2002 Annual Report




What is Freedom?
STATEMENT            PURPOSE                                TABLE        CONTENTS
                   OF                   ...
‘When I turn 18, I’m gonna vote for real.’
                                     JUSTIN ADAMS
        Justin is 14 and an e...
FROM                  CHAIRMAN
                                                             THE


                        ...
FROM               CHAIRMAN
                                                          THE




established by the Miller Ce...
FROM                PRESIDENT
                                                                THE


            Stronger O...
FROM           PRESIDENT
                                                            THE




that the information that is ...
WHAT            FREEDOM?
                                                                         IS




‘FREEDOM means be...
WHAT            FREEDOM?
                                                                             IS




             ...
WHAT            FREEDOM?
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               ...
WHAT            FREEDOM?
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               ...
WHAT           FREEDOM?
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                  ...
JOURNALISM: PROLOGUE


                                 Death and Freedom in Rio




‘Freedom is practicing journalism wit...
JOURNALISM: PROLOGUE




                                                 “We won’t be able to change things              ...
JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES


                    Supporting the Vanguard of Democracy

                                       ...
JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES




       DOMESTIC RESTRICTIONS                       In 2002, for example, only 6 percent of     ...
JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES




        TRAINING TAKES FOCUS

    Knight’s training and education grants
in 2002 reflect our in...
JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES




                                                                                              Y...
JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES




          VALUING DIVERSITY

    An important priority for Knight’s
journalism work is to help ...
JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES




    With the digital revolution transform-       What is perhaps the foundation’s
ing the news ...
JOURNALISM: GRANTS




I  n 2002, Knight Foundation made 66 grants
                                                       ...
JOURNALISM: GRANTS




Michigan State University                250,000    American Press Institute            235,000    ...
JOURNALISM: GRANTS




             PRESS FREEDOM                         Harvard University                     420,000  ...
2002 KF Annual_Report
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2002 KF Annual_Report

