groom themselves. When the boy's parents identified the bride, they will send the go-between to present gift to the girl’s parents. If there is no sign of bad luck, such as fights between the parents or a loss of property in that time, the parents will give the information to the bride to confirm that the young woman and their son would make a good match. Finally each family evaluated the other in terms of appearance, education, character, and social position. If both the family are satisfied they will proceed to the betrothal
  • 53. • 2. The Betrothal • After proposal, the go-between would ask the bride's family to chose among several auspicious wedding dates, suggested by the boy's family and also set a date for presenting betrothal gifts. he boy's family presented, betrothal gifts of money and significant items such as tea,"Dragon (male) and Phoenix (female)" bridal cakes, pairs of male and female poultry, sweetmeats and sugar, wine and tobacco. Tea was such a primary part of these gifts in some areas that they were known collectively as cha-li , that is, "tea presents”, and The girl's family reciprocated with gifts of food and clothing. It was customary for the girl's family to distribute the bridal cakes they received from the boy's family to friends and relatives as a form of announcement and invitation to the wedding feast. at this moment the bride is forbidden to meet, Although the bride and groom probably had not met yet, the betrothal was considered binding unless both families agreed to annul the contract. Betrothals generally lasted for a year or two, although child betrothals would last until the children had grown to marriageable age.
  • 54. 3. Preparing for the Wedding Day •1. Retreating to the Cock Loft In preparation for her wedding, the bride-to-be retreated from the ordinary routine and lived in seclusion in a separate part of the house and with her closest friends. 2. Installing the Bridal Bed Preparation on the part of the groom involved the installation of the bridal bed on the day before the wedding. A propitious hour and a 'good luck woman' or 'good luck man', that is a man or women with many children and living mates, were selected to install a newly purchased bed. After the bed was in place, children were invited onto the bed as an omen of fertility the more, the merrier.
  • 55. 4. Day of the Wedding • there are 2 ritual in this event, The "Hair Dressing" Ritual of the bride and the "Capping" Ritual of the groom. It symbolized that their initiation into adulthood and were important parts of the wedding preparations. red color became the symbol of joy at this event, it featured prominently in the clothing and other ritual objects pertaining to the wedding. • 1. The "Hair Dressing" Ritual At dawn on her wedding day (or the night before), the bride bathed in water infused with pumelo, a variety of grapefruit, to cleanse her of evil influences –; and one suspects as a cosmetic to soften her skin in the manner of contemporary alphahydroxls.. She put on new underclothes and sat before lit dragon-and-phoenix candles.
  • 56. • After her hair was styled , the bride emerged from her retreat. She was carried to the main hall on the back of the 'good luck' woman or her most senior sister-in-law. There she donned a jacket and skirt and stepped into a pair of red shoes, placed in the center of a sieve. The bride's face was covered with either a red silk veil or a 'curtain' of tassels or beads that hung from the bridal Phoenix crown. After completing her wedding preparations, the bride bowed to her parents and to the ancestral tablets and awaited the arrival of the bridal procession from the groom's house.
  • 57. • 2. The "Capping" Ritual • He dressed in a long gown, red shoes and a red silk sash with a silk ball on his shoulder, and the groom knelt at the family altar while his father placed a cap decorated with cypress leaves on his head. The groom bowed first to the Heaven and Earth and his ancestors, then to his parents and the assembled family members. His father removed the silk ball from the sash and placed it on top of the bridal sedan chair.
  • 58. 5. The Bride's Journey to the Groom's House The 'good luck woman' or a dajin, employed by the bride's family to look after the bride, carried the bride on her back to the sedan chair . Another attendant might shield the bride with a parasol while a third tossed rice at the sedan chair. Than There are two things that must be taken in the event, that is a sieve and metallic mirror. A sieve, shai-tse , which would strain out evil, and a metallic mirror, king , which would reflect light, were suspended at the rear of the bride's sedan to protect her from evil influence . And the Firecrackers were set off to frighten away evil spirits. in the sedan the bride was prevent from the bad things and an unlucky sight, likes a widow, a well, or even a cat.
