I am a college student with an accumulative 3.0 GPA. The degree that I have acquired is an Associate in General Science from Lord Fairfax Community College in Virginia. I am finishing my Bachelors in Psychology on December 18th of this year, from Argosy University Atlanta.
My interests are: psychology, science (biology, and anatomy and physiology), and history. I have been involved in History clubs sense high school and was responsible for the rejuvenation of Lord Fairfax Community Colleges history Club, while attending my last year of college there; I also set up the structure for the next leader to be able to keep the club going, after I started my bachelors degree. I have been involved in many different community services programs as well, such as Habitat for Humanity and the historical Sociality of Front Royal Virginia. While in Habitat for Humanity I was on the board of directors, for a year (at the age of 18). I assisted the Historical Society of Front Royal’s by assisting manage their Festival of Leaves, for two years.
I believe in hard work, perseverance, and honesty. They are the building blocks of great people and effective students, employees, citizens, and leaders. If given the opportunity, I would strive to bring these qualities into the field that I am working toward; then into the lives of my clients and colleges.
In the year that I have spent at Argosy, I have acquire essential skills that will assist me in my future employment and educational endeavors. Argosy University has broadened my understanding of Psychology and how a college should be run.
When it comes to :Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking, Cognitive Abilities: Information Literacy, Research: Understanding Research Methods, Communication Skills: Oral, ethics, Diversity, Knowledge of Psychology, Knowledge of Applied Psychology, and Interpersonal Effectiveness: Active Listening Communication Skills, I would state that I have extensive exposure to the material.
Cognitive abilities (critical thinking and information literacy)
Ethics & Diversity awareness
Knowledge of foundations of the field
Knowledge of applied psychology
Cognitive abilities (critical thinking and information literacy)
Piaget’s model of Cognitive Development is comprised of four stages: sensorimotor stage; preoperational stage; concrete operational stage; and formal operational stage. Sensorimotor stage lasts from around infancy to the age of two. In the sensorimotor stage a child and their experiences are tied to their immediate environment and their motor-action behaviors; in this stage children attain the belief of object permanence (Argosy Notes, 2010). Preoperational stage lasts from around the age of two till that age of seven (Argosy Notes, 2010). In the preoperational stage a child improves on their mental ability to represent objects that are not physically present (Argosy Notes, 2010); in this stage children think in egocentric terms and have difficulty distinguishing the mental world from the physical world (Argosy Notes, 2010). Concrete operational stage lasts from around the age of seven to eleven. In the concrete operational stage, children con from mental operations and master conversations (yet, not abstract question) (Argosy Notes, 2010). Formal operational stage lasts from around the age of eleven on (Argosy Notes, 2010). In the formal operational stage, thinking becomes abstract and adolescents realize that their reality is not the only reality (Argosy Notes, 2010).
Kohlberg’s Model of Moral Development is made up of three levels: pre-conventional (self focused); Conventional (other focused morality); and post-conventional (higher focused morality). Pre-conventional level lasts from birth to the age of nine (AllPsych, 2004). In the pre-conventional level morality is defined (obeying rules and avoiding punishment) and satisfies the child’s need to be seen as good and moral (AllPsych, 2004). Conventional Level lasts from nine till adolescence (AllPsych, 2004). In the conventional level children begin to understand what is expected of them (from the adults around them), morality is seen as achieving expectations, and by fulfilling obligations and expectations is seen as moral law (AllPsych, 2004). Post-conventional Level happens during adulthood (AllPsych, 2004). In the post-conventional level, adults understand that people have different opinions (about morality, rules and laws) depending on their group and/or culture; morality is seen as upholding the values and more of their particular group or culture (AllPsych, 2004). Also in the post-conventional stage right and wrong is based on circumstances surrounding an action (AllPsych, 2004).
Know these stages are important for parents, teachers, and juvenile delinquency judges. By knowing these stages give parents, teachers and juvenile delinquency judges, the understanding of why children act and react the way that they do. This can help parents, teachers, and juvenile delinquency judges in giving the proper punishments to deter future unwanted behaviors.