  1. 1. 2002 Annual Report What is Freedom?
  2. 2. STATEMENT PURPOSE TABLE CONTENTS OF OF T he John S. and James L. Knight From the Chairman 2 Foundation was established in 1950 as a private foundation inde- From the President 4 pendent of the Knight brothers’ 2002 Programs: Prologues, Strategies and Grants 6 newspaper enterprises. It is dedicat- ed to furthering their ideals of serv- Journalism Initiatives 16 ice to community, to the highest Community Partners 30 standards of journalistic excellence and to the defense of a free press. National Venture Fund 44 In both their publishing and phil- Trustees, Officers, Staff 56 anthropic undertakings, the Knight brothers shared a broad vision and History 58 uncommon devotion to the common Investment Report 64 welfare. It is those ideals, as well as their philanthropic interests, to which Auditors’ Report 65 the foundation remains faithful. Financial Information 66 To heighten the impact of our grant making, Knight Foundation’s trustees Letter of Inquiry 72 have elected to focus on two signa- Production Credits Inside Back Cover ture programs, Journalism Initiatives and Community Partners, each with its own eligibility requirements. A third program, the National Venture Fund, nurtures innovation, leadership and experimentation for community investments that might benefit Knight communities. In a rapidly changing world, the foundation also remains flexible enough to respond to unique chal- lenges, ideas and projects that lie beyond its identified program areas, yet would fulfill the broad vision of its founders. None of the grant making would be possible without a sound financial base. Thus, preserving and enhancing the foundation’s assets through pru- dent investment management contin- ues to be of paramount importance.
  3. 3. ‘When I turn 18, I’m gonna vote for real.’ JUSTIN ADAMS Justin is 14 and an eighth grader at a Myrtle Beach, S.C., middle school. He cast a ballot on Election Day 2002 as a Kids Voting participant, even if partly ‘to get extra credit for school.’
  4. 4. FROM CHAIRMAN THE With Freedom Comes Opportunity W. Gerald Austen, M.D. ‘Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment people. Who better to define it for us than those we aim to help? Some examples: of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or For the journalists of Rio de Janeiro, abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the freedom is learning investigative right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition reporting techniques in Brazil from the government for a redress of grievances.’ Rosental Alves, the Knight Chair in – THE FIRST AMENDMENT International Journalism and head of the new Knight Center for Journalism J in the Americas at the University of ohn S. Knight wrote “The Editor’s citizen – appreciated the great human Texas at Austin (page 16). Unlike Notebook” some 2,000 times dur- fascination with freedom. They also most of their U.S. counterparts, Latin ing four decades of his distinguished knew that freedom is too often taken American journalists face daily life- journalism career. He shared with for granted, too often denied. threatening conditions working in readers – regular folk and national The Knight brothers understood that places like Rio’s mountainside slums. leaders alike – his views on subjects freedom provides opportunity. Through Unfortunately, some have lost their ranging from economics to politics their philanthropy, they helped count- lives for the cause, as did Professor to whimsy. On several occasions, the less people and hundreds of organiza- Alves’ friend Tim Lopes at the hands column’s subject was the First Amend- tions gain access to the opportunities of Rio drug lords. ment and the freedoms it sets out for freedom represents. For 53 years, those We Americans are free to elect our all Americans. of us privileged to be part of their foun- representatives, but some voting sys- From Feb. 7, 1943: “We are ourselves dation have worked to translate their tems are flawed – as Florida’s 2000 free, and our paper shall be free – free intent into action. Given our program- presidential election demonstrated as the Constitution we enjoy – free to matic interests, freedom becomes a most clearly. On Oct. 29, 2002, Pres- truth, good manners and good sense.” compelling theme for an annual report ident Bush signed the Help America And from Sept. 16, 1951: “The Con- documenting a foundation undergoing a Vote Act, a bipartisan effort to aid stitution was written by men who under- careful evolution in challenging times. states and localities in updating their stood better than we the price of liberty In this report you see comments voting systems. The president acknowl- and the blessings of free institutions.” from our funding partners, programs edged the work of the National Com- Jack and Jim Knight – each an indus- and communities, all confirming that mission on Federal Election Reform, try leader and respected community freedom means many things to many JOHN S. JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND 2
  5. 5. FROM CHAIRMAN THE established by the Miller Center of steady state, sticking to our commitment Public Affairs at the University of to help people increase their access to Virginia and the Century Foundation the things freedom guarantees. with support from Knight Foundation’s The year had its high points. Two new National Venture Fund. Enactment trustees who connect us closely to impor- of the new law illustrates the benefit tant Knight communities have joined the that one Knight grant to a national foundation’s board. Mariam C. Noland organization can have in all 26 heads the community foundation serving Knight communities and beyond. greater Detroit, and is a leader in promoting Mariam C. Noland Robert W. Briggs Basic freedoms are a beginning point, philanthropy. We first learned to value and a necessary one, but they don’t Mariam’s intelligence and perspective are concentrating resources to improve ensure a life of dignity and equal when she was a member of one of our the economic well-being of families. opportunity for far too many under- former national advisory committees. And Knight partners are working privileged individuals in the 26 U.S. Robert W. Briggs is chairman of Bucking- in North Philadelphia and nearby communities we serve. In our strate- ham, Doolittle & Burroughs, a respected Camden, N.J., striving to improve liter- gic planning, Knight trustees agreed law firm in our historic home of Akron. acy and increase cultural participation. that a major focus of our grant mak- Rob is known throughout Ohio for his In addition to this sampling, there are ing is aiding those least able to help determined and gracious leadership of myriad other ways Knight Foundation sup- themselves. Our Community Partners many civic causes. Both Mariam and ports freedom by providing opportunity in Program has continued developing Rob have already made very thoughtful journalism and in our communities. Those specific outcomes and strategies in contributions to our board through their stories and narratives begin on page 6. 