BS 9999 Fire Engineering


Published on

A Presentation on BS 9999 and Fire Engineering

Published in: Design, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The first thing you will notice, is that the document has been split: Vol 1 Dwelling houses Vol 2 Buildings other than dwelling houses
  • Other keys issues within Vol 2 are: fire safety management relating to RRO fire risk assessment The inclusion of residential sprinklers And moe for disabled persons
  • The design objectives of the fire engineer is 2……. Post fire investigation – important as we learn a lot from real fire Building type – residential, office etc… Occupancy profile – what risk is present persons who are wide awake or asleep present different risks Fire protection systems – these can be off set against other requirements Assessment of risks – whether these can be reduced or removed Passive fire protection – whether these can be reduced Management strategy – to ensure that the RRO is satisfied this needs addressed
  • Using a combination of fire engineering solutions and guidance given within the revision of the adb which has been based on fire engineering principles, I have managed to provide a number of scenarios where effective solutions have been used.
  • This first appeared in the revised revision of the BS 5588 Part 5 2004, and has been introduced into the new ADB
  • I will go on to explain with the introduction of residential sprinklers into the revised ADB, and what impact these will have.
  • Other Changes in the ADB include: Clearer guidance on refuges Emergency voice communication Use of fire fighting lifts Warnings for people with impaired hearing Level exit thresholds Merging Flows Where a ground floor storey exit shares a final stair exit via a ground floor lobby method of calculation provided Phased Evac First people to be evacuated are all those of reduced mobility and those on the storey most immediately affected by the fire In tall buildings over 30m in height there is a potential that persons attempting to escape could be impeded by firefighters entering and operating within the building In some very tall buildings (45m +) physical measures may need to be incorporated into the building (e.g. by discounting a stair or by some other suitable means External Fire Spread A notional boundary is assumed to exist where: a . either or both of the buildings concerned are in the Residential or Assembly and Recreation Purpose Groups; or b . more than one building is constructed on the same site but is to be operated/managed by different organisations Internal Fire Mains Where a building, which has a compartment of 280m2 or more in area, is being built more than 100m from an existing fire-hydrant additional hydrants should be provided as follows; a. Buildings provided with fire mains hydrants should be provided within 90m of dry fire main inlets. b. Buildings not provided with fire mains hydrants should be provided within 90m of an entry point to the building and not more than 90m apart Dry Riser Main In the case of a building fitted with dry fire mains there should be access for a pumping appliance to within 18m of each fire main inlet connection point, typically on the face of the building . The inlet should be visible from the appliance.
  • BS 9999 Fire Engineering

    1. 1. Development of New Fire Safety Guidance BS 9999 Business Innovation Centre Ten Pound Walk Doncaster South Yorkshire DN4 5HX Tel: +44 (0) 1302 554910 Fax: +44 (0) 1302 554909
    2. 2. Fire Engineering Prescriptive approach to fire safety (AD-B) Combination of prescriptive and performance based Performance based solution
    3. 3. <ul><li>BS 5588 Series </li></ul><ul><li>Approved Document B Volume 2 </li></ul>BS 9999
    4. 4. <ul><li>Key Features </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Assessment and Risk Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Means of Escape </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities for the Fire Service </li></ul><ul><li>Building Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Special Risk Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Safety Management </li></ul>
    5. 5. Fire Engineering Objectives Evaluate specific passive fire protection systems Assessment of risks and hazards Occupancy profile Consideration of building type Management strategy Post fire investigation Specify the correct active fire protection system
    6. 6. Risk Assessment <ul><li>Risk = Frequency x Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency = number of fires in a given period </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence = the damage caused by the fire </li></ul>
    7. 7. Occupancy Profile Serviced flats, halls of residence, sleeping, areas and boarding schools Long term managed occupancy Cii Individual flats without 24hr maintenance control on site Long term individual occupancy Ci Occupants who are likely to be asleep Ciii Hotels Short term occupancy C Shops, exhibitions, leisure centres and other assembly buildings Occupants who are awake and unfamiliar with the building B Office and Industrial buildings Occupants who are awake and familiar with the building A Examples Description Occupancy Characteristics
    8. 8. Fire Growth Rate 0.047 Baled thermoplastic chip, stacked plastic products Fast 3 0.188 Flammable liquids, foam Ultra Fast 4 0.012 Stacked cardboard boxes, wooden pallets Medium 2 0.0029 Banking Hall, limited combustible materials Slow 1 Fire Growth Rate Parameter kJ/m 3 Examples Fire Growth Rate Category
    9. 9. Risk Profiles Ultra Fast Fast Medium Slow Ultra Fast Fast Medium Slow Ultra Fast Fast Medium Slow B3 3 B2 2 B1 1 C B A A2 2 A3 3 A1 1 C4 4 C3 3 C2 2 C1 1 Occupants who are likely to be asleep B4 4 Occupants who are awake and unfamiliar with the building A4 4 A Occupants who are awake and familiar with the building Risk Profile Fire Growth rate Occupancy Characteristics
    10. 10. Common Examples Risk Profiles Bedrooms/ study bedroom Amusement Arcade Club Factory Production Area Exhibition Area Shopping Mall Classroom Business Centre Office Assembly Hall Cii2 B2 B2 A2/A3 B2/B3 B2 A2 B2 A2 B2 Dinning Room Meeting Room Kitchen Plant Room Office (closed plan) Shop Sales Area Storage & Warehouse Theatre Workshop Leisure Centre B1 B2 A3 A4 B2 B3 A4 B2 A3 B2
    11. 11. Means of Escape <ul><li>Means of Escape based on Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Time base analysis to escape </li></ul>
    12. 12. Distance <ul><li>18m where escape is in one direction </li></ul><ul><li>45m where escape is in more than one direction </li></ul>Direct Travel Distances Indirect Travel Distances
    13. 13. BS 9999 – Travel Distances Additional 7 14 Ciii3 Achievable travel distances when minimum fire protection measures are installed 9 18 Cii2 13 27 Ci1 Not Allowed Not Allowed B4 Travel Distances 16 40 B3 20 50 B2 24 60 B1 14 30 A4 18 45 A3 22 55 A2 26 65 A1 One – way travel Two – way travel Risk Profile 9 18 30 90 13 27 18 37 20 60 24 75 28 90 18 45 22 60 24 75
    14. 14. Additional Fire Protection Measures <ul><li>Increased Alarm and Detection (up to 15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Ceiling Heights (up to 30%) </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Available </li></ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Egress </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul>Time based approach - ASET Time Fire Growth Untenable Conditions Available Time Alarm Ignition Detection People React Travel time
    16. 16. Time Based Escape Strategy <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extending the travel distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced numbers of escape routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilising more floor area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An appropriate design solution </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Facilities for the Fire Service <ul><li>Fire fighting shafts should be provided in tall buildings and those with deep basements </li></ul><ul><li>An emergency pack will be provided to give operational information to the fire service in order to deal with an incident. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Building with a height of 11m but less than 18m Building with 2 or more basements with a floor area >900m 2 Shop, factory or assembly Building greater than 7.5m with a floor area >900m 2 Buildings greater than 18m in height Basement storey exceeds 10m in depth Escape Stair Unvented fire fighting lobby provided with a fire main Fire fighting Stair Fire fighting lobbies with Fire Main Fire fighting Lift Fire Service Access Level
    19. 19. Structure <ul><li>There are a number of ways fire can spread through a building and effecting adjacent buildings: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduction </li></ul><ul><li>Convection </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul>
    20. 20. Building Height Categories <ul><li>Current AD-B Height Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 5m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 5m and 18m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 18m and 30m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 30m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Height Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60m </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Comparison of Outputs (No Sprinklers) NP – Not permitted without sprinklers 300 300 240 180 105 60 Manufact. (high) 150 120 90 75 30 30 Manufact. (low) 240 180 120 90 45 30 Assembly (high) 180 135 105 75 45 30 Assembly (med) 105 90 75 60 30 30 Assembly (low) 180 135 105 75 45 30 Retail 150 120 90 60 30 30 Office 105 90 75 60 45 30 Hotel 120 120 90 75 60 30 Hospital 151 135 120 105 90 60 Dwelling >60 30-60 18-30 11-18 5-11 0-5 Occupancy (NP) (NP) (120) (90) (90) (60) (NP) (NP) (120) (90) (90) (60) (NP) (NP) (90) (60) (60) (60) (NP) (NP) (90) (60) (60) (60) (NP) (NP) (90) (60) (60) (60) (NP) (NP) (90) (60) (60) (60) (NP) (NP) (90) (60) (60) (30) (120) (120) (90) (60) (60) (30) (120) (120) (90) (60) (60) (30) (NP) (NP) (90) (60) (60) (30)
    22. 22. BS 9999: Table 26 105 90 75 60 45 30 Cii2 or Ciii2 60 60 45 30 30 30 Cii1 or Ciii1 — — 120 105 90 60 Ci2 105 90 75 75 60 45 Ci1 — — — — — — B4 180 135 105 75 45 30 B3 120 90 75 60 30 30 B2 75 60 60 30 30 30 B1 — — — — — — A4 300 300 120 90 60 60 A3 150 120 90 60 30 30 A2 90 75 60 30 30 15 A1 More than 60 m Not more than 60 m Not more than 30 m Not more than 18 m Not more than 11 m Not more than 5 m Height of top occupied storey above access level Minimum periods of fire resistance, in minutes Risk profile 60 30 30 B2 30 30 30 B1 — — — A4 90 60 60 A3 60 30 30 A2 30 30 15 A1 Not more than 18 m Not more than 11 m Not more than 5 m Height of top occupied storey above access level (m) Minimum periods of fire resistance (min) Risk profile
    23. 23. Special Fire Protection <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Fire Protection (Structure) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Unprotected Areas of External Facade </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke Control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Detection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management Controls </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>With the incorporation of additional fire protection measures into a building it could enable a relaxation in other areas! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprinklers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extending Travel Distances </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Sprinklers
    25. 25. Residential Sprinklers Misconception I have seen sprinklers in factories and they are ugly ? Sprinklers are expensive, I can't afford them ? Fire sprinklers cause a lot of water damage ? Smoke sets them off ? They can be damaged ? When a fire breaks out, all the sprinklers go off together ?