An example would be a child that kills their parent at the age of eight; the cognitive development stage that they are at is concrete operational stage and the moral developmental stage they are at is pre-conventional level. In the concrete operational stage, children think in egocentric terms and have difficulty distinguishing the mental world from the physical world (Argosy Notes, 2010). In the pre-conventional level, morality is defined (obeying rules and avoiding punishment) and satisfies the child’s need to be seen as good and moral (AllPsych, 2004). By knowing these stages the parents, teachers, and juvenile delinquency judges can determine that the child was not fully aware of their actions and that they believe what they did was the right thing. When parents, teachers, and juvenile delinquency judges are aware of this they can create a system to rehabilitate the child.
Can an 8 year-old on trial for murder understand the severity of his crime?
In my opinion, yes an 8 year old can understand the severity of his crime. I feel this way because, at this stage in his life he knew right from wrong and knew that it is immoral to kill someone. Yet, it all depends on the maturity level of the child as well.
Is it appropriate for a 3 year old to begin formal school?
From the information that is given by Piaget and Kohlberg, I would say yes.
AllPsych (2004). Kohlburg’s Stages of Moral Development. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/moral_development.html .
Argosy Notes (2010). Advanced General Psychology. Argosy University.
Bipolar disorder is a serious mental is order, that consists of mood swing that can range in severity (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Bipolar has three subsets bipolar I, Bipolar
II, and Cyclothymia (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Bipolar I Disorder, consists of mood swings that cause significant difficulty in the individuals everyday life; manic episodes
can be sever and dangerous (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Bipolar II Disorder, is a less sever form of Bipolar I and may cause elevated mood, irritability, and some changes in the
individuals functioning; but the sufferer can carryout a normal everyday routine (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Cyclothymia is the mildest form of Bipolar Disorder, it involves
hypomania and depression; but, the highs and lows are milder than the other forms of Bipolar Disorder (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010).
The common symptoms of bipolar are based on manic and depressive phases (Torpy, J.M., 2009). The manic phase consists of: Extremely elevated mood, Irritability
or anger, Fast speech Flight of ideas (racing or distracted thoughts, rapid switch from one subject to another), Risky behavior (including gambling, sexual promiscuity, and
substance abuse), Poor judgment, Decreased need for sleep, and Less severe episodes of elevated mood are called hypomania (Torpy, J.M., 2009). The Depressive phase consists of: Extreme sadness, Inactivity and disinterest in usual activities, crying, anxiety, or
irritability, Feeling of hopelessness or overwhelming guilt, Unintentional weight loss or gain, Substance abuse, and Suicidal thoughts (Torpy, J.M., 2009).
The causes of Bipolar Disorder are: biological; neurochemical; hormones; inherited traits; and environment factors (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). The biological aspect appear to have physical effects on the brain, but the significance of these changes are unknown at this time (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Neurotransmitters, The neurochemical factor is dysfunctions in the neurotransmitter, such as problems with norepinephrine, serotonin, and others (Bressert, S., 2010). Hormone imbalance is a possible cause of Bipolar Disorder (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Bipolar disorder tends to run in families and
children with a parent or sibling with bipolar is 4-6 times more likely to develop and mental illness, compared to children without mentally ill family members (National Institute of Mental Health, 2010). Yet, even with the increase in probability for having a mental disorder not many will develop bipolar (National Institute of Mental Health, 2010). Environment, stress, abuse, loss or traumatic events may play a role in Bipolar (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010).
There are several treatments for bipolar disorder: psychotherapy; medication; and hospitalization (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Psychotherapy that is recommended for Bipolar disorder patients are: cognitive behavioral therapy; individual therapy; family therapy; and group therapy (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Some of the medications that are used on Bipolar patients are: Lithium; anticonvulsants; antidepressants; antipsychotics; symbyax; and benzodiazepines (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Other types of medications that are given to bipolar patients are: epileptic medications; typical and atypical antipsychologic drugs; and sleep medications (Ray, W.A, 2009; National Institute of Mental Health, 2010). Hospitalization, may be needed if the individual is a danger to themselves or other (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010).
What is/are the prevailing argument(s)?
The literature review that was conducted was on Bipolar Disorder’s causes and treatments. The prevailing arguments where for both causes and treatment was based on genetics, neurology, and environment. There will always be room for more study on Bipolar Disorder.