2002 in partnership with local non- service on the Grants Review Committee. Of course, these funding efforts are profits, providing access and oppor- As you look at the faces and read the possible thanks to careful stewardship of tunity to residents of some of America’s comments about freedom from the diverse the foundation’s assets (page 64). Like most troubled neighborhoods. In June, residents of Knight communities, you will many other institutional investors, Knight Knight Foundation trustees witnessed likely come to the same conclusion I Foundation has seen assets fall in an econ- firsthand how our nonprofit partners reached. Our communities represent omy that has trended downward longer in Long Beach, Calif., work on school today’s United States. As Americans, than any of us ever imagined. From our readiness issues in the fascinatingly each of us shares the protective cloak of high at the end of 2000, over the last two diverse and economically deprived freedom and the opportunity that freedom years the foundation has had investment 90806 ZIP code. With Knight Foun- promotes. Collectively, we share the losses of 13.3 percent. These results hold dation help, our partners in Boulder, responsibility to preserve and make real up very favorably to the benchmarks Colo., are working with the children those freedoms for our fellow citizens. against which we compare investment per- of Latino families to better prepare Jack Knight fought for press freedom formance. And despite the dip, we paid them for school and life. Together with because he knew it assured us of a better out some $86 million in grants in 2002, our partners working in Miami’s Over- world. “True journalism – and I empha- slightly more than the previous year. Even town and East Little Havana neigh- size that word ‘true’ – is the lamplight of in this challenging economy, we plan for borhoods – the geographic heart of our modern society,” he wrote in celebrat- now to maintain our grant outlays in a America’s poorest urban center – we ing the first Pulitzer Prize at one of his newspapers. “Without it, the lamps are The Year in Review Jan. 1, 2002 – Dec. 31, 2002 turned down and we revert back to the Dark Ages. … It is the beacon light of this new experiment we call democracy.” Assets: $1.72 billion Grants paid out: $85,617,981 Proposals received: 551 W. Gerald Austen, M.D. New grants approved: $80,949,242 (459 grants) Chairman Average approved grant: $176,360 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 3
  6. 6. FROM PRESIDENT THE Stronger Organizations, Stronger Democracy Hodding Carter III ‘The winning of freedom is not to be compared to the Eisenhower to the English Speaking Union in London as the tide of war was winning of a game, with the victory recorded forever in emphatically turning. If the people do history. Freedom has its life in the hearts, the actions, not constantly assert their primacy and the spirit of men and so it must be daily earned and exercise the freedoms then inherited, refreshed – else like a flower cut from its life-giving the system will collapse or be replaced roots, it will wither and die.’ by a more rigid model. The bad news is –GEN. DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER that there is nothing permanent about freedom, any more than there was per- manence in the totalitarian model once T he nation faces hard times and hard the Pacific and Germany’s army occu- widely feared to be the one sure sur- choices. Armed conflict, actual and pied Europe from the English Channel vivor of the 20th Century. potential, seems suddenly to have again to deep within the Soviet Union. Freedom cannot endure in the face become a permanent feature of present- And we have come through before for of apathy and neglect. Its security day life. Nation-state adversaries pres- the same reason that we will now. Amer- depends upon each man and woman ent themselves publicly while terrorism ica is an open, free society made strong speaking up for what each believes, networks threaten covert strikes from by the very complexity of its political exercising First Amendment rights to seemingly infinite angles of attack. A system and the intensity of its public free speech, assembly and petition for once-booming economy has slowed to a debate. Trusting the judgment and ulti- redress of grievance. To put it another walk. The stock market has been in the mate good sense of its own people, this way, it depends on advocacy for the most dramatic slump since the Great free nation draws upon reserves denied transiently unpopular, and uninhibited Depression of the 1930s. to those who live in more repressive sys- dissent from the currently popular. In short, history has reasserted itself tems. Depending upon a political sys- But to paraphrase James Madison, and the United States has learned anew tem created by people who knew that ignorance will always be trumped by that it is not exempt from its impact. But ultimate truth resides in no human insti- knowledge. while this is cause for sober concern and tution or individual, it is better able to What the people do not know about, an urgent search for intelligent solutions, reset its course than more authoritarian they cannot adequately question or mean- it is no cause for despair. We have been governments. ingfully support. Freedom depends upon here before. Think of the Civil War. Think That’s the good news. The flip side the news media’s presentation of a rich of the Depression. Think of the months of this coin is seen in the quote above, diet of information and a wide variety of after Pearl Harbor, when Japan ruled taken from a 1944 speech by Gen. views on public policy issues. It requires JOHN S. JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND 4
