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Eigrp

  1. 1. Enhanced Interior Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Why EIGRP? Some advances in RoutingBRKRST-3372
  2. 2. Housekeeping We value your feedback – don’t forget to complete your online session evaluations after each session & complete the Overall Conference Evaluation which will be available online from Thursday Visit the World of Solutions Please remember this is a ‘non-smoking’ venue! Please switch off your mobile phones Please make use of the recycling bins provided Please remember to wear your badge at all timesBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  3. 3. PrerequisitesThis Session Assumes Basic Knowledge of: EIGRP Operation and Network Design IPv4 Routing Principals IPv6 Routing Principals Routing ProtocolsBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  4. 4. Introduction  Feature Overview  Unified Configuration  Scaling Enhancements  Security Enhancements  Routing Enhancements  IPv6 Support Primer
  5. 5. Introduction EIGRP Features over the years Peer Scaling 1993 exceeds 600 2000 2003 EIGRP 1998 PE/CE Route-MapsIntroduced SIA Rewrite Support 3-Way Handshake 1994 1999 2001 Transport Hub and Neighbor Rewrite Spoke Reliability NSF/SSO 2010 2006 IPv6 VRF 2004 DMVPN 2008 HMAC SHA23rd Party Next- SRP Code Harding Authentication hop OER Unified CLI Peer Groups SNMP Manet Stub Leaking Remote BFD Support Plugin Support Summary Peers Leaking 2005 2007 2009 Pix Firewall Cross Licensing Summary MTR Service Family Metric IPv6 Support vNet Support BFD Prefix Limits DMVPN Peer DMVPN Peer Site of Origin Scaling exceeds Scaling Expected 1000 to exceed 3000 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  6. 6. Introduction Determining if a feature is available“show eigrp plugins” provided detailed information on the capabilities of eigrp running: version of eigrp patch level for the version features available in your image Router>#show eigrp plugins detail EIGRP feature plugins::: eigrp-release : 6.00.00 : Portable EIGRP Release : 4.01.05 : Source Component Release(dev6) parser : 2.02.00 : EIGRP Parser Support igrp2 : 3.00.00 : Reliable Transport/Dual Database bfd : 1.01.00 : BFD Platform Support mtr : 1.00.01 : Multi-Topology Routing(MTR) eigrp-pfr : 1.00.01 : Performance Routing Support PfR Initialized Debug off Detail Debug off vNets : 1.00.00 : vNets Platform Support IPv4 vNets Enabled IPv6 vNets Disabled ipv4-af : 2.01.01 : Routing Protocol Support ipv4-sf : 1.01.00 : Service Distribution Support ipx-af : 2.00.01 : Routing Protocol Support ipv6-af : 2.01.01 : Routing Protocol Support ipv6-sf : 1.01.00 : Service Distribution Support snmp-agent : 1.01.01 : SNMP/SNMPv2 Agent Support BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  7. 7. Unified Configuration Named Mode Configuration What problem are we solving? Exec Commands Configuration CommandsBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  8. 8. Introduction Unified Configuration – Problems EIGRP is more than just routing!! EIGRP supports 2 major distribution types IPX 3 Protocol Stacks route distribution Commands are scattered IPv4 IPv6 Commands were similar but different service distribution Scope is sometimes unclearEIGRP IPv4 EIGRP IPv6interface gigabitethernet0/0 ipv6 unicast-routing ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 75 ! no shut interface gigabitethernet0/0! ipv6 enablerouter eigrp 1 ipv6 eigrp 1 network 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 ipv6 bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 75 address-family ipv4 vrf BLUE no shut ! ipv6 router eigrp 1 eigrp router-id 10.1.1.1 no shut BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  9. 9. IntroductionUnified Configuration Solution – Named Mode To solve these issues, we created a new configuration mode: Clearly define the effect of the command, or the expected outcome Allows you to enter information needed for a given mode (avoid missing AS configuration errors) Provides ONE place to configure all of eigrp Provides ONE common way to define a feature Enter it the same way! Reduce the time needed to learn a new protocol And a new set of exec commands : Exec command should mirror the corresponding configuration commands Enter it the same way! Reduce the time needed to learn a new protocol Supports all current and future feature development in an extensible way Above all – allow you to keep the existing Config/Exec Mode in case you prefer the classic configuration modeBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
  10. 10. IntroductionEIGRP Named Mode – Creating an Instance Classic mode: Configuring “router eigrp” command with a number. Named mode: Configuring “router eigrp” command with the virtual-instance-name Named mode supports both IPv4 and IPv6, and VRF (virtual routing and forwarding) instances Named mode allows you to create a single Instance of EIGRP which can be used for all family type Named mode supports multiple VRFs limited only by available system resources Named mode does not enable IPV4 routingrouter eigrp [virtual-instance-name | asystem] [no] shutdown . . . BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  11. 11. IntroductionEIGRP Named Mode – Family sub-mode Defines what you’re routing/distributing  “common look and feel”  Provide support for both routing (address-family) and services (service-family)  Can be configured for VRFs Single place for all commands needed to completely define an instance. “show run | section router eigrp” Assure subcommands are clear as to their scope  Static neighbors, peer-groups, stub, etc, ..  neighbor, neighbor remote, etc router eigrp [virtual-instance-name] address-family <protocol> [vrf <name>] autonomous-system <#> … exit-address-family service-family <protocol> [vrf <name>] autonomous-system <#> … exit-service-familyBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