The known causes of Bipolar Disorder are: family genetics; chemical/neurotransmitter imbalancement in the brain; and environment (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). People with family members that have Bipolar Disorder are more likely to have Bipolar Disorder or other mental illnesses (National Institute of Mental Health, 2010); parent or sibling with bipolar is 4-6 times more likely to develop and mental illness (National Institute of Mental Health, 2010). The chemical/ neurotransmitters that are believed to be imbalanced in a Bipolar’s brain are norepinephrine, serotonin, and others (Bressert, S., 2010). The environmental factors that are believed to trigger Bipolar Disorder are stress, abuse, loss or traumatic events may play a role in Bipolar (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). Bipolar episodes are believed to begin between the ages of 15 and 30 (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). The treatments for Bipolar Disorder are medication, of therapy, and hospitalization. The medications that are used are: epileptic medications; typical and atypical antipsychologic drugs; mood stabilizer (such as Lithium); and antidepressant medications (National Institute of Mental Health, 2010). The therapies that used are psychotherapy (individual and group) and electroconvulsive therapy (National Institute of Mental Health, 2010). Hospitalization is needed if the individual is a danger to themselves or other (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010). The down side to medication is that they can cause harm to a patient, if they are not properly managed or researched (Ray, W.A, 2009; Sachs, G.S. & et al, 2007). Therapy is a long term treatment and needs to be managed effectively, if not the patient can have a relapse of symptoms (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010).
All the areas that were review could use more research. The causes of the Bipolar Disorder can use farther research on the genetic, chemical, environmental factors. The treatment areas that could be expanded on are: the medications and their effectiveness; the negative effects of the different medications on the body and the mental illnesses; and positives and negatives of hospitalization.
What research question could you ask in order to further develop this area of study?
The research questions that could be asked in reference to treatment are: does medication cause non-bipolar patients to show symptoms of bipolar if they are treated with medication; what are the long term effects of medication on a bipolar patient’s body; and what are the most effective types of medication on bipolar patients? For causes: which parent having bipolar gives a high chance of an offspring having bipolar; is there a way of preventing a child of a parent with Bipolar from having Bipolar; and is there a specific gene that can be found in uteri that can tell if a child will be Bipolar or not and is there a medication that can be given to prevent them from becoming a bipolar? Any of these questions can further help patients and parents of bipolar disorder.
Make an argument as to why your research question is important and relevant to the current work being done on your topic.
The research question that I would like to expand on is “is there a specific gene that can be found in uteri that can tell if a child will be Bipolar or not; is there a medication that can be given to prevent them from becoming a bipolar? This question is important and relevant to the current work being done, because if bipolar disorder can be found in fetuses and prevented before birth. This could prevent the disorder from causing future patient’s mental anguish and potentially eliminating a serious mental disorder. It can also lead the way of preventing other serious mental disorders.
How will you foster victim empathy as part of the intervention plan?
When creating a community-intervention program for children like Rocco, I would start with fostering empathy for their victims. I would foster empathy for their victims by: role playing (having the bullies turned into the bullied); having the bullies meet with other bullies, that have been incarcerated for their crimes against others; and I would have them meet with victims of bullying to hear how the victimizing effected them. I would also have the bullies learn the statistic on what happens to bullies and their victims. By showing them the outcome of what their bullying can lead to, I hope will force them to see both sides of their actions and help them understand that what they are doing is wrong. Next I would have them go through the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.). This program was created to provide life skills to children at risk of joining gangs, by helping the children avoid using delinquent behaviors and violence to solve their problems (Institute for Intergovernmental Research, 2010). G.R.E.A.T. Program consists of four components and is a 13-session program for middle school, elementary school, summer programs, and family training (Institute for Intergovernmental Research, 2010). The programs are run by law enforcement officers and it creates a positive relationship between youths and law enforcement officers (Institute for Intergovernmental Research, 2010). The skills that bullies/possible gang members can learn from this program can deter them from joining gangs and can keep them from needing gangs, because they will have the skills to handle their problems. After completing the G.R.E.A.T. Program, I would have the children enter group therapy, individual therapy, and family therapy. In group therapy they will learn that they are not alone, they can get the support that they need from the group, and they can learn for other how to handle their problems more effectively. In individual therapy the children will learn how to handle their emotions effectively, how to work through their insecurities, and how to overcome the desires to join gangs. In family therapy they can
get their parents involved in their struggle, the parents can learn how their child is feeling, and how to help them and the family can learn how to become a more proactive family unit (that will create the loving environment that the children feel they are missing). By getting the children involved in different therapies will give the child the
support, skills, and structure that they need to overcome the need to join a gang.
I would also have the children enter into community-based after school programs.