  7. 7. FROM PRESIDENT THE that the information that is presented be put in usable context, not as “news from nowhere” but as news with rele- vance to the past, the present and the future. It requires a media that does not see itself as cheerleader for power but as honest auditor of power. That said, television, radio and news- papers cannot provide the basic educa- tion required for each free citizen to fil- ter and understand what she or he reads, sees or hears from the media. For that task, a solid education for each American is indispensable, and for 90 percent of Americans, that means a public school education. It must provide the basics, absolutely, but also a thorough ground- ing in critical thinking and more than a passing understanding of the institutions and demands of this democratic society. Nor does the support and defense of freedom begin and end with the individ- ual, however well educated and informed. It also is vitally dependent on that great boiling stew that is the independent sector. Now as in the past, the nation’s health requires that it continue to bub- ble over with alternative approaches and more diverse options than those prescribed by government. Millions of Americans have seen the Ad Council’s freedom campaign, What does all of this have to do with which recognizes the inestimable value of living in a free country. Knight Foundation? Simply that we believe that a significant portion of our mission, community-based as it is and supportive of a free press as it has always been, is to strengthen organizations that like the nation, can do more than one in turn strengthen democracy and free- You’ll see examples of this belief in thing at a time. We’re pretty certain that dom. Knight believes that in a free soci- the following pages. You will also see both of us must. ety, more voices and more options for the ample evidence that most of our fund- solution of enduring problems are a good ing continues to go into tightly focused thing. That means on the local level and programs chosen by our 26 communi- the national. It means in old forms of ties for long-term support. There’s no Hodding Carter III media and new. It means in new prob- contradiction here. It’s just another way President and CEO lem-solving associations as well as old. of saying that we believe that Knight, 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 5
  8. 8. WHAT FREEDOM? IS ‘FREEDOM means being able to sing as loud as I want!’ ➣ LATISHA GIBSON, STUDENT, PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLA. The Pleasant City Multicultural Center in Riviera Beach beckons younger residents who deserve the kind of middle-school education recommended by our local advisory committee. A merica without freedom would be recognize this and strive for unfettered vastly different. Short of hope. Lack- access to news and opinions, so that we ing spirit. Its press muffled, its people all might be better informed. silent. The partners working in Knight’s 26 But that is not the nation we inher- communities hold the promise of oppor- ited. Liberty launched our nation and tunity and access for the people most freedom powered its dazzling growth. in need of assistance, living in places Freedom spurs hope, human rights, bypassed by prosperity. opportunity, progress, choice, change, The value each of them places on learning, economic advancement, unfet- freedom shines through in the following tered expression – in short, a better life. pages. We hope this annual report docu- Yet some are left behind, still seek- ments what happens when doors open. ing their fair chance to share freedom’s When ideas are encouraged. When tal- rewards. ents are nurtured. When barriers go away. The organizations working as part of Or, as Americans have come to appre- Knight Foundation’s journalism initiatives ciate, when freedoms are secured by action. ‘This is a very interactive piece. I appreciate having the freedom to display it in this community and having the opportunity to get feed- back on it.’ RICCO GUERRERO, ARTIST, FORT WAYNE, IND. His mural, On Bended Backs We Rise, was commissioned by the MAYA Unity Center, one of sev- eral nonprofits working to sustain and build diverse cultural audiences in Southeast Fort Wayne. 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 7
  9. 9. WHAT FREEDOM? IS ‘Freedom creates individual possibilities. It creates the freedom of opportunity, which is enhanced by education – because educational achievement expands alternatives and possibilities. Ultimately, freedom is about choice – the freedom of opportunity. And choice is about cap- turing individual potential, as informed by experience and gained through hard work.’ LUIS M. PROENZA, PRESIDENT, UNIVERSITY OF AKRON The university is a lead collaborator in a public-private community development plan to reinvigorate the 40-block University Park neighborhood adjoining the campus in Akron, Ohio. ‘Freedom comes with the permanent struggle not to be carried away with the stream, and with the most powerful and happy moments: seeing justice, beauty and love in unexpected places, where nobody is looking for them.’ ➣ EINAT FISHBAIN, FREE-LANCE JOURNALIST, TEL AVIV, ISRAEL Fishbain is one of two international journalists from opposite sides of a world hot spot spending a year as a Knight-Wallace Fellow at the University of Michigan. 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 9
  10. 10. WHAT FREEDOM? IS ‘Freedom for me is an education for my children and ourselves.’ OLIVIA CONDE, BOULDER, COLO. For disadvantaged Latino families like Olivia Conde, her son Enrique and daughters Andrea and Angelica, we’re working on developing local strategies to improve the cognitive development, physical health and socialization of preschool children. ‘Freedom means, to me, as Martin Luther King Jr. said, that we live in a country where our children will be judged by the content of their character, not the color of their skin.’ ➣ STEVEN K. HAMP, MUSEUM PRESIDENT, DETROIT The Henry Ford (his museum’s new name) has renovated the Montgomery, Ala., bus made famous by civil rights icon Rosa Parks, who refused to take a back seat. 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 11
  11. 11. WHAT FREEDOM? IS ‘To be truly free, people must be able to provide a basic standard of living for their families. This will not only help to build stronger families, it will also enable them to participate in the economic well-being of their com- munity. As a volunteer for the Greater Miami Prosperity Campaign, I hope to help improve the lives of thou- sands of children and families in the community.’ BARBARA GARRETT, BUSINESS LEADER, MIAMI The Greater Miami Prosperity Campaign has helped inform people like Kaneesha Jinks, above right, about wealth-building programs like the Earned Income Tax Credit. ‘Freedom is a big, fuzzy blanket. It keeps away the monsters.’ ➣ CHRISTOPHER ALANZ, WICHITA, KAN. In up to a dozen Knight communities, our nonprofit partners are developing programs focusing on better preparing kids like Christopher for school. 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 13
  12. 12. WHAT FREEDOM? IS ‘To me, freedom is imagining the “what ifs” and act- ing on them, the only fear being they may not work.’ TRAIE DOCKTER, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, GRAND FORKS, N.D. Knight’s efforts to increase the community’s capacity for economic growth led to the creation of the Downtown Leadership Group, now headed by Dockter. ‘Freedom is not a birthright. It is a gift that has been given to me from prior generations through years of toil, sacrifice and determination. My hope is that I can use my freedom to do some good by telling the stories of others in a humanistic, compassionate and fair manner.’ ➣ JEROME NAKAGAWA, PHOTOJOURNALISM INTERN, SANTA FE NEW MEXICAN University of California-Berkeley student Nakagawa, whose parents are of Navajo and Japanese descent, honed his photojournalism skills as a staffer for RezNet, an online school newspaper for Native American students. 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 15