  • 59. 6. Arriving at the Groom's House Once again, firecrackers were set off just before the procession arrived. A red mat was placed before the sedan chair for the bride lest her feet touch the bare earth. All the household would be waiting to receive her. An attendant might immediately place a heap of rice in a sieve over or near the bride. If the bride did not wear a lucky mirror, one might be used at this time to flash light upon the bride. After these rituals took place , the groom finally could raise the red scarf and view the bride's face.
  • 60. 7. The Wedding • In this event The bride and groom were conducted to the family altar , where they paid homage to Heaven and Earth, the family ancestors and the Kitchen God, TsaoChün . Tea , generally with two lotus seeds or two red dates in the cup, was offered to the groom's parents. Then the bride and groom bowed to each other. And This completed the marriage ceremony.
  • 61. Food and beverages Chinese food styles As China is a geographically huge country, it is diverse in climate, ethnicity and subcultures. Not surprisingly therefore, there are many distinctive styles of cuisine. Traditionally there are eight main families of dishes, namely * Hui (Anhui) * Yue (Cantonese) * Min (Fujian) * Xiang (Hunan) * Yang (Jiangsu) * Lu (Shandong) * Chuan (Szechuan) * Zhe (Zhejiang)
  • 62. There are mainly four main styles of food in China, namely the Beijing Style, the Shanghai Style, the Sichuan/Szechuan Style and the Cantonese Style. The Cantonese style is the most popular style in overseas restaurants. When you are traveling in China, you would find it extremely hard to resist the Peking duck, the Shanghai pork bun, or the Cantonese dim sum.
  • 63. Sichuan Cuisine is one of the famous Eight Cuisines in China. With a long history, Sichuan food is renowned for its various seasoning especially the hot and spicy sauce. It uses a lot of capsicums and peppercorns. Some people consider Sichuan dishes to be delicious and enjoy themselves to the full; while others cannot bear the spicy flavor. Sichuan restaurants have taken root in Shanghai since 1920s. Now you can find them everywhere in the city. These restaurants mainly serve Haipai (Shanghai style) Sichuan dishes which has a less hot and spicy sauce. The Hot Boiling Fish and hotpots where you cook your food at the table are the most popular among the locals and the tourists alike. Even with fierce competition from cuisines from other parts of China and the whole world nothing has undermined the popularity of the delicious and inexpensive Sichuan food.
  • 64. Zhejiang cuisine, also called Zhe Cai for short, is one of the eight famous culinary schools in China. Comprising the specialties of Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shaoxing in Zhejiang Province regarded as "land of fish and rice", Zhejiang cuisine, not greasy, wins its reputation for freshness, tenderness, softness, and smoothness of its dishes with mellow fragrance. Hangzhou cuisine is the most famous one among the three. Zhejiang cuisine specializes in quick-frying, stir-frying, deep-frying, simmering and steaming, obtaining the natural flavor and taste. Special care is taken in the cooking process to make the food fresh, crispy and tender. Thanks to exquisite preparation, the dishes are not only delicious in taste and but also extremely elegant in appearance. Zhejiang cuisine is best represented by Hangzhou dishes, including Hangzhou roast chicken (commonly known as Beggar's chicken), Dongpo pork, west lake fish in vinegar sauce, Songsao Shredded Fishsoup, etc.