The types of after school programs that would have them involved in are: soup kitchens; mentoring; boys and girls clubs; sports; and any other activities that foster team work.
These types of programs give the children self-esteem, self-worth, and it will distract them from gangs (Argosy Notes, 2010). Next I would encourage the children’s family members to get involved in the fight against gangs. I would encourage the families to enter into neighborhood watches and other activities that would stop gang violence in their areas (Argosy Notes, 2010). I would also ask them to limit the media influences that glorify gangs and violence from their media outlets (television, radio, internet, and magazines) (Argosy Notes 2010). This will get the family involved in the fight against gangs and it will eliminate the media influences that make gangs seem like a good choice.
For parents, identify early warning signs that might indicate that their children are showing signs of violence.
The warning signs that might indicate that a child is violent are based on physical, behavioral, and nonverbal communication signs. The physical signs are: changes in the way they dress; strange hair styles; tattoos; or sudden or over use of make-up (Argosy Notes, 2010). The behavioral signs are: attending school or work erratically; little to no participation in family based activities; different or unfamiliar word usage; associating with known gang members; staying out unusually late; wanted to always be alone; beginning usage of alcohol or drugs; having money or buying things without a known source of income; and mood swings or unusual behavior patterns (Argosy Notes, 2010). The nonverbal communication signs are; highly stylized or strange writing; graffiti type writing on notebooks, books, or papers; and the usage of hand signals (Argosy Notes).
The warning signs are a goo indicator that a child is becoming affiliated with gangs. But, the child does not need to exhibit all of these signs to be considered as possibly being involved in gang activities. The child can exhibit some of these signs and possible be affiliating with gangs; this is why it is important for parent(s) to be involved in their children’s lives and be good influences on their children. So, that they can recognize if their children are involved in gang related violence or if they are at risk.
Address the issues of gender, diversity, and ethics in your plan.
Gangs do not discriminate against their members. Gangs will recruit any ethnic, socioeconomic, or gender group. That means that in intervention program they can not discriminate against ethnic, socioeconomic, or gender groups in their approaches. It is important to include all groups in the intervention process.
In my intervention process, I would have the intervention groups first separated into gender groups. So, that they can first learn how to handle their own genders weaknesses in relation to gangs and gang violence, and learn how to overcome them before working in coed groups. After the gender related groups have learned how to overcome their individual genders gang affiliate weakness, I would have the two groups become one, so that they can learn how to work through multi-gendered issues. By joining the two groups together they can learn who and why each of them are susceptible to gangs and how together they can fight back against gangs (not physically). It is important to understand why each person or group joins a gang, because it can help each of them avoid the need in the future.
I would not separate the children into ethic or socioeconomic groups, because it may alienate them from one another. This can cause more harm than good; by showing that these groups are different may cause the individuals in these groups to feel that they are being treated differently from another group. It may cause the members to start fighting each other instead of working to overcome gangs and violence, defeating the purpose of the programs. It is better it bring divers group together, so that they can learn from each other. In my opinion, gang violence is an epidemic in this country and around the world.
Only as a group can we fight the violence that comes from gangs and only together can we stop the violence. If we do not do something gangs will spread and cause sever damage to our society. A prime example of gangs taking over, is Mexico where gangs are killing everyone that gets in their way (from police to politicians to children). Gang violence needs to stopped, for all of our sakes and for the sake of our country and worlds future.
I believe that Skinner study of behavioral conditioning is the most compelling argument for the use of behaviorism, when teaching a new subject. In Skinner’s study, he used reinforcement to create or reverse a pattern of behavior through reinforcement or punishment (Argosy Notes, 2010). In the study conducted Skinner used a rat that, when it pushed down on the lever would open a door that had food dispensed into a cup (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). The rat learned that by performing the action (pulling the lever), it would get the food, the food was the reinforcement (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009).
If this method was applied to teaching children something it would create a positive effect. Such as if a parent wanted to teach their child to read, they would first show the child a word and have the child repeat the word and if they got the word correctly they would receive a small piece of candy. The action would be learning the letter and the reinforcement would be the candy. The more the child learns the more treats they would receive, making them more likely to want to learn for the reinforcement.
To apply this method to adults, it would work the same way that it does with a child; the difference would be that the reinforcement would be different. With adults, to teach them something new, such as a new language, the reinforcement would be the financial gain of knowing another language. So, that action would be learning a new language and the reinforcement would be the extra money in their pay check. With the more languages that the adult learns the more valuable they are to their employer, the more financial compensation they will receive.