  13. 13. JOURNALISM: PROLOGUE Death and Freedom in Rio ‘Freedom is practicing journalism without fear of persecution.’ – ROSENTAL ALVES R camera into a baile funk, a lawless orgy remains were stuffed into tires and set IO DE JANEIRO – On a gloomy, of music, drugs and sex with minors. ablaze. Police found only bone fragments. damp August morning Rosental “The barbarous way he was killed Alves, also the director of the new Alves – back in his hometown to con- was one of the worst cases of a journal- Knight Center for Journalism in the duct a workshop for Brazilian journalists ist dying in the line of duty in the world,” Americas at UT Austin, had returned – stood atop a roof in Rocinha, one of said Alves, the Knight Chair in Interna- home to inspire others with the passion the 726 teeming favelas clinging to Rio’s tional Journalism at the University of that led Lopes to cover Rio’s dangerous majestic mountainsides. He gazed at Texas at Austin and a former executive slums in ways no one else would. A key the famous beaches below and thought editor of Jornal do Brasil. order of business was to show the 75 of his friend Tim Lopes. Lopes was betrayed by the tiny red editors and reporters who attended how Just weeks before, in a slum much light of his hidden camera. His captors working together increases safety. like this one, Lopes had met a grue- shot him in the knees, held a mock trial “We are not going to tell them to risk some death. A TV reporter determined and sentenced him to die. They hacked their lives,” Alves said. “The first message to expose the rising violence in a favela him to death with a samurai sword. His we want to send is that we are united.” ruled by drug gangs, Lopes sneaked a JOHN S. JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND 16
  14. 14. JOURNALISM: PROLOGUE “We won’t be able to change things Don Bolles was killed covering a story all at once,” Alves said. “But over time, about organized crime. After his death, maybe we can even create a tradition of his colleagues finished the project and a free and independent press in places went on to form Investigative Reporters where it has at times been a mere pawn.” and Editors (IRE). For the 75 journalists at that late Much like Bolles’ colleagues, Lopes’ August workshop in Rio, Lopes’ murder Brazilian peers fought back. They held Press freedom remains elusive loomed large, as did the death of Daniel vigils, marched for justice and convinced in Latin American places like Pearl, The Wall Street Journal reporter police to pursue the reporter’s killers. Rio de Janeiro’s hillside favelas, abducted and beheaded by terrorists in Six people have been arrested in con- but Knight Chair in Journalism Rosental Alves is helping to turn Pakistan. Lopes and Pearl joined 17 nection with Lopes’ death, among them it around through training. other journalists killed worldwide for Elias Pereira da Silva (Elias the Madman), their work in 2002. who is believed to be the ringleader. “The role of the press is to cover con- Police killed two other suspects. troversial stories and report from danger- And following the Knight workshop ous places,” Alves said. “We need to in August, a group of journalists formed create a support system that empowers ABRAJI – Brazil’s first chapter of IRE. The Knight Center at Texas is the journalists to continue despite opposi- “I can only imagine that, as a jour- $2 million centerpiece of the foundation’s tion in their own countries and even in nalist who dedicated most of his career multifaceted Latin American Initiative their own newsrooms.” to investigative journalism, [Tim] would aimed at advancing press freedom and Those support systems can be power- be proud of us,” said Alves. journalism excellence in the region. So ful. In 1976, Arizona Republic reporter far, the four-year project has trained 500 Brazilian and Mexican journalists, helped coordinate the activities of 30 journal- ism groups, held a forum in Austin and created a web site in English, Spanish and Portuguese (knightcenter.utexas.edu). The initiative’s partners include the Inter American Press Association and the International Center for Journalists. Many Latin American governments have introduced welcome reforms such as Mexico’s new public access laws. That said, press freedom remains elusive in a hemisphere of fragile democracies, where drug traffickers and paramilitary groups are trying to silence journalists through intimidation and murder. Some newspapers, television stations and radio networks have uncomfortably close ties to governments, the wealthy The August workshop on investigative reporting run by Rosental Alves, center, for and the military. Brazilian journalists drew 75 participants and national media coverage. 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 17
  15. 15. JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES Supporting the Vanguard of Democracy I n 1954, Knight Foundation gave its What does good journalism have to first journalism grant – $2,500 for do with freedom? Richard Oppel, editor scholarships. The award didn’t go to a of the Austin American Statesman, can journalism school, though there were tell you. Oppel coordinated Knight’s many fine ones to choose from. It went Latin American Initiative as chair of a to something new: the Inter American special subcommittee of the Journalism Press Association (IAPA). Advisory Committee. To win and keep Back then, the notion of press free- freedom, he says, “the spirit of the peo- dom taking hold in Latin America was ple must frequently be roused.” But just a dream. Still, it was one shared by what will rouse the people? Oppel quotes newspaper owners and brothers Jack Scottish philosopher David Hume: It is and Jim Knight. Jack would later serve “the liberty of the press, by which all as IAPA’s fourth president. Lee Hills, the learning, wit and genius of the nation Knight Foundation’s late chairman, was a may be employed on the side of freedom.” strong advocate of the cause. His vision: Journalists are in the vanguard of “to help citizens understand that the ulti- democracy in other Latin American mate and most important beneficiaries of grants. The International Center for a free press are the citizens themselves.” Journalists, the foundation’s top jour- Today, nearly 50 years after that nalism grantee, is creating training first grant, what was once imagined is materials in Spanish and Portuguese. now real. In most of the Americas, The IAPA, no longer new or small, pro- democracy has replaced dictatorship. tects journalists through its Impunity An unprecedented wave of freedom has project, which seeks to bring to justice rolled through the region. the murderers of Latin American journal- In some ways, a world fixated on the ists. In this role, it helps the Committee fall of the Berlin Wall barely noticed. to Protect Journalists, whose worldwide But now, as global recession threatens mission is defined by its title. CPJ used to erode the new freedom, people are a Knight challenge grant to launch an noticing. Suddenly, the Americas have endowment campaign that netted $7 something we all must fight to keep. million. Enter Knight Foundation’s Latin Other initiative grants sent Latin American Initiative, a multiyear program American journalists to U.S.