    26. 26. Studley Green Project - Wiltshire
    27. 27. Smoke Control
    28. 28. Why Smoke Control? <ul><li>The purpose of Smoke control will fall into one of the following categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Life Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Property Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with Building Regulation </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Allow occupants to escape and maintain a clear breathable layer at floor level, whilst evacuation is in progress </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of this clear layer will aid fire fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the build up of heat and toxic gases which can lead to flashover by allowing to pass to the atmosphere - Protect the building structure from heat </li></ul>
    30. 30. Factors Influencing System Design <ul><li>Smoke Buoyancy </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Stack Effect </li></ul>Expansion Stack Effect Buoyancy
    31. 31. Smoke Buoyancy <ul><li>Smoke will rise due to having a lower density than the surrounding air. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke on hitting a horizontal barrier will induce lateral travel. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke moving away will reduce in temperature and entrain cool air. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore buoyancy of the smoke will generally decrease the further from the source it travels. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Stack Effect <ul><li>With a low ambient temperature there is often an upward movement of air within a building. </li></ul><ul><li>The air within a building has a buoyant force because it is warmer and less dense than the outside air. </li></ul><ul><li>This buoyant force causes air to rise within any shaft of the building. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Wind Effect <ul><li>Vents should be positioned so that they are not affected by external wind conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>In determining natural ventilation of a building consideration is required to its: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounding terrain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevailing wind </li></ul></ul></ul>-ve +ve -ve
    34. 34. Who’s had a real Christmas tree?
    35. 35. <ul><li>Fire Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities for the Disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Phased Evacuation / Simultaneous </li></ul>Management
    36. 36. Case Study <ul><li>12,500m 2 double portal frame building housing various manufacturing operations. The height of the building is 12m at the haunches and 14m to the apex with a 6 o pitched roof. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire resisting construction will separate the different stages of manufacture, i.e. Primary, Secondary, Processing and storage which will be treated independent to one another where possible. </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Occupancy Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and Office Suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awake and Familiar, Normal Fire Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Classification A2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage and Warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awake and Familiar, High Fire Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Classification A4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sprinklers Installed, reducing the risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Classification Reduced A3 </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>Automatic Fire Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and Office Suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum of a manual classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgraded to an L3 system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage and Warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum L2 Achieved </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Travel Distances </li></ul><ul><li>Approved Document B: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18m in Single Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45m in Multiple Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and Office Suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25m in Single Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>63m in Multiple Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage and Warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>23m in Single Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>58m in Multiple Direction </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Compartmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and Office Suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60 minutes between users, and 30 minutes around places of special fire risks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage and Warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between warehouse and suites 120 minutes (insurance) </li></ul></ul>30minutes Fire Protection 60minutes Fire Protection
    41. 41. <ul><li>Special Risk Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and Office Suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage and Warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprinklers design in accordance with the appropriate guidance document. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and Office Suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Evacuation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage and Warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation period (reduce the amount of disruption in the event of a false activation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double Knock System </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. <ul><li>Extended Travel Distances </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Fire Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Increased life safety systems </li></ul><ul><li>Design solution appropriate to the proposed risk and occupancy profile </li></ul>Benefits brought to the development / scheme
    44. 44. Benefits of Fire Engineering <ul><li>Travel distances extended beyond limitations of the Building Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate smoke control measures </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate unnecessary escape stair cores </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate unnecessary Fire Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Fire fighting shafts can be reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate the need for sprinkler systems </li></ul><ul><li>Save the client money without compromising design or life safety </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>Over 35 years fire engineering experience - “simply the best” </li></ul><ul><li>Unrivalled knowledge of the development of codes and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and knowledge not yet in the public domain </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive prices as well as ongoing free advice </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth knowledge of Insulation and Fire Protection materials </li></ul><ul><li>CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) </li></ul>Why use Sirius??
    46. 46. Work in partnership with us to: <ul><li>Optimise your project design </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate abortive design </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve the most cost effective solution </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the construction programme </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure that life safety is at the centre of design </li></ul><ul><li>“ We believe in building relationships with companies, working closely together to achieve or even exceed the client brief : always on time and always within budget ” </li></ul>
    47. 47. Thank You for your time We can, if you so wish, view some of your existing/new drawings for a totally FREE , and confidential, initial assessment of any project/development and whether we could help.