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telephone data systems 2001AR

  1. 1. 2001 ANNUAL REPORT CONNECTING with our customers
  2. 2. Financial Highlights CONTENTS U.S. CELLULAR: AN AWARD WINNING YEAR Percent 2001 2000 Change (Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts) The year 2001 was an United States Cellular Corporation December 31, 2001. U.S. Cellular Service Revenues $ 1,826,385 $1,653,922 10% P 2 Chairman and President’s extraordinary year of (U.S. Cellular) operates and invests operates systems serving 145 cellular Message Operating Cash Flow $ 617,870 $ 558,011 11 accomplishments for in wireless systems throughout the markets, has the right to operate Operating Income $ 317,212 $ 292,313 9 U.S. Cellular, which won nation. U.S. Cellular is the nation’s systems serving 18 of the PCS markets Net Income $ 173,876 $ 192,907 (10)* numerous awards for eighth largest wireless service and has investment interests in the P 5 Company Overview: service excellence and provider in terms of customers, remaining markets. At the end of Weighted Average Common and Connecting With Our Customers Series A Common Shares (000s) 86,200 86,355 — customer satisfaction. serving 3,461,000 customers and 2001, 142 markets operated by Earnings per Common and Series $ 2.02 $ 2.23 (9)* employing more than 5,100 people U.S. Cellular are included in its In June, Wireless P 18 Corporate Management Group A Common Share at the end of 2001. consolidated financial statements. Review, a highly and Board of Directors Total Assets $ 3,725,014 $3,467,034 7 regarded industry U.S. Cellular owns interests in 176 U.S. Cellular’s Common Shares are Common Shareholders’ Equity $ 2,335,669 $2,214,571 5 trade magazine, named cellular markets and owns or has the traded on the American Stock Exchange Return on Equity 7.95% 10.44% (24)* P 20 Management’s Discussion U.S. Cellular as its 2001 right to acquire interests in 28 personal under the symbol USM. The Company and Analysis Cellular Telephone Customers – Wireless Titan Award communication service (PCS) markets. is an 82.2 percent-owned subsidiary Majority-owned Markets 3,461,000 3,061,000 13 winner for Outstanding The cellular and PCS interests represent of Telephone and Data Systems, Inc., Number of Majority-owned Markets 142 139 2 Customer Service (see 27.4 million and 3.6 million popula- which is traded on the American Stock P 32 Consolidated Financial Capital Expenditures $ 487,813 $ 295,308 65 Statements details on page 9). tion equivalents, respectively, as of Exchange under the symbol TDS. *2000 results include substantial gains P 37 Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements P 48 Report of Independent Public Accountants P 49 Consolidated Quarterly Income 2001 AWARDS Iowa New Hampshire OPERATING CASH FLOW in millions NET INCOME in millions Information (Unaudited) Best Wireless Provider – New Hampshire Gold Circle U.S. Cellular was selected as “the best $350 $700 Partnership Award – Des Moines Business Record wireless provider” in surveys conducted Manchester Partners in Education $618 Readers’ Choice Award for Best by a number of newspapers and magazines P 50 Eleven-Year Summaries $301 300 600 Wireless Service Provider – in many of the Company’s service areas: North Carolina $558 Burlington Hawkeye Best of the Mountains – Illinois Best Wireless Provider – P 52 Consolidated Financial Data Asheville Citizen Times $486 250 500 Readers’ Choice Award – $234 The Daily Democrat, Fort Madison Texas Peoria Star Journal $217 Best Wireless Service Provider – Best of the Best Wireless Provider – Executive Choice Award for Best 200 Ames Tribune 400 $383 P 53 Shareholders’ Information $181 Corpus Christi Caller Times Wireless Carrier – Missouri In Business Rockford Magazine Idaho People’s Choice Award for Best 150 300 Wisconsin Readers’ Choice Award for $262 Cellular Phone Provider – Cellular Service – Best Wireless Service Provider in $112 Hannibal Courier-Post Idaho Falls Post Register 100 Readers’ Choice Survey – 200 Oklahoma Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Tennessee Excellence in Customer Service Award – Best Wireless Service Provider – Best Cellular/Wireless Phone Service – 50 Tulsa Area Better Business Bureau 100 Isthmus, Madison Knoxville News Sentinel 97 98 99 00 01 97 98 99 00 01 Best Wireless Phone Service Provider – Best Wireless Phone Dealer – Net Income After-Tax Effect Washington Greater Tulsa Newspapers from Operations of Gains In Business Magazine, Madison Absolute Best of Tulsa – Downtown Merchant of the Year – Best Wireless Service Provider – Urban Tulsa Weekly Downtown Merchants Association (8th consecutive year) Best Wireless Carrier – West Virginia Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Tulsa Family Magazine Best Wireless Phone Stores – Community Service Award – The Best of 2001 – (9th consecutive year) Marion County Chamber of Commerce McAlester News Capital & Democrat Milwaukee Journal Sentinel 1