-based fel- to strengthen quality journalism and lowship programs, and American edi- press freedom. In 2002, Knight’s first tors to Latin America. Others trained wave of grants for the program totaled reporters to understand international $3.5 million, the largest single invest- rules of war and fought laws that restrict To win and keep freedom, ment the foundation has made in the the publication of reports officials deem ‘the spirit of the people must journalism of its southern neighbors. insulting. frequently be roused.’ Central to the initiative is the new Knight Center for Journalism in the RICHARD OPPEL, EDITOR, AUSTIN, TEXAS Americas at the University of Texas at As a member of Knight Foundation’s Austin. After the murder of Brazilian Journalism Advisory Committee, Oppel journalist Tim Lopes, the center helped helped to craft the Latin American journalists in Rio de Janeiro form the Initiative. nation’s first group of investigative reporters and editors (page 16). JOHN S. JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND 18
  16. 16. JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES DOMESTIC RESTRICTIONS In 2002, for example, only 6 percent of trend. The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press issued Homefront Americans surveyed could name the Confidential, a much-used study detail- five fundamental freedoms in the First The United States looks free indeed Amendment: freedom of speech, the ing the federal government’s restraint compared to nations where journalists press, religion, assembly and petition. of information. The National Security are routinely murdered for simply try- As the federal government increases its Archives filed Freedom of Information ing to tell the truth. Yet even here, our efforts to curb information in the name Act requests to challenge the new secre- rights are not set in granite. As Thomas of the war against terrorism, such citi- cy measures by bringing test cases to Jefferson warned, all governments try to zen indifference makes it difficult for court. Syracuse University assembled a accumulate unchecked power, and each society to sustain the kind of debate powerful database of existing federal generation must fight to keep its freedom. that freedom is supposed to encourage. information, TRACfed. The Century Domestically, the greatest enemies of Knight-funded projects combat that Foundation studied policy alternatives, freedom may be ignorance and apathy. and its Homeland Security Project co- chair, former New Jersey Gov. Thomas Kean, now heads the independent investigation of government’s role before, during and after the largest terrorist attacks on U.S. soil, Sept. 11, 2001. “In the name of security, officials are reluctant to explain what they are doing to keep the nation secure,” said Chuck Lewis of the Center for Public Integrity, which has set up an international inves- tigative reporting network with Knight help. “This limits the ability of citizens to judge whether their elected leaders are doing a good job keeping us safe. It would be an irony indeed if we were able to spread freedom worldwide only to lose it here at home.” Many journalists talk about freedom as if it were a kind of muscle – one you must continuously use, or lose to atro- phy. Or as the philosopher Albert Camus said: “Freedom is nothing but an oppor- tunity to get better.” Toward that end, Knight Foundation expanded its efforts to promote journalism excellence through top-quality education and training. In 2002, the foundation added traveling programs that increased its reach six- Continuing its campaign to combat indifference toward the death and disappearance of fold to 12,000 of the nation’s estimated journalists in Latin America, the Inter American Press Association has launched a multi- 125,000 general news journalists. ➻ lingual public relations campaign with ads appearing in publications throughout the Western Hemisphere (www.impunidad.com). 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 19
  17. 17. JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES TRAINING TAKES FOCUS Knight’s training and education grants in 2002 reflect our interest in the full spectrum of professional development: A $5 million matching grant will increase the endowment for the Knight-Wallace Fellows at Michigan, to allow more journalists to be edu- cated at the Ann Arbor campus in yearlong, topic-based courses of study. Since the program began, more than 500 journalists have acquired a deep- er understanding of business, law, health and other important topics. A $3 million matching grant to the University of Maryland will help cre- ate a John S. and James L. Knight Cen- ter within its new journalism building. The high-tech help in the new facili- ties will enable the weeklong programs there to reach thousands beyond the 1,500 already trained. A pilot program by the Committee of Concerned Journalists visited 25 newsrooms, and 1,400 journalists, with values-based training by master teachers who emphasized accuracy, fairness and context in the pursuit of truth. Another pilot grant to the Southern Newspaper Publishers Association (SNPA) launched a traveling training ‘If freedom, by common definition, is a condition in which the program, reaching 7,000 newspaper individual may do what he wants, I think it is more a myth employees in one year at 29 different than a reality. There is no such freedom. If there were, it could locations – more people than SNPA produce terror. For me, freedom is more a state of mind that had trained in the 34 years since it should never stand alone. It should be driven by the fight for was cofounded by Jim Knight. (The virtues like peace and justice.’ SNPA has agreed to use its newly created endowment to continue the MUCHLIS AINUR ROFIK, ASSIGNMENT EDITOR, METRO-TV, JAKARTA, INDONESIA program in perpetuity.) Muchlis Rofik, above, of Jakarta and Einat Fishbain, opposite, of Tel Aviv, journalists on In addition, a grant to the Society of opposite sides of a world hot spot, have spent a year studying in Ann Arbor, Mich., as Professional Journalists will coordinate Knight-Wallace Fellows. all available training into the industry’s first easily searchable online calendar, journalismtraining.org. JOHN S. JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND 20