  12. 12. IntroductionEIGRP Named Mode – Interface sub-mode EIGRP specific interface properties are configuration in the af- interface mode. for example; authentication, timers, and bandwidth control “af-interface default” applies to all interfaces Not all commands are supported “af-interface <interface>” applies to one interface Only “eigrp” specific commands are available Interface delay and bandwidth are configured under the interfacerouter eigrp [virtual-instance-name] address-family <protocol> autonomous-system <#> af-interface default … exit-af-interface af-interface <interface> … exit-af-interface exit-address-familyBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  13. 13. Introduction EIGRP Named Mode – Interface Inheritance  Command inheritance following the following rules; ¨ç af-interface specific Explicit User configuration overrides “af-interface default” ¨è af-interface default Explicit User defaults configuration overrides factory settings ¨é factory  Consider the example; where do the settings come from?router eigrp nw010 address-family ipv6 vrf blue auto 2 Ethernet 0 af-interface default hello-interval hello-interval 10 exit-af-interface hold-time af-interface Ethernet0 split-horizon factory setting! hello-interval 5 hold-time 10 exit-af-interface Ethernet 1 af-interface Ethernet1 hello-interval hold-time 30 no split-horizon hold-time exit-af-interface split-horizonexit-address-family BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  14. 14. IntroductionEIGRP Named Mode – Topology sub-mode  Support for multi topology routing (MTR)  Topology specific configuration such as;  default-metric  event-log-size  external-client  metric config  timers config Applies to global, or default,  redistribution Routing Table router eigrp [virtual-instance-name] address-family <protocol> autonomous-system <#> topology base … exit-topology exit-address-familyBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  15. 15. Introduction EIGRP Named Mode – EXEC Commands{show | clear | debug} eigrp What action are you performing? [service | address]-family {ipv4 | ipv6} Protocol family? [vrf {<vrf-name> | *}] Does it apply to specific VRF? [<asystem>] [additional parameters] One specific AS? Example: show eigrp address-family ipv4 topology show eigrp address-family ipv6 topology show eigrp address-family ipv4 topology show eigrp service-family ipv4 topology BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  16. 16. Introduction EIGRP Classic Mode - Changes Behavior of autonomous-system command under VRFs has changed to address common configurations errors. 1 The AS Can be entered on the address-family or standalone or both 2 The AS must be defined for the address-family to "start" processing 3 The AS will nvgen wherever it is entered, if configured both ways it nvgens both ways 4 The standalone keyword can be removed if the AS is defined on the address-family command 5 Once configured on address-family the AS can only be removed by removing the address- family router eigrp 1 address-family ipv4 vrf RED autonomous-system 99 network 10.0.0.0 router eigrp 1 address-family ipv4 vrf RED autonomous-system 99 network 10.0.0.0 router eigrp 1 address-family ipv4 vrf RED autonomous-system 99 autonomous-system 99 network 10.0.0.0 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  17. 17. IntroductionEIGRP Classic Mode - Changes The auto-summary command is a relic from the days of classful routing. It was enabled by default in pre-release 5 images. The auto-summarization feature is no longer widely used and no auto- summary has since become the prevailing configuration. CSCso20666 changed auto-summary behavior to disabled by default. Because no auto-summary is the factory default setting it will not nvgen -- auto-summary will now only nvgen if it is explicitly enabled.default nvgen behavior IOS Version (eigrp version)auto-summary auto-summary : does not nvgen 12.2SR(rel2), 12.2SX(rel3), no auto-summary : nvgens 12.2SG(rel4)auto-summary auto-summary : nvgens 12.2S(rel1), 12.4T(rel1), no auto-summary : nvgens 12.2SB(rel1)no auto-summary auto-summary : nvgens 15.0(rel5), 15.0T(rel5), no auto-summary : does not nvgen 12SRE(rel5), 122XNE(rel5) 122XNF(rel5_1), 122(55)SG(rel5_2)BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
  18. 18. Introduction EIGRP Classic vrs Named Mode Comparisonsclassic router configuration eigrp named mode configurationinterface Eithernet0/0 interface Eithernet0/0 ip address 1.1.1.1 ip address 1.1.1.1 ip hello eigrp 1 30 ipv6 enable ipv6 enable ipv6 enable eigrp 1 ! ipv6 bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 40 ! router eigrp nw010router eigrp 1 address-family ipv4 autonomous-system 1 network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 af-interface Ethernet0/0 hello 30 exit-af-interface ! address-family ipv4 vrf savage address-family ipv4 vrf savage autonomous-system 4453 autonomous-system 4453 network 192.168.0.0 network 192.168.0.0 ! !ipv6 router eigrp 1 address-family ipv6 autonomous-system 1 no shutdown af-interface Ethernet0/0 no shutdown bandwidth-percent 40 exit-af-interface ! *no support for ipv6 address-family ipv6 autonomous-system 6473 vrf in classic af-interface default no shutdown exit-af-interface BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  19. 19. Introduction EIGRP Named Mode – For more information 12.4T http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_eigrp/configuration/guide/ 12_4t/ire_12_4t_book.html 12.2SR http://www.ciscosystems.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_eigrp/configuratio n/guide/12_2sr/ire_12_2sr_book.html 15.0 http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_eigrp/configuration/guide/ ire_cfg_eigrp_ps10591_TSD_Products_Configuration_Guide_Chapter. html More on Service Family Configuration http://cisco.biz/en/US/docs/ios/saf/command/reference/saf_book.html BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
  20. 20. Scaling Enhancements  Improving Convergence  EIGRP Stub Enhancements  Stub overview  Stub Leaking  Summary Enhancements  Summary Leaking  Summary Metric