  3. 3. CHAIRMAN AND PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE We anticipate a rebound in the or she can help the Company grow nation’s economy in the latter part while achieving personal growth and of 2002, and have set our goals for meeting goals. the year accordingly. FOCUS ON CUSTOMER The Company’s achievements in 2001 SATISFACTION will provide the basis upon which Customer satisfaction is the main U.S. Cellular’s growth is projected in focus of our business strategy. 2002 and beyond. Over the next few During the past year, we took pages we will highlight some of our several steps toward increasing successes during the past year. customer satisfaction, including: • Introducing a new “high-tech, NEW VISION, MISSION high-touch” look to our retail stores AND STRATEGY In keeping with our renewed customer • Increasing support for our key The new focus, we developed a new vision, distribution channels mission statement and business strategy • Implementing our Customer in 2001. Our new vision defines customer mission reflects Acquisition and Retention System satisfaction as the brand promise for (C.A.R.E.S.) billing and information which U.S. Cellular is known in the our commitment system in every U.S. Cellular market wireless marketplace. The new mission reflects our commitment to three • Adding more than 370 new cell equally important stakeholders— to three equally sites and investing nearly $490 customers, shareholders and associates. million in improvements to our We plan to achieve our vision and wireless network important mission through continued profitable The Dynamic Organization is committed LeRoy T. Carlson, Jr., Chairman, and growth, attained by focusing on four John E. “Jack” Rooney, President and Chief Executive Officer to ensuring that all customers and strategic priorities — increasing customer stakeholders — potential customers have a positive satisfaction, growing revenues, driving experience when interacting with standards of excellence and driving the U.S. Cellular. To that end, we have customers, U.S. CELLULAR ACCOMPLISHED 2001 IN REVIEW These financial results, though indicative Dynamic Organization. used feedback from customers to We ended the year with just under of a strong company, did not meet MANY OBJECTIVES IN 2001 AS WE Our leaders participated in training redesign our retail stores. Our new 3.5 million customers, a 13 percent our targets for the year. An extremely shareholders sessions throughout 2001 to develop high-tech, high-touch retail stores CONTINUED TO FOCUS ON OUR increase from twelve months earlier. competitive wireless marketplace has the new leadership style required to guide shoppers through every step of CUSTOMERS THROUGH OUR DYNAMIC Aided by a customer churn rate of 1.7 driven revenue per minute of use down execute our strategy and achieve the buying process, making it easier and associates. ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT percent, one of the lowest in the wireless throughout the industry, lessening the our mission. By mid-2002, all of our for U.S. Cellular to meet their needs industry, our distribution channels added positive effect on revenues of the increase PHILOSOPHY. THE EXECUTION OF management-level associates will be with superior products and services. 354,000 net new customers during the in minute use. The overall downturn in trained to lead in accordance with the THIS STRATEGY ENABLES OUR We made changes in our high-volume year. Service revenues grew 10 percent the economy, especially in retailing, principles of the Dynamic Organization. agent distribution channel as well. COMPANY TO ACHIEVE EXCELLENT to over $1.8 billion, as minutes of use on had a significant impact on our business Our call center associates, who are We increased our emphasis on RESULTS. THOUGH THE NATION’S our wireless systems increased 45 percent. in the second half of 2001. Traffic into based in six regional locations, receive exclusive agents who represent only The growth in service revenues drove our retail and agent locations slowed ECONOMY SLOWED OUR GROWTH six weeks of intensive customer service U.S. Cellular, and are implementing an 11 percent increase in operating substantially, even during the holiday IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE YEAR, training before they start serving our store signage and fixtures in their cash flow, to $618 million for the year. shopping season. As a result, despite customers. Our training is geared locations which are similar to those OVERALL RESULTS FOR THE YEAR Net income from operations totaled our low churn rate, we added fewer toward helping each associate function in our retail stores, with an end goal WERE STRONG. $181 million, or $2.10 per share. new customers in 2001 than in 2000. as part of a team, through which he of enhancing brand recognition. 2 3