In the end Skinner's reinforcement theory of behaviorism can apply to many different areas. Children and adults can use Skinner’s reinforcement to achieve goals. So, overall Skinner’s theory can positively effect learning and teaching.
Split-brain patients are individuals that have had their corpus callosum severed (Gazzaniga, M. 2006). By having the corpus callosum severed, it split the two hemispheres (left and right) of the brain and removed their ability to communicate with each other (Gazzaniga, M. 2006). This lack of communication was noticed in a study conducted by Gazzaniga and his colleagues.
Gazzaniga and his colleagues preformed an experiment on an individual with a severed corpus callosum. The experiment involved flashing different images on a screen (either on the left or right side) to determine what was going on with the patient with the severed corpus callosum; it seemed that this patient was blind in when a picture was flashed on the left side of the screen (Gazzaniga, M. 2006). The problem was even though the patient stated that he did not see the picture that was flashed on the screen, his left hand was signaling that he had (as instructed hit the signal button) (Gazzaniga, M. 2006). This demonstrated to the research team that, the brain is a duplex operation or two sided operation (Gazzaniga, M. 2006) and lead to further studies.
The subsequent research revealed that the right and left hemispheres of the brain control different aspects of the brain. The right hemisphere can only produce rudimentary words, phrases, space perception, and music; yet controls emotional context to language (Noble Prize, 2010). The left hemisphere controls word recognitions, analytical tasks, and verbal tasks (Gazzaniga, M. 2006) (Noble Prize, 2010). Once they are separated one side of the brain is unaware of what the other side is learning, seeing, or interpreting (Gazzaniga, M. 2006).
The problems that split brain operations cause are: it separates that two hemispheres of the brain and stops them from communicating; it causes patients to have difficulty interpreting objects, words, and other items; and it can cause emotional strain on a patient (Gazzaniga, M. 2006). The strategies that I would recommend for this type of patient would be; to write everything down and place the information needed in the line of vision of the part of the brain that handles that information; I would send the patient to neurological therapy to help them through the challenges; and I would recommend giving their brain time to create new pathways through the brain.
I believe that this was an ethical study. It used patients that had serious brain problems and gave those patients a new lease on life, even though it caused some problems. It also reveal vital information on the human brain and removed the sever problems that were plaguing the patients. In the end everyone got something out of this experiment.
In order to create an effective recruiting interview, a recruiter needs to ask through open-ended questions (Argosy Notes, 2010). The types of questions that need to be asked of the applicant are: work experience; qualifications; skills; abilities; knowledge; ambitions; and strengths that make them qualified for the job they are seeking (Argosy Notes, 2010). All of these questions can be useful in finding a proper candidate for the job position that is being recruited for.
To create an effective employment interview, an interview needs to use open-ended questions to elicit more details about the applicant (Argosy Notes, 2010). The types of questions that need to be addressed are: outside work experience; educational background; and work experience (Argosy Notes 2010). These questions will give insight into the candidates that will best suit the needs of your company.
Questions that might be asked within a recruiting interview and/or employment interview are:
Where have you worked in the last few years?
What were you required to do in those jobs?
What skills did you acquire from these jobs?
What knowledge did you bring to these jobs and to this company?
What do you feel that you will be able to accomplish for this company?
What activities have you done outside of the working environment that you feel would assist you at this company?
What is your educational background?
What are your extended plans, both inside and outside of this working environment?
Overall what do you feel makes you the most qualified for this position?
My future as a life long learner, will consist of learning how my clients think and applying the best therapeutic process to assist their needs. I will also continue reading, learning, and attending seminars on psychology to make sure that my skills remain fine toned.
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Bressert, S. (2010). The Causes of Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression). http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/the-causes-of-bipolar-disorder-manic-depression/ .
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National Institute of Mental Health. Bipolar Disorder. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder/complete-index.shtml .
Ray, W.A. & et al (2009). Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs and the Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0806994 .
Sachs, G.S. & et al. (2007). Effectiveness of Adjunctive Antidepressants Treatment for Bipolar Depression. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa064135 .
Weissman, M.M. & et al. Cross-National Epidemiology of Major Depresssion and Bipolar Disorder. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/276/4/293?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=& fulltext = bipolar&searchid =1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT .