WHAT IS A 'PODCAST'
A 'podcast' (derived from the words 'ipod' and'broadcast') is is a pre-recorded audio
program, converted to an mp3 file and sent over the net, direct to subscribers'. Don't be
fooled by the word 'pod'. You do not need an ipod to play a podcast, and Apple was not the
first company to develop podcasting software! In fact, you can even listen to and subscribe
to podcasts from within internet browsers, like Firefox, or though a Google account.
Its like radio by subscription, that can be played back any time and anywhere.
PODCASTING AND YOUR NON-PROFIT ORGANISATION
C With podcasting you reach a global audience
C Cater to niche groups- eg communities, special interests
C Podcasting as education: e-learning
C Document Oral Histories and stories
C Showcase your organisations creative output: radio plays, music, performance
C Documenting presentations, conferences, events, workshops, functions (visit
www.makinglinks.org.au after the conference!)
C News and Updates: Inform your members and supporters about issues, updates and
C Foster an active community around your organisation: raise and debate issues with your
PODCAST FORMAT / CONVENTIONS
A podcast can be professionally recorded, with highly polished highly edited, but, more
often, it is recorded in a person's home using cheap and easily accessible equipment.
Podcast episodes can range from a few minutes to over an hour and a half long (In July
2007 - TechAndGames.com aired the longest podcast in history on the 18th episode. It lasts
13 hours and 34 minutes!) The format, style and quality is entirely up to the creator.
Podcasts have been created about almost any topic you can think of: from news to
information about music, current affairs, to personal journals and audio blogs. Think of any
subject, the chances are that someone, somewhere was interested and passionate enough
about that topic to have created a podcast about it.
Podcasts can include still images and text synchronised with audio, as well as text and
'Vodcasting'- Video Podcasting
Blogcasting: Audio blogging
Mobcasting: Recording and uploading content directly from mobile phones/PDAs and other
Peercasting: collaborative online pastiche of existing and new content
HOW DOES IT WORK?
RSS is a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works – such as
blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video – in a standardized format
Podcasting works by using RSS ('real simple syndication'), a Web feed format that
references 'enclosure', files (whether text audio or video). RSS feeds consist of XML code
(similar to HTML) that originated in 2000, and had become widely used on 'blogs' by 2005
'the year of the blog'.
(there is also a competing feed format you will come across called 'atom')
Before RSS we had to go to a website and see if any new information had been updated.
RSS (RSS gif). RSS means we now 'subscribe' and receive updated information direct to us.
RSS is used to publish frequently updated information such as blog entries, news
headlines, audio, and video in a standardized format. An RSS feed allows publishers to send
text, images, audio or video to websites with an RSS newsfeed, or to people using RSS
readers, or “aggregators”
A Podcast is uploaded to a webserver which has an RSS feed enabled
The user searches for a podcast and pastes the RSS feed link into their podcatcher (The
RSS feed contains information about the location of the MP3 in XML code which 'points' the
users podcatcher to this file for download). The clever bit is that the 'podcatcher' downloads
latest episode of the podcast and any subsequent episodes thereafter.
SAMPLE RSS FEED
<description>My first podcast</description>
<title>Todays Radio Show - Monday</title>
<description>Here is my Monday podcast. Hope you like it.</description>
<pubDate>Wed, 23 Aug 2006 00:56:00 GMT</pubDate>*
<enclosure url=quot;http://www.mywebsite.com/myaudio.mp3quot; length=quot;4834743quot;
RSS and Podcasting works a bit like subscribing to a magazine. Users 'subscribe' or 'sign
up' to a podcast using software 'podcatching' software (eg itunes). The podcatcher
periodically checks for and downloads new content automatically. When a new episode is
published it is pushed direct to the subscriber.
Podcasts can then be downloaded to personal MP3 music players , or other digital devices
such as mobile phones, PDAs or computers for playback any where and at any time,
making them extremely flexible and portable.
EXAMPLES OF 'PODCATCHERS'
C Itunes. Has had support for podcasts since version 4.9 http://www.apple.com/itunes/
C Juice Mac or PC http://juicereceiver.sourceforge.net/
C Odeo (web based) http://odeo.com/
C PodNova (web based) http://www.podnova.com/
You can search for podcasts directly from within 'pod-catching' software such as iTunes or
There are also many online podcast directories where you can search for shows. As a
podcast producer, it is important to be aware of these forums, and the kinds of show that
are already out there and attracting listeners, so that you can successfully promote your
EXAMPLES OF PODCAST DIRECTORIES
EXAMPLES OF PODCASTS
A community initiated digital storytelling project about the demolition of a public housing
precinct in Sydney.
SPARK- Australia's first trade union podcast- giving workers around the world a voice
OZPODCASTER.COM podcast is a weekly Australian Tech Podcast discussing IT and
Telecommunications News, Events. Features software and gadget reviews. Gaming news,
talk back, competitions and more...
Brains Matter- Science, Curiosities and General Knowledge
Australian Storyteller- children's story podcast, follows the adventures of Poppy
ABC News Radio
3CR 855AM Melbourne
Try subscribing to a podcast in itunes Advanced settings: subscribe to itunes
PODCASTING IN AUSTRALIA
Although podcasting began as personally created media , the commercial and community
radio sector in Australia, and TV networks, have found a lot of interest in producing podcast
companions to regular programs.
In 2004 and 2005 The Austereo network, ABC Radio nation and Triple J, SBS, and numerous
public radio sations, and even some television networks, all began producing successful
podcasts. Today ABC Radio estimates that there are more than 350,000 podcasts downloads
from its website each week.
PODCASTING AND COPYRIGHT
Unfortunately, a number of prominent commercial podcasters, such as the ABC, only allow
subscribers to download their podcasts for “domestic” or “private” use (that is, in the home)
and do not extend to use by educational institutions (non-profit or otherwise).
Students can access an ABC podcast at school under the ABC licence as long as are doing
so for their own “private” (eg study, research, entertainment) purposes. However, the
licence does not extend to teachers downloading and making the podcast available to their
classes. It is importance to check the copyright details any podcast you plan to use in an
If you use copyright music in any broadcast media, including podcasts, you are legally
required to pay royalties to the artist.
APRIA requires a licence to broadcast copyright material over the internet per unit that is
downloaded. Podcasts containing music works are licensed at a minimum fee of 1.65c per
work, per subscriber - capped at 16.5c (15c ex-GST) per Podcast, per subscriber.
If your podcast is popular this would be a fortune!!!
* Even if you give credit you still need permission to use a song
* Even if you only use a small piece of the music you need permission (using 30 seconds
or less is not necessarily considered fair use)
* Even if you use it for non-profit or educational purposes you still need permission
* Even if you just use it in the background and talk over it you still need permission.
So you can only use spoken word and 'podsafe' music. That is, music that is
C Royally free
C Licenced under a creative commons licence
C Music you have obtained written permission from the licence holder to use
SOME RESOURCES FOR 'PODSAFE' MUSIC
C www.freesoundproject.org (sound effects)
C Podsafe Music Network http://music.podshow.com/
C Association of Music Podcasting http://musicpodcasting.org/home/
Demo: getting music: http://ccmixter.org/view/media/samples/browse
WHAT YOU NEED TO PODCAST
A Computer with a large harddrive 512kHz RAM
• Editing software – this is used to top and tail the program, to do simple edits,
to cut material out that you may not be able to use, such as music.
• Compression software – this may be the same software used to edit your
program and is used to compress the audio file into a format that is
compatible with downloading from the Internet and using on a mobile player.
The format is generally MP3 but may be other formats.
• Host server – this is an Internet server where you can regularly load your
podcast episodes so that the audience can subscribe to them.