  4. 4. CONNECTING WITH OUR CUSTOMERS CHAIRMAN AND PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE We implemented several technological NETWORK IMPROVEMENTS sites and expanded digital coverage, “We connect with you ,” the Company’s The new mission reflects U.S. Cellular’s SM advances during 2001 to improve cus- AND PLANS including the first steps in our conver- new tagline, sends a clear message that commitment to three equally important tomer service. The rollout of C.A.R.E.S. In late 2001, we announced our plans sion to CDMA technology (which U.S. Cellular is firmly committed to its stakeholders – customers, shareholders was completed throughout all of our to convert all of our wireless systems alone account for $80-$95 million). customers and their satisfaction. and associates: markets, giving every customer and to Code Division Multiple Access “Wireless is not just about technology OUR MISSION customer service associate access to this (CDMA) 1XRTT digital technology SUMMARY anymore,” noted President and CEO To provide the highest level of customer state-of-the-art billing and information over the next three years. The conversion Despite an uncertain economy, your John E. (Jack) Rooney. “It’s about satisfaction, which will generate profit- tool. C.A.R.E.S. enables users to access of our network to CDMA technology Company achieved impressive results connecting with customers and com- able growth for our shareholders and customer account information quickly, is an important step in achieving in 2001 through the collective efforts municating that our Company is superior rewards for our associates. shortening the response time for U.S. Cellular’s mission of profitable of our more than 5,100 associates. dedicated to customer service through We will achieve this through a Dynamic answering customer queries. Other growth. Using CDMA technology We also built the framework for knowledgeable, friendly and accessible Organization based on standards improvements enable customers to use will enhance our network by adding future growth. Our vision, mission wireless experts.” of excellence. the Web and over-the-air programming voice capacity, offering high-speed data and strategic direction are clear. The Introduced in early 2001 via major methods to streamline the activation products and features and improving Dynamic Organization principles will OUR STRATEGY consumer and business-to-business process, providing customers with an coverage. The move to CDMA will continue to drive our commitment to U.S. Cellular will achieve its vision and advertising campaigns, the tagline even higher level of satisfaction from create a unified, single-technology providing the best possible customer mission through continued profitable now appears with the Company logo the moment they sign up for service. network that will enable U.S. Cellular growth, attained by focusing on four satisfaction in 2002 and beyond. Our on signage, advertising, store displays strategic priorities: customer commitment will differentiate and printed materials. It’s a constant U.S. Cellular from the competition and Our customer commitment will differentiate visual reminder that U.S. Cellular is STRATEGIC PRIORITIES continue to drive profitable growth. dedicated to giving customers exactly • Increase customer satisfaction what they need and expect from their We would like to thank each of our U.S. Cellular from the competition and • Grow revenues wireless service provider. associates for our successes in 2001, • Drive standards of excellence and we thank you, our shareholders, continue to drive profitable growth. CEO Jack Rooney meets with U.S. CELLULAR’S DYNAMIC • Drive the Dynamic Organization associates to discuss strategic issues for your continued support. We look ORGANIZATION: A NEW at U.S. Cellular’s corporate office. forward to an exciting and successful CUSTOMER-FOCUSED VISION, The Dynamic Organization continues MISSION AND STRATEGY to expand product offerings and sim- year in 2002. During the past year, we continued to roll to be a catalyst for change. A 2001 Connecting with our customers is the plify our existing rate plan structure. out new products, such as two-way culture survey of U.S. Cellular associ- essence of the Dynamic Organization, the We expect to complete the conversion ates showed an important shift in text messaging and mobile-to-mobile Cordially yours, management philosophy introduced to U.S. Cellular is in 2004, at an approximate cost of associate perceptions — a statistically digital calling plans, which increase the U.S. Cellular by Jack Rooney. A Dynamic $400-$450 million, spread over the significant increase in the number of utility of our service. Nearly 70 percent Organization requires a customer-focused three-year period. associates who believe that “serving of our customers were using digital dedicated to vision, mission and business strategy. customers is my first priority.” Associates service as of year-end. These customers During the conversion to CDMA and In early 2001, the executive manage- also indicated they feel pride in the have access to additional features such beyond, we will continue to support ment team articulated the Company’s giving customers Company’s accomplishments and believe John E. Rooney as caller ID and text messaging. Digital other technologies, including analog long-term focus and direction. President and Chief Executive Officer that U.S. Cellular is becoming a stronger service also provides better clarity and and Time Division Multiple Access The new vision defines customer competitor in the wireless marketplace. enhanced roaming capabilities. Because exactly what they (TDMA), for the benefit of our cus- satisfaction as the product for which Building a Dynamic Organization digital service enhances the wireless tomers as well as those customers U.S. Cellular will be known in the requires a new kind of leadership. This product, customers on digital rate plans from other companies who roam on wireless marketplace. need and expect year, U.S. Cellular’s senior leadership use their phones more often. This accounts our network. Overall, we plan to invest participated in leadership development OUR VISION in part for the 45 percent increase in between $620-$640 million on our LeRoy T. Carlson, Jr. workshops to learn the skills they need We will proudly provide the best from their wireless minutes of use on our systems in 2001. wireless network in 2002 for new cell Chairman to lead and coach in a customer-focused, customer satisfaction. Customers excellence-driven environment. All ‘Expect it!’ We deliver. service provider. Company leaders will complete the workshop in early 2002. 4 5
  5. 5. OPERATIONS U.S. CELLULAR INTRODUCES HIGH-TECH, HIGH-TOUCH RETAIL STORES U.S. Cellular rolled out it’s new “high-tech, high- touch” retail stores during 2001. The new stores, designed with feedback from associate and customer advisory panels, increase the ease and convenience of shopping for wireless products and services by guiding customers through every step of the buying process – from selecting the right rate plan to choosing the best phone and wireless accessories. The new stores feature private consulting stations, product information displays, interactive kiosks and live wireless phone demon- stration stations, as well as customer service and billing terminals and a play area for children. The retail store remodeling, which will continue into 2002, is intended to improve the way the Company interacts with consumers and increase brand awareness for U.S. Cellular. In 2001, U.S. Cellular introduced new store designs that enable customers U.S. Cellular expanded its telesales function. Potential customers can call to to shop for wireless products and service with ease and convenience. discuss wireless products and promotions in a simple, convenient manner. U.S. CELLULAR SIGNS WITH CATALYST MARKETING CUSTOMERS EXPECT IT… Some customers may choose to connect It provides fast and easy access to phones and activating service via WE DELIVER with us through U.S. Cellular’s 900 information on U.S. Cellular, its the telephone. All telesales orders are Connecting with our customers agents located throughout our markets products and services, and offers the shipped within 72 hours to a customer’s means being easily accessible to them – of operation. During 2001, we placed convenience of online wireless shopping. residence or office. whenever, wherever and however they more emphasis on exclusive agents who A comprehensive “Browse and Buy” Ensuring that the right product is in choose to do business with us. Our goal represent only U.S. Cellular, a sales section allows customers to compare and the right location at the right time is is to ensure that all customers and potential channel that is expected to be a strong purchase calling plans, view wireless the objective of a new merchandise customers have a positive experience growth area for the Company. New phone and accessory options, and learn management system, which has been In September, U.S. Cellular signed an agreement with U.S. Cellular. merchandising programs, new signage, about wireless services. A “Store Finder” in the planning stages during 2001 and with Catalyst Marketing, Inc., to expand its exclusive store fixtures identical to those in our and a “Customer Help Center” provide People who visit any of our approximately is scheduled for rollout during the first agent network throughout the central, eastern Company-owned stores and the ability quick access to information or customer 240 Company stores or 230 U.S. Cellular half of 2002. The multi million-dollar and southwestern regions of the United States. to activate customer accounts online service support. kiosks located in Wal-Mart stores expect retail software system will manage This investment in U.S. Cellular’s agent sales are just part of the support and incen- and deserve the best possible service. The Company's telesales efforts were merchandise logistics to supply sales strategy reflects a continued commitment to this tives provided to our exclusive agents. distribution channel. During 2001, U.S. Cellular introduced greatly expanded this year and have channels with the products needed to Non-exclusive agents and resellers also its new “high-tech, high-touch” retail become national in scope. Utilizing give customers what they want, when Under terms of the agreement, U.S. Cellular worked remain important sources of growth. with Catalyst to open authorized agent locations stores. We also provided extensive sales two call centers, the organization they want it as well as lower our in various U.S. Cellular markets throughout the training for associates and standardized The growing number of customers who now has both inbound and outbound operation costs. country during 2001, with more agent locations methods and procedures to refocus prefer to connect with U.S. Cellular calling capabilities. Customers may planned for 2002. The stores, which will reflect our retail organization on serving our online has increased due to our redesigned call 1-888-BUY-USCC and are given U.S. Cellular’s new “high-tech, high-touch” retail customers more effectively. Web site which launched in April 2001. the convenience of purchasing wireless store branding strategy, will be operated under the name “Premier Locations.” 6 7
  6. 6. U.S. CELLULAR OPENS NEW FACILITIES CUSTOMER SERVICE /I.S. U.S. Cellular continues to improve customer service by investing in the environment and support systems used by our associates. Two new facilities, both featuring a combination of innovative design and the latest in cutting-edge network and telephone equipment, opened in late 2001. In October, the Company’s new Information Technology Management Facility opened in Bensenville, Ill. The 54,000-square-foot building currently houses more than 250 information services associates including the infrastructure, development, planning, testing and implementation departments, as well as the Company’s I.S. Data Center. A new Mid-Central Customer Care Center in Pewaukee, Wis., opened in November to stream- line operations, consolidate services and handle more than 8,000 daily customer service transactions. The 89,400-square-foot facility houses a portion of U.S. Cellular’s regional staff, customer service operations, information services data center, business operations office and national roaming support center. Some 300 associates currently work in the facility, which can accommodate up to 550 employees. U.S. Cellular opened a new state-of-the-art I.S. facility which houses the C.A.R.E.S. billing and information system as well as the I.S. Data Center. U.S. CELLULAR NAMED TITAN WINNER FOR OUTSTANDING CUSTOMER SERVICE RESPONSIVE CUSTOMER SERVICE First call resolution is a measurement • Web activation — the ability of agents OTA is now in place in nearly 75 U.S. Cellular’s commitment to now used in determining performance and direct sales channels to activate percent of U.S. Cellular markets. The U.S. Cellular’s Customer Care Center customer service was recognized incentives for all front-line associates. customer accounts online — speeds the same technology can also activate service in 2001 when the Company was associates are a vital connection to our named the 2001 Wireless Titan activation process and shortens the remotely to give customers a faster, easier customers. These associates receive six Late in 2001, U.S. Cellular took another Award winner for Outstanding amount of time customers must wait purchasing experience. OTA trials are weeks of intensive customer service training step to serve customers more effectively Customer Service by Wireless until their new phones are ready to use. now under way in some U.S. Cellular before they start serving customers. by consolidating its financial services Review, a highly regarded industry markets to test additional functionality. This year, all customer service coaches, operations into two national centers in • In 2001, the implementation of trade magazine. managers, directors and executives also Madison, Wis., and Tulsa, Okla. The C.A.R.E.S. (Customer Acquisition and A proactive initiative to connect with our Wireless Review cited U.S. Cellular’s customer participated in leadership training. realignment, to be completed in early Retention System) was completed in customers and continue strengthening service goals and initiatives put in place to 2002, will streamline these operations, every U.S. Cellular market and will our relationships was expanded during reach these goals as the basis for the honor. According to our surveys, customers The U.S. Cellular goals Wireless Review focused which include collection efforts and provide the operational efficiencies 2001 with the creation of a specialized rate getting the information they need on include: rapidly deploying wireless service in credit review teams. This change will of having all billing operations on a “Pro Call” team. This team conducts or resolving their problem with a single the communities U.S. Cellular serves, developing enable U.S. Cellular to offer the latest single system. outbound calls to make customers feel call as extremely important. First call associate training initiatives, increasing consumer in credit and collection technologies. valuable and build trust. They also resolution is the goal of U.S. Cellular’s • Customers want the best possible awareness of wireless service and reducing the make welcome calls to new customers, customer service organization. Progress is We are providing enhanced customer coverage while roaming. Over-the-air number of customers who switch to another carrier. and talk to existing customers about monitored continually through ongoing Specifically noted was U.S. Cellular’s 1.7 percent service through several new technologies: Activation (OTA) allows customer valuable information such as annual customer defection, or “churn” rate, which ranks customer satisfaction surveys. phones to be programmed to provide well below the industry average. rate plan analysis or information about “intelligent roaming” on pre-determined expanded services. carriers selected by U.S. Cellular. 8 9