  21. 21. Improving Convergence EIGRP – Faster than you think IPv4 IGP Convergence Data IS-IS with default timers Routes 7000 Milliseconds OSPF with default timers 6000 EIGRP without feasible successors 5000 OSPF with tuned timers 4000 IS-IS with tuned timers 3000 EIGRP with feasible 2000 successors Route 1000 Generator A 0 5000 4000 1000 2000 3000 B C D BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  22. 22. Improving Convergence Terms Failure detection How quickly a device on the network can detect and react to a failure Information propagation How quickly the failure in the previous stage is communicated to other devices Repair How quickly a devices notified of a failure can calculate an alternate path Improvements any of these stages provides an improvement in overall convergence BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  23. 23. Improving Convergence Failure Detection EIGRP Hello timers can be tuned to a minimum of 1 second. This is not configurable to sub-second router eigrp nw010-hello address-family ipv6 auto 6473 af-interface default hello-interval ? <1-65535> Seconds between hello transmissions There are reasons for not recommending this and also for us not offering such low values; for example, depending on the number of interfaces, 1 sec rates can become CPU intensive and lead to spikes in processing/memory requirements BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
  24. 24. Improving ConvergenceFailure Detection - BFDBidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) BFD exhibits lower overhead than aggressive hellos BFD is a heartbeat at Layer 2.5 BFD can provide sub-second failure detection http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-bfd-generic-02.txt http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-bfd-base-05.txt BFD works on most media For SONET/SDH alarm detection, BFD can provide close to the same reaction timeBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
  25. 25. Improving Convergence Failure Detection - BFD BFD B D  BFD working together with EIGRP as the upper layer protocol  BFD relies on EIGRP to tell it about Neighbors  Notifies EIGRP quickly about changes in Layer 2 staterouter eigrp nw010-bfd address-family ipv4 auto 4453 af-interface default bfd ! Enable BFD on all interfaces af-interface Ethernet1/0 bfd ! Enable BFD on specific interface BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
  26. 26. Improving Convergence Failure Detection - BFD BFD B DB#show bfd neighborsOurAddr NeighAddr LD/RD RH Holdown(mult) State Int14.1.1.1 14.1.1.2 5/1 1 252 (3 ) Up E1/0B# Verbose outputB#show bfd neighbor detail | begin RegisteredRegistered protocols: EIGRPUptime: 00:06:33B#show eigrp address-family ipv4 interface detail e1/0EIGRP-IPv4 VR(nw010) Address-Family Interfaces for AS(4453)BFD is enabled BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
  27. 27. Improving Convergence Information propagation - Hierarchy The depth of the Core hierarchy doesn’t alter the way EIGRP is deployed; there are no “hard edges” Distribution Summarization Summarize at every boundary where possible Access Divide complexity with summarization points BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27
  28. 28. Improving Convergence Information propagation – Summary Basics 192.168.1.0/24, 192.168.2.0/24, and 192.168.0.0/22 192.168.3.0/24 can 1 Network be advertised as 1024 Addresses 192.168.0.0/22 3 Networks Rather than three networks, 255 Addresses Each each with 255 addresses (253 hosts), A advertises a single network, with 1024 addresses 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.3.0/24 253 Hosts BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
  29. 29. Improving ConvergenceInformation propagation – Summary Basics Summarization is an information-hiding technique used to minimize the number of prefixes advertised while still maintaining full reachability. Summarization will be most effective if the network is designed in a hierarchical way so that multiple prefixes can be represented at some point in the network by a single, less specific prefix. One typical place of summarization is from distribution routers toward remotes that only need to know a default route (or at least some subset of total routes) in order to reach the remainder of the network. When summarization is used in EIGRP networks, scalability is greatly enhanced both because of the fewer number of prefixes known throughout the network as well as the decreased query scope that summarization brings.BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
  30. 30. Improving ConvergenceInformation propagation – excessive redundancy What is excessive redundancy? Isn’t redundancy a good thing, not something I should have? 1.1.1.0/24 No. excessive redundancy is alternative paths that exist in the network that provide little if any real benefit of improved reliability, and are often unplanned and unexpected. A In this example, the four Ethernets on the left are there to provide users with access to the network. There are two routers connected to each VLAN in order to provide redundancy (probably via HSRP) so that the users will have failover capability if there is a problem. Unfortunately, the designer may have created a network topology a little different than what he intendedBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30
  31. 31. Improving Convergence Information propagation – excessive redundancyRtrA#show ip route | begin 1.1.1.0RtrA#show eigrp address-family ipv4 topo all | begin 1.1.1.0C 1.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1P 1.1.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 128256, serno 2673915….snip…. 1.1.1.0/24 via Connected, Loopback1 via 10.0.19.2 (9690112/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.19 via 10.0.20.2 (9690368/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.20 via 10.0.13.2 (9688576/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.13 A via 10.0.45.2 (9696768/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.45 via 10.0.27.2 (9692160/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.27 via 10.0.28.2 (9692416/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.28 via 10.0.22.2 (9690880/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.22RtrA#show ip eigrp(9696000/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.42 via 10.0.42.2 topo | begin 1.1.1.0 via 10.0.16.2 (9689344/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.16P 1.1.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 128256 via 10.0.10.2 (9687808/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.10 via Connected, Loopback1 via 10.0.40.2 (9695488/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.40P 10.0.11.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 9048064 via 10.0.21.2 (9690624/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.21….snip…. via 10.0.37.2 (9694720/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.37 via 10.0.41.2 (9695744/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.41 Wow, Where Did All….snip…. of These Alternative Paths Come from! For a Connected Route! BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