  18. 18. JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES Yet even all this is not nearly enough. A Knight-funded study, Newsroom Train- ing: Where’s the Investment? revealed that eight in 10 journalists and nine in 10 news executives believe that news people need more training and educa- tion. The widely quoted study said that the news industry as a whole invests only about a third of what the average American business invests in its employ- ees’ continuing training. So Knight’s expanded journalism training and education strategy is two- pronged: to reach more journalists with our own programs while encouraging greater industry investment in training of all kinds (such as the SNPA initiative). Since 1990, Knight Foundation has invested more than $25 million to cre- ate 17 Knight Chairs in Journalism at top universities. The latest recipient, the University of Southern California, will add a Knight Chair in Media and Religion aimed at probing the diverse world of spirituality and faith that is so deeply a part of our lives – and our conflicts – but so poorly portrayed in the news. In 2002, the University of Kansas filled its vacant chair in community journalism with newspaper editor Peggy Kuhr; Syracuse University filled its chair in political reporting with veteran ‘ Freedom for me is the ability to choose my own way, with my journalist and teacher Charlotte Grimes; agenda, to learn from others in order to find my own beliefs, and and the University of California at be able to express them. Freedom comes with the permanent Berkeley filled its science and technol- struggle not to be carried away with the stream, and with the ogy journalism chair with Michael most powerful and happy moments: seeing justice, beauty and Pollan, author of the best-selling book, love in unexpected places, where nobody is looking for them.’ The Botany of Desire. ➻ EINAT FISHBAIN, FREE-LANCE JOURNALIST, TEL AVIV, ISRAEL A $5 million endowment grant from Knight and a $1 million contribution from CBS newsman Mike Wallace helped secure the future for the newly renamed Knight-Wallace program. Fishbain, above, and Rofik, opposite, studied along with 17 other fellows. 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 21
  19. 19. JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES VALUING DIVERSITY An important priority for Knight’s journalism work is to help make news- rooms as American as America, while producing news content that mirrors the nation’s infinite variety in a wide range of media. Accordingly, a cluster of grants helped support the American Society of News- paper Editors and the Radio and Tele- vision News Directors as they joined forces to revitalize high school journal- ism. It is a big job. Some 7,000 of the nation’s 17,000 high schools – many in urban districts with high percentages of students of color — have inadequate or nonexistent student media. Students at such schools do not get to see civil soci- ety at work: there is no give-and-take in the school paper, no example of the First Amendment in action. The campaign is headquartered at a web site, www.highschooljournalism.org, where students and teachers can find everything they need, including free web hosting, to start new student media. So far, more than 200 new newspapers and web sites have been started. Other grants included $1.3 million to The Robert C. Maynard Institute for Journalism Education, the nation’s lead- ing trainer of journalists of color, to launch an endowment campaign. In addition, two new web-based news serv- ices, Black College Wire and RezNet, established to train African-American and Native American students, are host- ed on the Maynard Institute’s revital- ized web site. Other grants supported ethnic media organizations, pushed for more representative student bodies in Alice Schaaf, a high school journalism adviser at Bryan Station Traditional High School in Lexington, Ky., started a new school newspaper with the help of the American Society of journalism schools and funded a public Newspaper Editors’ High School Journalism Initiative. television report on diversity in news. JOHN S. JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND 22
  20. 20. JOURNALISM: STRATEGIES With the digital revolution transform- What is perhaps the foundation’s ing the news business, it has never been most ambitious new media, reach-the- easier to bring information to large num- people project is being coordinated by bers of people. This offers Knight Foun- the Federation of American Scientists. It arose from a book called A Digital dation an opportunity to work directly Gift to the Nation, in which former Public with news consumers, help them better understand the roles of the press and pub- Broadcasting Service chief Larry Gross- lic in open societies, and push them to man and former Federal Communica- make their own demands for excellence. tions Commission chair Newton Minow A good example is Knight’s joint call upon government to perform a digi- effort with The Pew Charitable Trusts and tal miracle. Consumers Union. The project, Consumer They suggest that billions of dollars WebWatch, rates web sites based on their from the auction of broadcast spectrum honesty, especially about what is news be used over the coming years to pay and what is advertising. The project’s for the greatest renaissance in educa- web site, www.consumerwebwatch.org, tion since the G.I. Bill sent generations campaigns directly to the public. It has of soldiers to college. They propose that improved the business ethics at travel the money be used to enable schools, and health-oriented web sites. libraries, museums and public broad- Several Knight grants help consumers casters to create a World Wide Web get better news and information about educational network capable of reach- how they get their news and informa- ing anyone with access to a computer. tion. In Washington, Marvin Kalb hosts Knight supported Grossman and televised interviews with leading jour- Minow’s early advocacy of a Digital nalists and media executives. In Chicago, Opportunity Investment Trust, which you can see at www.digitalpromise.org. a new interactive public television pro- gram will allow a studio audience to vote Educational nirvana? A crazy idea? Too on news practices. In the San Francisco risky? Or, like press freedom in Latin Bay Area, a web site will teach people America, will this dream too become how to “grade the news.” In Boston, a real? Grossman reports that the federal media and democracy project shows government will commission a major teachers the power and reach of the news. feasibility study of the idea. In a free Such projects are fueled by the country, amazing things are possible. research efforts of such Knight-support- ed organizations as New Directions for News, the Media Management Center Philip Merrill, for whom the College of and the Aspen Institute. All are adding Journalism at the University of Maryland critical facts and figures to the often- is named, points out architectural details heated cross-fire about whether increas- of Maryland’s new journalism building as Dean Thomas Kunkel looks on. Both ingly large news companies are offering attended a dinner announcing Knight their wares primarily for public good or Foundation’s $3 million grant to build for private gain. the John S. and James L. Knight Center at the school, consolidating several Knight-funded programs under one roof. 