• Host web page – this is a page on the web site residing on the host server
where your audience finds your podcast and subscribes to it.
The audience also needs some technology to receive a podcast.
Broadband internet connection
A Podcathcer (eg iTunes)
A playback device (computer with soundcard / mp3 play / other digital device
The revolutionary thing about podcasting is it accessible on demand and is completely
Audacity, is a freeopen souce software, available for Windows, Mac OSX and Linux
operating systems, , can be used for bothediting and compression, and offers multitrack
However, for more complex work, such as mixing in music introductions, stings, etc.,
commercial software may be preferred.
• Adobe Audition (Windows only)
• Sony Soundforge (Windows only)
• Garageband (Mac OSX only)
• Pro Tools (professional mixing Windows & Mac)
Most editing software including Audacity can export files to MP3 format, although for
many a software (codec) add-on needs to be installed and, in some cases
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) client
Finally, you will need some system to upload the MP3 files to the host server. If the
host server is the ISP web server (and the server has an established an RSS feed to enable
the podcast), you may require a stand-alone FTP client. There are many available
free on the Internet, including
However, for most commercially available podcast host servers, the upload facility is
part of the service, and you will use your web browser and HTTP to upload the audio
files to the repository.
Hosting A Podcast
To publish your podcast to the Internet, you usually need to do the following:
1. Register a Web Address – also called a domain name
2. Find/Buy Web Hosting – to store your blog/site and your audio files on the internet
3. Start a Blog - this is your web site for posting your show notes, links, etc.
4.Create an RSS Feed – this is the feed that your listeners subscribe to so they can
automatically download new episodes of your podcast
5.Validate your feed
These four things make up a typical podcast hosting setup for publishing your show to the
internet: web address, hosting, blog & RSS feed.
* How much traffic will podcast downloads create? If you have a monthly limit
on server usage, will you need to increase it? How much will you pay for the
* How big do you need your Internet link to be to service everyone who will
want to download your podcast at the same time?
* Will your solution work just as well when your podcasts are popular and start
generating a large amount of traffic?
After considering these issues, it will generally not be cost effective to use the current
organisation web server as the podcast server. It will be better to pay a company that
specialises in hosting podcasts; they benefit from economy of scale and are therefore
able to provide hosting far cheaper than the cost of working through your current
Internet Service Provider. Then the issues of traffic and the size of the Intenet link is
Liberated Syndication (https://www.libsyn.com/) is generally regarded as one of the
best podcast hosts.
Some podcast hosting alternatives to Libsyn are:
More hosts may be found at
PODCASTING PRODUCTION PATHWAY
Plan (format, content, production elements)
Record/Edit (PC/mac, microphone and audio recording/editing software.)
Add Music and FX (optional)
Create MP3 (LAME or iTunes)
Enter MP3 Metadata
Upload MP3 and web-server that has been set up with an RSS feed
Create shownotes for blog
Post link to MP3 and RSS on blog
If all this sounds unbelievable complex, it isn't nearly as hard as it looks! There are lots free
tools out there and 'all-in one' hosting and publishing sites
Today in one hour we are going to record a brief interview, edit it and upload it to the web,
complete with blog and RSS feed! I hope by the end of this session you will have a bit of an
idea about what the above list means and how to access resources to need to create a
Recording, Editing and creating MP3:
We will use 'Audacity' free open source audio editor for mac / PC/ Linex.
Copyright-Free music and effects
We will use 'Creative Commons' (http://ccmixter.org/view/media/samples/browse)
Uploading to Server
We will use 'The Internet Archive' (www.internetarchive.org)
We will use iTunes
Creating an itunes ready RSS feed www.feedburner.com
Online RSS generator
If you have your own Web site, you can easily upload your podcast by using the control panel
on your Web server. If you are using one of the many podcast storage servers available, you
can also upload your podcast using their control panel. Either way, the steps are basically
the same. For the podcast to work properly, the Web server must support podcast
-Sony Acid/ Sony Acid Express www.acidplanet.com
-Apple Garageband www.apple.com/garageband
Intro to microphones
Cardioid Vs Condenser
C non powered
C often, but not always cheaper
C 'richer' sound
C More expensive, but you do get what you pay for.