  7. 7. NETWORK OPERATIONS U.S. CELLULAR CHOOSES ADVANCED CDMA TECHNOLOGY Deployment of a highly advanced digital technology – Code Division Multiple Access, or CDMA 1XRTT – will enable U.S. Cellular to more effectively respond to the changing wireless needs of customers. This major technology decision, announced late in 2001, will enable U.S. Cellular to enhance digital service by adding voice capacity, offering high-speed data products and improving coverage. CDMA 1XRTT technology will be deployed throughout the Company’s entire network beginning in the Midwest/Great Lakes area in 2002. The new technology is expected to be in 40 percent of our current markets by year-end 2002 and 75 percent of markets by year-end 2003. Completion is expected by 2004. The approximate cost of the conversion will be between $400-$450 million spread over the three-year period. CDMA 1XRTT makes more efficient use of the wireless spectrum and will allow for more economical network growth and expansion. It is expected to almost double today’s CDMA capacity by delivering nearly 10 times analog capacity. Additionally, this change will enable the Company to begin providing high-speed data access. CDMA technology is currently in place in approxi- Associates in the Network Operations Center in Knoxville, Tenn., use state-of-the-art mately one-third of U.S. Cellular’s markets, and technology to constantly monitor the quality of our network. the Company’s positive, long-term experience with the technology was influential in the decision to deploy the more advanced CDMA platform across the entire network. U.S. Cellular will continue to ENHANCING THE NETWORK provides enhanced security — giving across our network. Under the terms pair during 2001. The scalable capacity support Time Division Multiple Access, or TDMA our customers more reliable service. of a four-year, $100 million contract of the platform creates a more efficient U.S. Cellular continues to expand and technology, which currently is in place in two-thirds Three switches were migrated to the with U.S. Cellular, Lucent Technologies network architecture and better positions upgrade its network to give our customers of the Company’s markets, for the foreseeable new platform in 2001, and others will will supply digital wireless systems, U.S. Cellular for future growth. Two future, both for its own customers and for the the highest call quality, the broadest substantial roaming traffic received from other be added in 2002. engineering and installation services for additional signal transfer points will possible range of coverage and access TDMA operators. the existing U.S. Cellular network in be added to the network in 2002. to new and enhanced wireless features. Approximately 70 percent of U.S. Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina Network enhancements also are posi- Cellular’s customers use the Company’s U.S. Cellular continually seeks to and South Carolina. Two new Lucent tioning U.S. Cellular for future growth. digital service in order to utilize the provide state-of-the-art technology to CDMA 1XRTT makes systems have been added in Mabscott expanded features that digital provides. our customers. Work continues toward Currently, the Company is deploying and Morgantown, W.Va., and similar Because of this demand, U.S. Cellular the development and deployment of the an Advanced Intelligent Network. systems will be installed in Roanoke more efficient use of added more than 370 new cell sites next generation of significantly higher This platform provides a stand-alone and Lynchburg, Va., early in 2002. across its markets in 2001 to improve capacity service (2.5G and 3G) to home location register that consoli- coverage and call quality for customers. U.S. Cellular customers will benefit respond to the expected demand for dates customer information previously the wireless spectrum This brings the total number of cell sites from expanded network capacity and wireless data services. contained in separate switches. The to more than 2,900. capability and improved service quality new platform speeds and simplifies the and will allow for more and reliability as a result of U.S. Cellular’s process of migrating customers from As customer demand for digital service purchase of a pair of signal transfer one switch to another, helps reduce continues to rise, U.S. Cellular is con- points and the upgrade of an existing capacity demand in our switches and tinuing to enhance digital coverage economical network growth and expansion. 10 11