  32. 32. Improving Convergence Information propagation – excessive redundancy Each user segments will be Passive- treated as a possible alternative Interfaces 1.1.1.0/24 path! Generally network designers C generally do not have these user O segments as transit paths R E Each user segments is in the query path, so we’re causing EIGRP to do a lot of work by including these extra links. Users Extra work means shower router eigrp nw010 convergence. address-family ipv4 auto 4453 passive-interface fastethernet6/0.1 A simple solution is provided with passive-interface fastethernet6/0.2 Or the use of the “passive-interface” address-family ipv4 auto 6473 command. passive-interface default no passive-interface fastethernet0/0 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
  33. 33. Improving ConvergenceInformation dissemination – Packet Improvements Startup times improved from minutes to A B seconds in duration Hello packet suppression Updates Better packet utilization allowed us to Hello see better utilization of bandwidth Fewer Updates means fewer ACKs, Hello noticeably reducing the over all packets being sent Fewer packets means less congestion, and in turn reduced packet loss and retransmissions Results… significant increase in both peer counts, as well as convergence time…. so how did we do it…BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
  34. 34. Improving Convergence Information dissemination – Packet Improvements Minimum RTO was decreased to 100ms. For a well functioning network, an occasional dropped packet will allow EIGRP to converge faster. If the network is not well behaved, it only adds one additional Retry to max out the RTO (5 seconds). EIGRP no longer sends a poison update in response to newly learned route EIGRP no longer sends “startup” updates twice. EIGRP no longer sends a poison update if part of a distribute-list EIGRP multicast updates now delays the next Hello. This helps with DMVPN EIGRP now handles the ACK cleanup immediately (as opposed to 1 per pacing timer) when it suppress a multicast update, EIGRP was not taking into account routes that would never be sent out a particular interface, making the packets utilization smaller than possible. EIGRP should not send hellos on Loopbacks - Small convenience in debugs and slight increase in EIGRP performance. EIGRP “probes” which were never used in the field, were removed. BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
  35. 35. Improving ConvergenceRepair - Feasible Successor EIGRP is the fastest converging of all IGP protocols using this technique EIGRP provides nearly instantaneous convergence through these pre-computed backup routes This prevents us going Active for a destination, thereby avoiding the overhead of the Query process The Feasibility Distance is the sum of the Reported Distance from a neighbor plus the cost of the link to that neighbor. A feasible Successor is found when when a neighbor’s Reported Distance to the destination is lower than the Feasible DistanceBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
  36. 36. Improving Convergence Repair - Feasible Successor show eigrp ipv4 topology displays a list of successors B and feasible successors 10.200.1.0 for all destinations .1 .2 .1 .2 56k 128k known by EIGRP A C E Remember, don’t want to many!! RtrA#show eigrp address-family ipv4 topology D EIGRP-IPv4 VR(nw010) Topology Table for AS(1)/ID(10.1.6.1) ..snip….. P 10.200.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 21026560 Feasible Distance via 10.1.1.2 (21026560/20514560), Serial1/0 Successor via 10.1.2.2 (46740736/20514560), Serial1/1 Feasible Successor Computed Reported Distance Distance BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
  37. 37. Improving ConvergenceReview For paths with feasible successors, convergence time is in the milliseconds The existence of feasible successors is dependant on the network design Right size it!! For paths without feasible successors, convergence time is dependant on the number of routers that have to handle and reply to the query Queries are blocked one hop beyond aggregation and route filters Query range is dependant on network design Good design is the key to fast convergence and scalability in an EIGRP networkBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37
  38. 38. Scaling Enhancements Improving Convergence EIGRP Stub Enhancements  Stub overview  Stub Leaking Summary Enhancements  Summary Leaking  Summary MetricBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
  39. 39. EIGRP Stub Operations Assume these spokes are remotes sites and for resiliency they have two 10.1.1.0/24 connections. A B If A loses its connection to 10.1.1.0/24, it builds and transmits five queries: one to each remote, and one to B A should never use the spokes to transit traffic between A and B, so there’s no reason to learn about, or query for, routes through these spokes However, each of the remote sites will send a query to B as part of going active. This will result in B processing and replying to five additional queries! Image if there we 1000 peers!! Don’t Use These Paths BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39
  40. 40. EIGRP Stub Operations  Marking the spokes as stubs allows them to signal A and B that 10.1.1.0/24 they are not valid transit paths A B  When the link to 10.1.1.0/24 is lost, A will not query the remotes, which in turn will not query B, reducing the total number of queries in this example to 1!  B will only have one path to 10.1.1.0/24S(config)#router eigrp nw-1-spokeS(config-router)#address-family ipv6 auto 6473S(config-router)#eigrp stub connected BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40