  • 65. Hangzhou cuisine is characterized by its elaborate preparation and varying techniques of cooking, such as sauteing, stewing, and stirand deep-frying. Hangzhou food tastes fresh and crisp, varying with the change of season. Ningbo food is a bit salty but delicious. Specializing in steamed, roasted and braised seafood, Ningbo cuisine is particular in retaining the original freshness, tenderness and softness. Shaoxing cuisine offers fresh aquatic food and poultry that has a special rural flavor, sweet in smell, soft and glutinous in taste, thick in gravy and strong in season
  • 66. • • Jiangsu cuisine, also known as Su Cai for short, is one of the major components of Chinese cuisine, and consists of the styles of Yangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou and Zhenjiang dishes. It is very famous in the whole world for its distinctive style and taste. It is especially popular in the lower reach of the Yangtze River. Known as "a land of fish and rice" in China, Jiangsu Province has a rich variety of ingredients available for cooking. Jiangsu cuisine has the characteristics of strictly selected ingredients, exquisite workmanship, elegant shape, and rich culture trait. The typical raw materials are fresh and live aquatic products. It highlights the freshness of ingredients. Other cooking ingredients are often carefully selected tea leaves, bamboo shoots, mushrooms, pears, and dates. Its carving techniques are delicate, of which the melon carving technique is especially well known. Due to using the methods of stewing, braising, quick-frying, warming-up, stir-
  • 67. • • • Fujian cuisine was a latecomer in southeast China along the coast. The cuisine emphasizes seafood, river fish, and shrimp. The Fujian coastal area produces 167 varieties of fish and 90 kinds of turtles and shellfish. It also produces edible bird's nest, cuttlefish, and sturgeon. These special products are all used in Fujian cuisine. The most characteristic aspect of Fujian cuisine is that its dishes are served in soup. Its cooking methods are stewing, boiling, braising, quick-boiling, and steaming, The most famous dish is Buddha Jumps Over the Wall. A mixture of seafood, chicken, duck, and pork is put into a rice-wine jar and simmered over a low fire. Sea mussel quick-boiled in chicken soup is another Fujian delicacy. Fujian cuisine comprises three branches ¨C Fuzhou, southern Fujian, and western Fujian. There are slight differences among them. Fuzhou dishes are more fresh, delicious, and less salty, sweet, and sour. Southern Fujian dishes are sweet and hot and use hot sauces, custard, and orange juice as flavorings. Western Fujian dishes are salty and hot. As Fujian people emigrate overseas, their cuisine has become popular in Taiwan and abroad.
  • 68. • Nián gāo Year cake or Chinese New Year's cake is a food prepared from glutinous rice and consumed in Chinese cuisine. It is available in Asian supermarkets and from health food stores. While it can be eaten all year round, traditionally it is most popular during Chinese New Year. It is considered good luck to eat nian gao during this time, because "nian gao" is a homonym for "higher year." The Chinese word 粘 (nián), meaning "sticky", is identical in sound to 年 , meaning "year", and the word 糕 (gāo), meaning "cake" is identical in sound to 高 , meaning "high". As such, eating nian gao has the symbolism of raising oneself higher in each coming year ( 年年高升 niánnián gāoshēng).
  • 69. • Blood Sugar Regulating Tea The continuity of high blood sugar for a long time will lead to many kinds of serious complication like heart disease, nephritis, decline of eyesight. • patota juice This is extracted from purple sweet potatos of hifh quality.It's rich in procyanidins and trace elements such as selenium and can be used wisely in the? modulation of? vegatable juice and fruit juice.
  • 70. • Wine in China ( 葡萄酒 ; pinyin: pútáo jiǔ) refers to grape wines that are produced in China. Grape wine has a long history in China, along with other Chinese alcoholic beverages. Beginning in 1980, French and other Western wines began to rise in prominence in the Chinese market, both in mainland China and Taiwan. French-taught Chinese winemakers introduced wine to a market dominated mostly by beer, and have quickly expanded in scale such that China, with its immense population, is set to become the largest wine market in the world.
  • 71. CHINESE TEA The practice of drinking tea has had a long history in China, having originated from there. The Chinese drink tea during many parts of the day such as at meals for good health or simply for pleasure. Although tea originates from China, Chinese tea generally represent tea leaves which have been processed using methods inherited from ancient China. According to popular legend, tea was discovered by Chinese Emperor Shennong in 2737 BCE when a leaf from a Camellia sinensis tree fell into water the emperor was boiling. Tea is deeply woven into the history and culture of China. The beverage is considered one of the seven necessities of Chinese life, along with firewood, rice, oil, salt, soy sauce, vinegar..
  • 72. SPORT IN CHINA A. Badminton Because of its relative simplicity, inexpensive equipment, and accessibility to venues, Badminton is a very established and popular sport in China. Famous Chinese badminton players include Lin Dan, Zhang Ning, Lu Lan, Gao Ling, Huang Sui, and Xie Xingfang. It's a popular recreational sport and amateur leagues exist across the country.
  • 73. B. Baseball Baseball in China first appeared in 1863 with the establishment of the Shanghai Baseball Club by American medical missionary Henry William Boone.[4][5]. Organized baseball games were established with a game between the St. Johns University and the Shanghai MCA baseball club in 1905. However, in 1959 Mao Zedong disbanded all teams and outlawed baseball.[6] After the Cultural Revolution ended, baseball activities restarted, and the China Baseball Association formed in 1974.[7] In 2002, the China Baseball League was formed, and China participates in the World Baseball Classic. However, it is not a popular sport and it is often seen by Chinese as a mere American curiosity due to its slow pace. Defeats of the national team to Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea may help change the trend as Chinese become more aware of the game's.
  • 74. C. Table tennis (Ping Pong) •Ping Pong ( 乒乓 ) is the official name for the sport of table tennis in China. Apart from the national representative team, the table tennis community in China continues to produce many world-class players, and this depth of skill allows the country to continue dominating recent world titles after a short break during the 1990s. The overwhelming dominance of China in the sport has triggered a series of rules changes in the International Table Tennis Federation and as part of the Olympics. Ma Long is currently one of the highest-ranked Chinese table tennis players, and the highestranked player in the world[8]. Deng Yaping is regarded by many as one of the greatest table tennis player of all time. The sport played an important role in China's international relations; in April 1972, the US table tennis team were invited to visit China, an event later called " Ping Pong Diplomacy". Table tennis is the biggest amateur recreational sport in China today, with an estimated 300 million players.
  • 75. D. Tennis •Tennis is a growing recreational sport in China, although access to tennis courts can be limited in densely populated urban areas. Recently Chinese tennis players, especially women, have seen success internationally both at the amateur level and professionally. International tennis tournaments receive wide coverage on Chinese sporting channels. E. Rugby Union •Rugby union is becoming a more popular sport in China, than it previously has been. However, it is still not overly popular. China became affiliated to the International Rugby Board in 1997 and is currently ranked 40th in the world, ahead of Madagascar and just behind Sweden. The national team failed to qualify for the 1999 Rugby World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup. One segment of Chinese society where rugby is particularly popular is the military. Rugby is an official sport of the People's Liberation Army, with the PLA Sports Institute participating in the highly-competitive Hong Kong leagues. Notable Chinese rugby players include Zhang Zhiqiang ("Johnny Zhang"), who had a stint with the famous Leicester Tigers club in England, and promising young speedster Li Yang, who boasts a time of 10.6 seconds in the 100-meter sprint.
  • 76. F. Football •Football has been one of the most well supported sports in China ever since it was introduced in the 1900s. There is, in fact, written evidence that a game similar to football was first played in China around 50 BC [7] The current Chinese Football Association was founded in the People's Republic of China after 1949. Its headquarters is located in Beijing, and the current chairman is Nan Yong. From 1994 to 2004, CFA established first professional football league, which was "Jia A". The Chinese Super League is the premier football league in China, which was changed from "jia A" in 2004, as the top of a league hierarchy that extends to four leagues. Jia in Chinese also means "First" or "Best". Since its foundation the Super League has been relatively unstable, and is largely controlled by corporate interests that change hands frequently.. •At the international level, Chinese football has enjoyed little success despite the amount of support it receives from fans. Although the national team qualified for the 2002 World Cup, they failed to score a single goal and lost 3 group matches. Conversely, The women's national team has finished second at both the World Championships and the Olympic Games. Despite the Chinese women team's success at international competitions, however, Women's football in China does not receive nearly as much attention as their counterparts in Canada and the United States, therefore China's good trend in Women's football may well come to an end in the near future. In 1990, China hosted the first Women's World Cup in Guangzhou, and in 2004, hosted AFC Asian Cup. •Football has always been one of the most popular amateur team sports for recreation in China, although in recent years its status has been rivaled by basketball. High schools often have football facilities, some of which are rented on weekends to local amateur teams to organize matches. It is also one of the most popular sports to watch on television, with large international tournaments such as the World Cup and the European Championships, as well as major European leagues receiving widespread coverage.
  • 77. G. Chess It is common for Chinese people to play Xiangqi, or Chinese chess in the public China had a good result in 2006 37th Chess Olympiad in Turin when the men's team came second behind Armenia and the women's team third for the best result overall. The Chinese progress has been underpinned by large government support and testing competition in numerous tough events. Commensurate with its status, China currently has seven top hundred players, second only to Russia. However, even today countries like Russia and Israel still have an edge in experience over their Chinese counterparts. Xiangqi is also considered a sport in China, with millions of players nationwide. There is a national Chinese chess league.
  • 78. • • • • • • • • H. Cricket Cricket is a fast growing sport in China. It is already a well established sport in Hong Kong - a former British Colony. The Chinese cricket team is the team that represents the country of the People's Republic of China in international cricket. The Chinese Cricket Association became an International Cricket Council affiliate member in 2004. It should be noted that the Special administrative region of Hong Kong is a member of the ICC in their own right, becoming an ICC associate member in 1969. Hence, players from Hong Kong are not eligible to represent China in international competition. Prior to the establishment of a recognized national side, the Shanghai Cricket Club, the largest club in the country, played games against many touring sides but they do not receive official recognition from the Chinese Cricket Association. Since September 2005, the Chinese Cricket Association has conducted 8 coaching/ umpiring training course under the assistance from the Asian Cricket Council ("ACC"). The sports was now promoted in 9 cities in China namely Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Dalian, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Chongqing, Tianjin and Jinan. More than 150 schools were involved. The Chinese Cricket Association has set itself other goals over the next 14 years. [8] A list of these goals follows: 2009: Have 720 teams across the country in a well-organized structure 2015: Have 20,000 players and 2,000 coaches 2019: Qualify for the World Cup
  • 79. EDUCATION IN CHINA • Education in the People's Republic of China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education. All citizens must attend school for at least nine years. The government provides primary education for six years, starting at age six or seven, followed by six years of secondary education for ages 12 to 18. Some provinces may have five years of primary school but four years for middle school. There are three years of middle school and three years of high school. The Ministry of Education reported a 99 percent attendance rate for primary school and an 80 percent rate for both primary and middle schools.[citation needed] In 1985, the government abolished tax-funded higher education, requiring university applicants to compete for scholarships based on academic ability. In the early 1980s the government allowed the establishment of the first private schools. The population has had on average only 6.2 years of schooling, but in 1986 the government set the goal of nine years of compulsory education for students by the year 2000.