C Mic patterns: cardiod, omi, directional
Our Mic is a mono berigner, cardioid pattern
SOME OTHER GOOD MICS
CHECK COMPUTER AUDIO SETUP
Control Panel: Input (can computer's built-in mic input, a sound card, or an external audio
Go to Preferences
The audio I/O tab allows you to set up the device(s) you are recording from and playing to
the default number of tracks that will be created when you click the record button.
The Quality tab allows you to set the sample rate and bit depth of the project.
Select 16 bit floating 32 bit kHz
OVERVIEW OF AUDACITY
Play controls are at the top
To record a new file hit the red record circle in the transport panel, and a new track will be
created. You can adjust the record level with the slider next to the little microphone icon in
the top right corner, but ideally you should leave that slider fully up and adjust the level of
your input device to prevent clipping at the inputs of your sound card or interface.
-RECORD YOUR INTERVIEW-
Record Brief interview. Three questions to your partner
About them about themselves and their work and why they have come to Making Links.
Then Swap roles
The selector tool allows you to click and drag over a range of audio in order to act on that
section. Moving the cursor over the edges of the highlighted region allows grabbing and
extending the length.
The envelope tool allows you to write volume envelopes to increase or decrease loudness.
Click on the envelope tool, then click on a point along the track to create a node, then click
again to make another node and drag the node up or down to adjust the level. Dragging a
node up and off the track will delete it. This technique can add a small amount of gain to
the track as well as reducing it. Making only one node and dragging it up or down is a fast
way to adjust the gain of the entire clip.
For overall gain changes to be applied to the entire track, use the quot;amplifyquot; or quot;normalizequot;
commands from the effect menu, or adjust the volume slider at the left of the track display.
That slider sets the level for the track, but does not write automation for levels as the
project plays, you need the envelope tool for that. Similarly, the pan control, located below
the track volume slider on mono tracks, adjusts the track's overall left-right placement, but
does not write automation.
The draw tool acts like the pencil tool in most audio programs, when zoomed down to the
waveform level you can re-draw waveform data to eliminate clicks or other distortions.
Using the zoom tool , drag over a range of a track or tracks to zoom to that level. The
magnifying-glass icons on the right hand side of the top of the track window can be used to
zoom in or out in steps, to zoom to the selection, or to zoom out to see the entire project at
once. If your mouse has a scroll wheel you can use that to zoom as well.
The Time Shift tool is used to slide audio clips left and right in the timeline. Clips cannot be
dragged from track to track, but a clip can be cut or copied and pasted into another track. If
you wish to move an entire track, use the quot;move track upquot; or quot;move track downquot; command
in the drop down menu at the left of each track.
The multi-tool mode will change functions depending on where on the track the cursor is
The Cut, Copy and Paste functions work as expected, and follow keyboard shortcut
conventions as well. The trim to selection command is very handy, highlight the audio you
want to save, click the icon with the wave inside the brackets and you'll delete everything
except the selected region. The converse is accomplished by clicking the silence selection
icon, it mutes the selected audio, but without moving any other audio regions, leaving a
silent space, like hitting quot;mutequot; for that time range. All other edits will close up the gap, like
working in quot;shufflequot; or quot;ripplequot; mode in other editors. There is no quot;slip modequot; so if you wish
to eliminate sound without shuffling the adjacent audio together, use quot;silence selection.quot;
Edit Your interview
If you have sound files already in your computer that you'd like to add to your session, select
quot;import audioquot; from the project menu. You can import several types of audio files, including
MP3s. They will automatically import to new tracks. You can name the track from the drop
down menu next to the X in the top left of the track. Be careful, clicking the X deletes the
track from the project.