  41. 41. CSCec80943 EIGRP Stub Leak Leaking routes In a single remote site with two routers we want to mark the entire site as a Stub A B C and D are Stub 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 A and B advertise only a default to C and D D C  Because C and D are Stub they do Remote Site not talk to each other and there are no advertisements 10.1.1.0/24 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41
  42. 42. EIGRP Stub Leak Leaking routes Network 10.1.1.0/24 cannot be reached from A D isn’t advertising 10.1.1.0/24 to C, since D A B is a Stub D can’t reach A, or anything behind A C is not advertising the default route to D, since C is a Stub D C Remote Site  The link from B to D fails 10.1.1.0/24 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 42
  43. 43. EIGRP Stub Leak Configuration Example We want that C and D advertises a subset of their learned routes, even though they are both Stub Stub leaking is the solution A B router eigrp nw010-leaky-stub address-family ipv4 auto 4453 network 10.0.0.0 eigrp stub leak-map LeakList ! route-map LeakList permit 10 match ip address 1 match interface e0/0 D ! C route-map LeakList permit 20 match ip address 2 match interface e1/0 Remote site 10.1.1.0/24 ! access-list 1 permit 10.1.1.0 access-list 2 permit 0.0.0.0 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 43
  44. 44. EIGRP Stub Leak Route Leaking The link from B to D fails A B D is advertising 10.1.1.0/24 to C, and from C to A, so 10.1.1.0/24 is still reachable C is leaking the default route to D, so D can still reach the rest of the network through D D A and B will still not query towards C the remote site as C and D are stubs Remote Site 10.1.1.0/24 Leak 10.1.1.0/24 and 0.0.0.0/0 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 44
  45. 45. Scaling Enhancements Improving Convergence EIGRP Stub Enhancements  Stub overview  Stub Leaking Summary Enhancements  Summary Leaking  Summary MetricBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45
  46. 46. CSCed01736 EIGRP Summary Leak Overview Good design implies C should receive as few routes as possible We still optimally route to 10.1.1.0/24 and 10.1.0.0/16 10.1.2.0/24 We could use a combination of static routes and route filters to advertise both 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.2.0/24 10.1.0.0/16 and the more specific to C A B However, this is difficult for customers to maintain You can also use a pair of summaries to 10.1.0.0/16 10.1.0.0/16 “float” the 10.1.1.0/24 and 10.1.2.0/24 summaries, but this could remove the dynamic nature of the longer prefix optimal route advertisements. C BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46
  47. 47. EIGRP Summary Leak Overview 10.1.0.0/16  The simplest way to handle this is to configure a leak list on the 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.2.0/24 summary route A B 10.1.0.0/16 10.1.0.0/16route-map LeakList permit 10 match ip address 1!access-list 1 permit 10.1.1.0!router eigrp nw010-leaky-stub C address-family ipv4 auto 4453 network 10.0.0.0 af-interface Serial0/0 summary-address 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 leak-map LeakList BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47
  48. 48. CSCed01736EIGRP Summary MetricSummary Metric Calculation Review When Components Changes, EIGRP must recalculate the summary metric. If the best component changes, the summary needs to be re- advertised to all of it’s peers. While it hides the changes for each component prefix, it still causes updates and processing to occur. The updates can result in downstream routers going active if the change in the metric is large enough. Even if the best component isn’t the one that changed, EIGRP internally has to cruise every topology table to make sure the summary isn’t affected. With large numbers of components or large numbers of summary, this can be significant processing.BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48
  49. 49. EIGRP Summary Metric Using a loopback as a partial solution A One way to eliminate the updates is to create a loopback which has the best metric of any component of the summary. The loopback will remain up unless 10.1.0.0/23 administratively shut down, the metric of the Cost 10 summary will not change. B This does not eliminate the CPU processing for summaries 10.1.0.0/24 Cost 20 10.1.1.0/24 Cost 20 In release five EIGRP code, the summary metric can be configured coded, thus avoiding the metric churn and processing loopback 0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 delay 1 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 49
  50. 50. EIGRP Summary Metric Solution – use the summary-metric command  A better solution is to use the summary-metric A command which established a constant metric value thereby: It eliminate the updates It eliminate re-computing the summary metric when components change It allows the summary to be withdrawn when all 10.1.0.0/23 comments are lost  Supported by IPv4 and IPv6 B  Only available only in named moderouter eigrp nw010-summ-metric 10.1.0.0/24 Cost 20 10.1.1.0/24 Cost 20 address-family ipv4 auto 4453 network 10.0.0.0 af-interface Ethernet0/0 summary-address 10.1.0.0/23 exit-af-interface topology base summary-metric 10.1.0.0/23 100000 255 1 1500 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 50
  51. 51. Security Enhancements  MD5  HMAC SHA-256  ASA Firewall
  52. 52. EIGRP Security Enhancements MD5 Authentication The addition of authentication to EIGRP A packets ensures that your routers only accept routing updates from other routers that know the same pre-shared key. This prevents someone from purposely or accidentally adding another router to the network and causing a problem.key chain NW010-CHAIN key 1 key-string securetraffic B C!router eigrp nw010-md5 address-family ipv4 auto 4453 af-interface Ethernet0/0 authentication mode md5 authentication key-chain NW010-CHAIN exit-af-interface BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 52