  • 80. • • • • The United Nations Development Program reported that in 2003 China had 116,390 kindergarten classes with 613,000 teachers and 20 million students.[citation needed] At that time, there were 425,846 primary schools with 5.7 million teachers and 116.8 million students. General secondary education had 79,490 institutions, 4.5 million teachers, and 85.8 million students. There also were 3,065 specialized secondary schools with 199,000 teachers and 5 million students. Among these specialized institutions were 6,843 agricultural and vocational schools with 289,000 teachers and 5.2 million students and 1,551 special schools with 30,000 teachers and 365,000 students.Template:Http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/China.pdf China has had a major expansion in education, increasing the number of undergraduates and people who hold doctoral degrees fivefold in 10 years.[3] In 2003 China supported 1,552 institutions of higher learning (colleges and universities) and their 725,000 professors and 11 million students (see List of universities in the People's Republic of China). There are over 100 National Key Universities, including Beijing University and Tsinghua University. The percentage of China's college-age population in higher education has increased from 1.4% in 1978 to roughly 20% in 2005. Every year 450,000 engineering students graduate from college, 50,000 graduate with masters degrees, and 8,000 graduate with Ph.Ds.[citation needed] In 2002, the literacy rate in China was 90.8%; 95.1% of males and 86.5% of females. [4] • Laws regulating the system of education include the Regulation on Academic Degrees, the Compulsory Education Law, the Teachers Law, the Education Law, the Law on Vocational Education, and the Law on Higher Education. See also: Law of the People's Republic of China
  • 81. • • • • A good education has always been highly valued in China, as the people believe that education ensures not only the future and development of the individual but also the family and the country as a whole.  Passed down from ancient times, the maxim from the Three-Character Scripture that says 'if no proper education is given to children, their nature will go bad' has proved to be true. The great master Confucius taught us that 'it is a pleasure to learn something and to try it out at intervals'. Similarly, numerous students have been convinced that 'reading books excels all other careers'. The records tell us that Mencius' mother became an example to millions of mothers who were keen for their children to be talented. - she moved her home three times in order to choose a fine neighborhood in which Mencius could be effectively influenced. As far back as the Shang Dynasty (16th century BC - 11th century BC), inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells were the simple records of teaching and learning. In the Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC - 771 BC), nobles built schools to teach their children, as their offsprings would be the officials of the future, while those who were gifted but of poor families could but dream of approaching state affairs. The development of education system led to a form of evaluation that became the means by which dynastic China appointed those with talents as officials. In general, this process can be divided into three periods - 'chaju' and 'zhengpi' in the Han Dynasty, the 'jiupin zhongzheng' system from Han to the Northern and Southern Dynasties, and the Imperial Examination which survived from the Sui Dynasty (589 - 618) right through to the last feudal dynasty Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911).  After that, China's education system fell into something of a state of confusion due to the changes in national government. However, with the foundation of modern China the new order introduced a fresh approach to education and brought is into a new phase. Through long-term endeavor, the provision of educational has taken on a prosperous process.
  • 82. The tourism places
  • 83. 1. Tuntex Tower Tuntex tower is a skyscraper in Kaoshiung, Taiwan. it’s Located in Ling Ya District. this tower has 85 floors, with 347meters high. For that reason This tower is also known as Building 85. this building was built from 1994 to 1996 and opened in 1997. This building is the second tallest building in Taiwan,after the Taipei 101 tower . The tower has two separate towers the bottom is 35 floors and the top becomes a single tower
  • 84. Tuntex Tower The design is inspired by high letters in the character of Han ( 高 ) and in english means high. This building is also used as hotel, commercial offices, and department stores. This building was designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners and Hellmuth, Obatta & Kassabaum.
  • 85. •T un tex To we r
  • 86. 2. Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China was located in Beijing, it has 8,851.8 km (5,500 miles) long. The great wall of china was built in Ming Dynasty (13681644). The Great Wall stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east to Lop Nur in the west, along the southern edge of Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai.
  • 87. • The great wall was built in the spring, autumn, and warring states periods as a defensive fortification by the three states that is Yan, Zhao, and Qin from the 5th century BC to 221 BC . Since that, the great wall has served as a monument of the Chinese throughout history. It’s forbidden to the visitor to stay overnight on the wall, because maybe we can see wild wolves on great wall.
  • 88. Great Wall of China
  • 89. 3. Museum of Qin Terracotta Warriors • The TerraCotta Warriors are the most significant archeological excavations of the 20th century. it is around 1.5 kilometers east of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Mausoleum in Lintong, Shaanxi Province. Upon ascending the throne at the age of 13 (in 246 BC), Qin Shi Huang,the first Emperor of all China, had begun to work for his mausoleum.It took 11 years to finish.
  • 90. • It is speculated that many buried treasures and sacrificial objects had accompanied the emperor in his after life. A group of peasants uncovered some pottery while digging for a well nearby the royal tomb in 1974, It caught the attention of archeologists immediately. They concluded that these artifacts were associated with the Qin Dynasty (211-206 BC). This museum is opened from 08:3017:30.
  • 91. Museum of Qin Terracotta Warriors
  • 92. 4. Leshan Giant Buddha • The Leshan Giant Buddha is a statue of Maitreya (a Bodhisattva usually represented as a very stout monk with a broad smile on his face and with his naked breast) in sitting posture. The Giant Buddha is located in the east of Leshan City, Sichuan Province, at the confluence of three rivers, namely, Min River, Qingyi River, and Dadu River. In December, 1996, the location of the Buddha was included by UNESCO on the list of the World Heritage sites
  • 93. • This statue was made during the Tang Dynasty in 713 and finished in the year 803, the statue requires more than 90 people to carve. As the biggest carved stone Buddha in the world, Leshan Giant Buddha is featured in poetry, song and story. The Buddha was nearly destroyed by the erosion of wind and rain before 1963. At present, the maintenance work is in progress under the instruction of experts from UNESCO.
  • 94. • Leshan Giant Buddha
  • 95. 5. Wolong National Natural Reserve • This place is in the east of Mt. Qionglai, and a 3-hours drive from Chengdu. there a lot of panda-panda in there. This Center was founded in 1980 with assistance from World Wildlife Fund. Wolong National Natural Reserve is home not only to the giant pandas but also to rare and endangered animals such as red panda, golden monkey, white-lipped deer (Cervus albirostris), gnu (wildebeest) and precious plants like yew and beech.
  • 96. • The Wolong National Nature Reserve was badly damaged in the May 12th earthquake. For security reasons, the pandas have been moved to Bifeng Gorge Base of China Panda Protection and Research Center. They will come back to Wolong after it is repaired. there are so many interesting place in Wolong Panda Reserve include: animal and plant specimen museum, local plant specimen, bird specimen, insects ,fish, amphibious and reptiles.
  • 97. Wolong National Natural Reserve
  • 98. 6. Qing yan Ancient Town Qingyan Ancient Town is one of the most famous historical and cultural towns in Guizhou Province, lies in the southern suburb of Guiyang. Qingyan Town was built in 1378 with 471 hectares wide. Qingyan Ancient Town has gradually become a distinctive ancient town with cultural features of Ming and Qing Dynasties (1644 - 1911).Qingyan Ancient Town was built completely of stone. The Visitors can see the spectacular city walls built right
  • 99. • on the cliffs with vast rocks. There are four gates facing north, south, east and west. There are over 30 types of ancient building, including monasteries, temples, cabinets, caves, courtyards and palaces. there are so many interesting places in there If you like, stop at one of those tea houses and have a taste of the famous local foods, such as Qingyan tofu, rice tofu and rose sugar. The Religious culture in here is also quite rich, including Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism and Christianity.
  • 100. Qing yan Ancient Town
  • 101. 7.The Ocean Park •Ocean Park is a major attraction in Hong Kong. And it will be the world financial center in southeast China. Hong Kong Ocean Park is located on the south end of Hong Kong Island. With an area of 170 acres, it's one of the largest ocean parks in the world. if you go into there The trip starts from the middle Kingdom neighboring the Tai Shue Wan Entrance. At the middle Kingdom, tourists will see many ancient structures such as temples, pavilions and streets.
  • 102. •Walking through the middle Kingdom, you come upon the Hong Kong Jockey Giant Panda Habitat, home to two lovely pandas, Anan the male, and Jiajia the female. And the next is the Dolphin Breeding Center. Here tourists will learn of dolphins' daily living habits Tourists can view at eight bottlenose dolphins. And in there you also can see so many beautiful place like Atoll Reef, Shark Aquarium, Ocean Theater, and etc.
  • 103. The Ocean Park
  • 104. 8. Hong Kong Disneyland • If you Walking into Hong Kong Disneyland, you feel like you are live in a wonderland. Accompanied by Mickey Mouse and the others Disney friends, you start a fantastic and magical journey, the first place when you go into is The 'Main Street, USA‘ but still There are Chinese elements here too. Enter the main street you see Plaza Inn, it is the first Chinese restaurant in Main Street, complete with 19th Century
  • 105. • Chinese table service. With the image of cartoon heroine Mulan everywhere. Market House Bakery and Main Street Corner Cafe are also good places for visitor to enjoy. And in there the visitor can the pageant, it is adapted from Disney's animated classic 'The Lion King', ,this colorful pageant of music and dance is just like a classic music drama. This is a show that will appeal to all ages. And the Another interesting place is like Tarzan island, Fantasyland, Disney's Storybook Theater, Tomorrowland, Space Mountain, the Grand Parade and Firework.
  • 106. • this colorful pageant of music and dance is just like a Disneyland opened at 9 p.m, and the tickets selling from 09.00 until the park closes. • The tickets for Adults is HK $ 350 HK$ 350 • The tickets for Students (12-25) HK $ 350 HK$ 350 • The tickets for Children (3-11) HK $ 250 HK$ 250 • The tickets for Seniors (65 or above) HK $ 170 HK$ 170 • The tickets for Children under 3 are free
  • 107. Hong Kong Disneyland
  • 108. 8. Jade Buddha Temple • In 1882, an old temple was built to keep two jade Buddha statues which had been brought from Burma by. a monk named Huigen. unfortunately The temple was destroyed during the revolution that overthrew the Qing Dynasty. Fortunately the jade Buddha statues were saved and a new temple was built on the present site in 1928. It was named the Jade Buddha Temple.
  • 109. • There are two statues in the temple, there are sitting Buddha and Recumbent Buddha, Both of statues are carved with whole white jade.The Sitting Buddha is 190 centimeters high and coated by the agate and the emerald, The Recumbent Buddha is 96 centimeters long, lying on the right side with the right hand supporting the head and the left hand placing on the left leg, this shape is called the 'lucky repose‘. there are other major places in the temple like, Devajara Hall, Mahavira Hall,the Kwan-yin Dian Hall, the Amitabha Dian Hall, the Zen Tang Hall.
  • 110. Jade Buddha Temple
  • 111. 9.GUILIN LI RIVER •The Li River is a river in Guangxi Province, ChinaThe River Li originates in the Mao'er Mountains in Xing'an Сounty and flows in the general southern direction through Guilin , Yangshuo and Pingle. Along the 100-kilometer stretch of the River Li, mountain peaks rise into the sky. It is one of China 's most famous scenic areas. there are also Reed-Flute Rock: a limestone cave, SevenStar Park: the largest park in Guilin, Mountain of Splendid Hues:
  • 112. • a mountain consisting of many layers of variously colored rocks. ElephantTrunk Hill: a hill that looks like a giant elephant drinking water with its trunk. It is symbol of the city of Guilin, Lingqu Canal is one of the three big water conservation projects of ancient China and the oldest existing canal in the world, Other attractions include: Duxiu Peak, Nanxi Park, the Taohua River, the Giant Banyan, and the HuashanLijiang National Folklore Park.
  • 113. LI RIVER
  • 114. 10. Xian City Wall The fortifications of Xi'an, an ancient capital of China, represent one of the oldest and best preserved Chinese city walls. Construction of the first city wall of Chang'an began in 194 BCE and lasted for four years. That wall measured 25.7 km in length, 12–16 m in thickness at the base. The existing wall was started by the Ming Dynasty in 1370. It encircles a much smaller city of 14 km². The wall measures 13.7 km in circumference, 12 m in height, and 15–18 m in thickness at the base.
  • 115. Xian City Wall
  • 116. 11. Dazu Rock Carvings •The Dazu Rock Carvings are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, Dazu Rock Carvings consisting of 50,000 statues, with more than 100,000 Chinese characters forming the inscriptions and epigraphs, dazu rock is located in Chongqing town The earliest carvings were begun in 650 A.D,
  • 117. • In the 12th century, during the Song Dynasty, a Buddhist monk named Zhao Zhifeng began work on the elaborate sculptures and carvings on Mount Baoding, dedicating 70 years of his life to the project. the carvings were opened to Chinese travelers in 1961 and foreign visitors in 1980
  • 118. Dazu Rock Carvings