Export to MP3
It is preferable to keep the size of each podcast below 25 MB. The key factors that
will determine how large an MP3 file is are the length of the audio, and the bit rate (in
kbps = kilobits per second) that is chosen when encoding the file as an MP3.
The table below shows the relationship between bit rate, time length and size of file.
It is advisable when encoding to begin at the lowest bit rate (32 bits/sec) and listen to
the compressed audio. If it is not satisfactory because of the way it has been
recorded, increase the bit rate. Choose a bit rate of 64 kbps; the voice sounds good at this
bit rate, and your files won’t be too large. From the Sample Rate menu, select 22.050 kHz;
this is high enough for voice. From the Channels menu, select Mono, unless your podcast is
mostly music; voice does not need stereo, and this keeps your files small. Click OK.
It is always a compromise between size and quality, so the best way to tell is to listen
to the audio once it has been compressed and listen carefully. For very short items,
you may wish to increase the bit rate.
Enter ID Tags
At this point if you were uploading to your own webserver for the first time you would need
to write down the size of your podcast create an RSS feed.
Online RSS generator
UPLOADING YOUR PODCAST
We will use:
HOST (WEBSERVER) www.internetarchive.org
Type 'internetarchive' into firefox
CREATING A PODCAST WITH BLOGGER
To use Blogger you will need a Google Account
go to www.gmail.com, set up an email account
Go to internet archive
Join Us to get a virtual library card
Enter your Gmail email
Click Get library card
Enter A title for your work
File to upload
Enter a title for your work and click 'next'
Enter a description
Choose your licence
Next to 'file to upload' click 'browse'
Click 'this is a test'
While you wait for your file to upload
Click on your archivelink
Go TO www.blogger.com
Sign in with your new gmail account
Enter your blog display name
Accept terms of service
Create Blog title
Name your blog
Name your blog address
Choose a template
Before we start blogging we are going to enable our blog to show the enclosure we
uploaded to the internet archive
Go TO settings/format/show link fields Save settings
NOW GO TO New Post
Link- this is where we link to our mp3 on internet archive
Link- paste in your mp3 link
click save and publish
Title of your first post
/settings/format/show link fields
Link- paste in your mp3 link from the internet archive into The 'link' field
click save and publish
Your MP3 is published
Next we will create an itunes ready rss feed
Go to feedburner.com
Paste in the link to your blog
Tick quot;i am a podcasterquot;
Identify atom feed
Name the feed
Click 'skip directly to feed management'
To Redirect your blogger feed to your feedburner feed
Click 'Friendly Graphic'
Click 'Subscribe in a reader'
Choose your reader icon
Choose 'Use widget in blogger'
Click 'add widget'
Congratulations, you have sucessfully created an RSS ready pod for your podcast.
SUBSCRIBE IN ITUNES
Click on the RSS link in your blog
Borja, Rhea R. “Podcasting Craze comes to K-12 Schools: Educators discover Value of
Internet Audio Programs” Education Week, 7 December 2005.
Campbell, G. “There’s something in the Air: Podcasting in Education”, Educause, Nov/Dec
2005 pp 33 – 46.
Correy, S. “Music of the Blogospheres”(Background Briefing)
Transcript of ABC Radio National Programme which gives a good general background to
the rise of podcasting.
Educause Resource Centre “Podcasting” – links to resources for podcasting in education.
Meng, P. “Podcasting and Vodcasting: A White Paper”, University of Missouri, March 2005.
Discusses technological aspects of podcasting as well possible educational uses and
implications for education. Provides “How to Podcast”, “How to Vodcast” flowcharts and a
Dedicated website which addresses educational uses for the iPod. Refers to itself as a
“blog covering news, tutorials, tips, and techniques”
WWWtools For Education, “iPods and Podcasting in Education”