  53. 53. CSCsj57286EIGRP Security EnhancementsHMAC SHA2 256bit Authentication MD5 has been has been cracked and a number of tools exist on various sites to crack MD5 hash With new peering options in development will allow for multi- hop remote peers, a new method is needed SHA1 was considered, but SHA-1 is not collision free and can be broken in 2^69 attempts instead of 2^80. While this It was still a nontrivial problem, it could be done so we wanted to consider ‘better’ options. SHA2 seems to be the best available and has not been shown to be very secure. Block sizes of 512 vs. 256 did not show much difference in security for the additional processing requirementsBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53
  54. 54. CSCsj57286EIGRP Security EnhancementsHMAC SHA2 256bit Authentication EIGRP packets will be authenticated using HMAC-SHA-256 message authentication codes. The HMAC algorithm takes as inputs the data to authenticate the EIGRP packet and a shared secret key that is known to both the sender and the receiver, and outputs a 256-bit hash that will be used for authentication. Shared secret key is a concatenation of the user-configured shared secret key with the IPv4 (or IPv6) address from which this particular packet is sent. This prevents Hello Packet DOS replay attacks with a spoofed source address. Simpler configuration mode using a common ‘password’ Keychain support when additional security is needed So how do we configure it….BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 54
  55. 55. CSCsj57286EIGRP Security EnhancementsHMAC SHA2 256bit configuration Configuration is similar to for MD5 Simple configuration using only one password router eigrp nw010-md5 address-family ipv4 auto 4453 af-interface Ethernet0/0 authentication mode hmac-sha-256 eigrp-rocks exit-af-interface Additional security can be added with key-chains key chain NW010-CHAIN key 1 key-string securetraffic ! router eigrp nw010-md5 address-family ipv4 auto 4453 af-interface Ethernet0/0 authentication mode hmac-sha-256 eigrp-rocks authentication key-chain NW010-CHAIN exit-af-interface * Named mode onlyBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 55
  56. 56. CSCsj57286EIGRP Security EnhancementsHMAC SHA2 256bit configuration Interface inheritance can be used to simplify configuration: key chain NW010-CHAIN key 1 key-string securetraffic key chain NW010-LAB key 2 key-string labtraffic ! router eigrp nw010-md5 address-family ipv4 auto 4453 af-interface default authentication key-chain NW010-CHAIN exit-af-interface af-interface Ethernet0 authentication mode hmac-sha-256 ADMIN exit-af-interface af-interface Ethernet1 authentication mode hmac-sha-256 CAMPAS exit-af-interface af-interface Ethernet2 authentication mode hmac-sha-256 LAB authentication key-chain NW010-LAB exit-af-interfaceBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 56
  57. 57. EIGRP Security Enhancements ASA Firewall The Cisco® ASA® 5500 series offers EIGRP support Common portable EIGRP core code with a platform dependent OS-shim Supports EIGRP stub and other key features Newer platforms supported Additional CCO information http://www.cisco.com/go/asa BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 57
  58. 58. Routing Enhancements Third Party Next Hop Route-map Enhancements MPLS VPN PE/CE SNMP Manet RFC4938bis EIGRP OER Support
  59. 59. EIGRP Routing Enhancements Third Party Next-hop  Here the multipoint PVC between A, B A and C means B learns the IPv6 prefix from both A and C FE80::FF:FEEA:4042 router eigrp nw010-md5 address-family ipv4 auto 4453 af-interface serial2/0 F-R no next-hop-self exit-af-interface  Next-hop and the source of that B C information source are visible in the topology tableP 2040:6666:5555:6666::/90, 1 successors, FD is 2681856 via FE80::FF:FEEA:4042 (2681856/2169856), Serial2/0 via FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:1601 (2707456/2681856), Ethernet1/0 FE80::FF:FEEA:4042 via FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:1601 (3193856/2681856), Serial2/0 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 59
  60. 60. CSCdk23784 EIGRP Routing Enhancements Third Party Next-hop router eigrp nw010-md5 address-family ipv4 auto 4453 A, B and C share the same af-interface Ethernet0/0 no next-hop-self broadcast segment exit-af-interface A redistributes RIP into EIGRP B isn’t running RIP A C isn’t running EIGRP .3 EIGRP RIP For redistributed RIP routes B normally shows A as next hop despite a direct connection to C .2 .1 B C A now sends updates to B with C as the next-hop 10.1.1.0/24 EIGRP-IPv4 VR(nw010) Topology Table for AS(4453)/ID(10.0.0.1) .... P 10.1.1.0/24, 1 successors via 10.1.2.1 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 60
  61. 61. CSCdw22585EIGRP Routing EnhancementsRoute-map Support Overview EIGRP has supported route-maps for years, but in a very limited fashion. They could only be used during redistribution out of the routing table from another protocol, which made them fairly useless. Enhanced support of route maps allows EIGRP to use a route map to prefer one path over another As shown above, route-maps can now be applied on the distribute-list in statement, so the filters can be applied even before the prefix hits the topology table route-map setmetric permit 10 match interface serial 0/0 set metric 1000 1 255 1 1500 route-map setmetric permit 20 match interface serial 0/1 set metric 2000 1 255 1 1500 .... router eigrp nw010-rmaps address-family ipv4 auto 4453 topology base distribute-list route-map setmetric inBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 61
  62. 62. CSCdw22585 EIGRP Routing Enhancements Route-map Supported Commandsmatch ip address Matches routes from prefix list or access listmatch ip route-source Matches routes based on source address, or neighbor list, of peer which sent the routematch ip route-source redistribution- Matches external routes based onsource originating-router router-idmatch interface Matches routes based on the interface used for next-hopmatch tag Matches internal and external routes based on tagmatch ip next-hop Matches routes based on next-hop field BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 62
  63. 63. CSCdw22585 EIGRP Routing Enhancements Route-map Supported Commands (continued)match metric [+-] Matches routes based on metric, with deviation (+-)match metric external [+-] Matches routes based on external protocol metricmatch source-protocol Matches external routes based on external protocol and ASset metric Sets metric componentsset tag Sets the tag on internal or external routes. Internal is limited to 8 bits BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 63
  64. 64. EIGRP Routing Enhancements Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)EIGRP supports 68 MIB objects in 4 major tableseigrpRouteSIA and eigrpAuthFailure can trigger SNMP traps EIGRP Traffic Statistics  EIGRP Interface Data AS Number Peer Count Number of Hellos, Updates, Reliable/Unreliable Queues Queries, and Replies Sent/Received Pending Routes Hello Interval EIGRP Topology Data Destination Net/Mask  EIGRP Peer Data Active State, Feasible Successors Peer Address, Interface Origin Type, Distance Hold Time, Up Time Reported Distance SRTT/RTO Version  Additional CCO information http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml http://www.cisco.com/go/mibs ftp://ftp.cisco.com/pub/mibs/oid/ BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 64
  65. 65. EIGRP Routing Enhancements CSCek40468 Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) Support for Mobile Ad-hoc Network deployments The fundamental requirement for MANET applications is effective integration of routing and radio technologies RFC4938(bis) is support by EIGRP Effective routing requires immediate recognition of topology changes, the ability to respond to radio link quality fluctuations, and a means by which routers can receive and act upon feedback from a radio network New Virtual Multipoint Interface (VMI) and L2L3 API connects Layer 2 RF network with layer 3 Mobile EIGRP Mobile Radio Mobile Radio Mobile EIGRP Router Router PPPoE RF PPPoE PPP Sessions BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 65
  66. 66. EIGRP Routing Enhancements CSCek40468 Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) The VMI interface maps multiple PPPoE sessions into a broadcast- capable multi-access interface The quality of a neighbor will vary based on raw radio link characteristics collected dynamically. The radio metrics are used to compute the composite EIGRP metric which is used to determines best paths To avoid churn from frequent changes, a dampening mechanism is implemented router eigrp nw010-manet address-family ipv4 autonomous-system 4453 af-interface vmi1 dampening-interval <seconds> dampening-change <percent> address-family ipv6 autonomous-system 6473 af-interface vmi1 dampening-interval <seconds> dampening-change <percent> * Will work on all interface types BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 66
  67. 67. EIGRP Routing EnhancementsPerformance Routing (PfR)  Cisco® IOS® Performance Routing (PfR) supports Route control using EIGRP  Currently PfR supports BGP, static routes and PBR only for route control  Monitors traffic performance for prefixes passively with NetFlow and/or actively using IP SLA probes  Chooses best performing path to a given destination Delay, MOS Load Balancing For prefix, traffic-class and application  Additional CCO information http://www.cisco.com/go/pfrBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 67
  68. 68. IPv6 Support Primer  Overview  Router Configuration  Topology Database  Summarization  Event logs and Debug review
  69. 69. EIGRP IPv6 Overview A new Protocol Dependent Module (PDM) to route IPv6 A familiar Look and Feel means incumbent EIGRP operational expertise can be leveraged Add new TLV’s (Type, Length, Value) in EIGRP packets to carry IPv6 prefixes Internal routes TLV (Type 0x0401) External routes TLV (Type 0x0402) Uses proven Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) for reliable delivery of packets DUAL performs route computations for IPv6 without modifications BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 69
  70. 70. EIGRP IPv6Addressing Basics An IPv6 address is an extended 128-bit / 16 bytes address that gives 2128 possible addresses (3.4 x 1038) IPv6 addresses 64 bits for the subnet ID, 64 bits for the interface ID Separated into 8 * 16-bit Hexadecimal numbers Each block is separated by a colon : :: can replaced leading, trailing or consecutive zeros :: can only appear once EIGRP IPv6 Multicast transport FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:A or abbreviated to FF02::A Examples: 2003:0000:130F:0000:0000:087C:876B:140B 2003:0:130F::87C:876B:140B BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 70
  71. 71. EIGRP IPv6 IPv6 Link-Local Address A IPv6 Link-local address is used by EIGRP to source Hello packets and establish an adjacency  IPv6 Link-local address is never routed  IPv6 packet forwarding and must be configured first under global configuration  They are auto assigned when you enable the interface ipv6 unicast interface Ethernet1/0 ipv6 enable  You can configure this manually on an interface  An IPv6 link-local is prefixed by fe80 and has a prefix length of /10 ipv6 address ? X:X:X:X::X IPv6 link-local address X:X:X:X::X/<0-128> IPv6 prefix …… BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 71
  72. 72. EIGRP IPv6 Router Configuration classic router configuration eigrp named mode configurationint Ethernet 0/0 router eigrp nw010-v6 ipv6 eigrp 6473 address-family ipv6 auto 6476! af-interface defaultrouter eigrp 6473 no shutdownno shutdown  Router-ID is require and selected ¨ç from highest loopback IPv4 address ¨è from first IPv4 address found on any physical interface.  If no IPv4 address is available, a 32-bit router-id can be configured manually using the router-id command router eigrp nw010-v6 address-family ipv6 auto 6476 router-id 1.1.1.1 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 72
  73. 73. EIGRP IPv6 Topology Table The Topology show commands are congruent with IPv4 show eigrp address-family ipv6 topology EIGRP-IPv6 VR(nw010) Topology Table for AS(6473)/ID(1.1.1.1) Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - reply Status, s - sia Status P 2040:3333::31:113:0/112 , 1 successors, FD is 281600 via FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200 (281600/256), Ethernet0/0 P 2040:3333::31:114:0/112, 1 successors, FD is 281600 via FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200 (281600/256), Ethernet0/0 The next-hop is the Neighbors 128-bit link-local BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 73
  74. 74. EIGRP IPv6 Topology Table The information source and next-hop 128-bit addressshow eigrp address-family ipv6 topology 2040:3333::31:113:0/112EIGRP-IPv6 VR(nw010) Topology entry for AS(6473)/ID(1.1.1.1) for 2040:3333::31:113:0/112 State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 1 Successor(s), FD is 281600 Routing Descriptor Blocks: FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200 (Ethernet0/0), from FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200, Send flag is 0x0 Composite metric is (281600/256), Route is External Vector metric: Minimum bandwidth is 10000 Kbit Total delay is 1000 microseconds Reliability is 0/255 Load is 1/255 Minimum MTU is 1500 Hop count is 1 External data: Originating router is 2.2.2.2 AS number of route is 0 External protocol is Static, external metric is 0 Administrator tag is 0 (0x00000000) BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 74
  75. 75. EIGRP IPv6 Route Summarization Summaries  Auto-summary is not configurable in EIGRP IPv6 because IPv6 is essentially classless  Manual summarization is supported, as it is with EIGRP IPv4, and can therefore be configured at any point in the networkclassic router configuration eigrp named configurationinterface Ethernet0/0 router eigrp nw010-ipv6 ipv6 summary-address eigrp 6473 ? address-family ipv6 auto 6473 X:X:X:X::X/<0-128> IPv6 prefix af-interface Ethernet0/0 summary-address ? X:X:X:X::X/<0-128> IPv6 prefix BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 75
  76. 76. EIGRP IPv6 Event logs and Debugs Supported EIGRP IPv6 information in existing debugs debug eigrp ? fsm EIGRP Dual Finite State Machine events/actions neighbors EIGRP neighbors nsf EIGRP Non-Stop Forwarding events/actions packets EIGRP packets transmit EIGRP transmission eventsdebug eigrp packetsEIGRP Packets debugging is on (UPDATE, REQUEST, QUERY, REPLY, HELLO, IPXSAP, PROBE, ACK, STUB,SIAQUERY, SIAREPLY)00:52:47: EIGRP: Received HELLO on Ethernet1/0 nbr FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:40100:52:47: AS 6473, Flags 0x0, Seq 0/0 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ un/rely 0/0 peerQun/rely 0/0 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 76
  77. 77. EIGRP IPv6 Event logs and Debugs Supported EIGRP IPv6 Event Logshow eigrp address-family ipv6 event1 06:27:52.115 Change queue emptied, entries: 12 06:27:52.115 Metric set: 2040:3333::31:113:0/112 2816003 06:27:52.115 Update reason, delay: new if 42949672954 06:27:52.115 Update sent, RD: 2040:3333::31:113:0/112 42949672955 06:27:52.115 Update reason, delay: metric chg 42949672956 06:27:52.115 Update sent, RD: 2040:3333::31:113:0/112 4294967295 EIGRP IPv6 Specific Debugging debug eigrp address-family ipv6 ? <1-6473> Autonomous System neighbor EIGRP neighbor debugging notifications EIGRP event notifications summary EIGRP summary route processing <cr> BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 77
  78. 78. EIGRP IPv6 Review Provides feature parity with most IPv4 Features (stubs, scaling, summarization, etc)Implementation EIGRP IPv6 uses the same Reliable Multicast Transport protocol used by IPv4 IPv6 Link-local address are used to establish an adjacency 32 bit Router ID must be explicitly configured if no IPv4 address is available Hellos are sourced from the link-local address and destined to FF02::A (all EIGRP routers); Neighbors are not required to share the same global prefix (with the exception of explicitly specified neighbors where traffic is sent unicast)Important Automatic summarization disabled by default for EIGRP IPv6, and is notDifferences even configurable for EIGRP IPv6 “no split-horizon” is the default configuration for EIGRP IPv6 (IPv6 supports multiple prefixes per interface) EIGRP IPv6 does not support the “default-information” command as there is no support in IPv6 for the configuration of default networks other than ::/0 “ipv6 unicast” must be configured under global mode to enable ipv6 routingNote “ipv6 enable” must be configured under all interfaces which will be enabled for ipv6 BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 78
  79. 79. Q&A
  80. 80. Recommended Reading ASIN: 1578701651 ISBN: 0201657732BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 80
  81. 81. Other References Continue your Cisco Live learning experience with further reading from Cisco Press Check the Recommended Reading flyer for suggested booksAvailable Onsite at the Cisco Company Store BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 81
  82. 82. Meet the EngineerTo make the most of your time at Networkers at CiscoLive 2010, schedule a Face-to-Face Meeting with a topCisco Engineer.Designed to provide a "big picture" perspective as well as"in-depth" technology discussions, these face-to-facemeetings will provide fascinating dialogue and a wealth ofvaluable insights and ideas.Visit the Meeting Centre reception desk located in theMeeting Center in World of Solutions BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 82
  83. 83. Complete Your OnlineSession Evaluation Give us your feedback and you could win fabulous prizes. Winners announced daily. Receive 20 Cisco Preferred Access points for each session evaluation you complete. Complete your session evaluation online now (open a browser through our wireless network to access our portal) or visit one of the Internet Don’t forget to activate your stations throughout the Cisco Live and Networkers Virtual Convention Center. account for access to all session materials, communities, and on-demand and live activities throughout the year. Activate your account at any internet station or visit www.ciscolivevirtual.com.BRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 83
  84. 84. Enter to Win a 12-Book Libraryof Your Choice from Cisco PressVisit the Cisco Store in theWorld of Solutions, whereyou will be asked to enterthis Session ID codeCheck the Recommended Reading brochure forsuggested products available at the Cisco StoreBRKRST-3372 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 84

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