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 23
  21. 21. JOURNALISM: GRANTS I n 2002, Knight Foundation made 66 grants JOURNALISM EDUCATION University of Southern California 1,500,000 through its Journalism Initiatives pro- (Los Angeles, Calif.) gram, an investment of $24 million. The This grant endows a Knight Chair in Jour- University of Michigan-Ann Arbor $5,000,000 foundation’s journalism program focuses on nalism in Media and Religion at the USC (Ann Arbor, Mich.) (over five years) improving press freedom worldwide, advanc- Annenberg School for Communication. The The Knight grant renames the Michigan fel- chair, one of 17 Knight Chairs in Journalism ing journalism education and training, pro- lows program the Knight-Wallace Journalism nationally, will go to a journalism profes- moting diversity, electronic journalism and Fellowships, and expands its endowment sional already an expert in the field. The news in the public interest. This compre- with a challenge grant. The new title com- chair will design innovative graduate and hensive list of the grants features detailed bines one name from the print medium, undergraduate courses at the College of descriptions of the year’s largest invest- renowned newspaper owners Jack and Jim Letters, Arts and Sciences; write about cur- Knight; and the other from broadcast, CBS ments in the field of journalism. rent media and religion issues; host an annu- News veteran Mike Wallace. From the endow- al conference; and implement programs to ment, $2 million will establish two fellow- train midcareer journalists. ships for international journalists represent- ing opposite sides of a world hot spot. Another National Foundation for 586,000 $2 million will be used to add environmen- the Centers for Disease Control 250,000 tal studies to the program. Knight-Wallace (Atlanta, Ga.) will work closely with Jim Detjen, the Knight These two grants to the National Foundation Chair in Environmental Journalism at for the Centers for Disease Control will con- Michigan State University. tinue the Knight Public Health Journalism Fellowships through 2003, improving public University of Maryland 3,000,000 health reporting by training journalists in College Park Foundation disease control. Each fellowship class will (College Park, Md.) have nine journalists and last three months. This challenge grant boosts the university’s The fellows will spend one month in the effort to build a 75,000-square-foot, $25 classroom and two months doing fieldwork million college of journalism building that with CDC researchers. An additional nine will house the John S. and James L. Knight journalists will join the fellows for a 10-day Journalism Center. This center will be a hub boot camp. The trainees will take short of professional journalism activity within the courses in epidemiology, statistics and bioter- academy, bringing together Knight-funded rorism. The CDC will develop training pro- activities now scattered across campus. It grams to reach larger numbers of journalists will double space for the Knight Center for at conferences, and create a web site with Specialized Journalism and add a state-of- training basics to reach even more. the-art conferencing facility. Inter American Press Association 250,000 Press Institute (Miami, Fla.) The grant helps the Inter American Press Association expand its photojournalism- training program to four locations in Latin America. IAPA and the University of Miami hosted the first workshop from July 21 to July 26. The traveling workshops will reach at least 12 participants each; potential candi- dates include chief photographers, photo editors, editorial design chiefs and professors. JOHN S. JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND 24
  22. 22. JOURNALISM: GRANTS Michigan State University 250,000 American Press Institute 235,000 Columbia University 129,000 (East Lansing, Mich.) (Reston, Va.) (over two years) (New York, N.Y.) This grant expands the reach of the Knight To develop seminars for newsroom trainers. For the Committee of Concerned Journalists Chair in Environmental Journalism. The uni- to continue newsroom seminars aimed at New York University 218,000 versity will establish a journalist-in-residence raising journalism standards. (New York, N.Y.) (over two years) to assist the Knight Chair in outreach efforts, To launch Portfolio, a master’s degree in The Associated Press 100,000 create a training institute for Latin American multimedia journalism. Managing Editors environmental journalists in 2003, organize (New York, N.Y.) the Edward J. Meeman collection of envi- The Museum of Television and Radio 200,000 To design and test a national network of ronmental journalism, and place articles (New York, N.Y.) (over two years) regional training sites. selected from the 10,000-story collection To help launch the museum’s new Media online. The school also helped the Society Center with a seminar series aimed at inter- American Society of Newspaper 80,000 of Environmental Journalists launch an national journalism leaders. Editors Foundation annual environmental journalism contest for (Reston, Va.) print, broadcast and online journalists in Columbia University 175,000 To expand the activities of the Council of Pres- 2002 and will develop an online environ- (New York, N.Y.) idents of National Journalism Organizations. mental journalism training opportunity for To help the Hechinger Institute on Education journalists from Latin America, Asia and the and the Media train education reporters at American Society of Newspaper 52,000 South Pacific. medium-sized and small newspapers. Editors Foundation (Reston, Va.) The School of Journalism Foundation 250,000 The Foundation for the National 175,000 For The Learning Newsroom, a guide to news- (over five years) of North Carolina Capital Region room training. (Chapel Hill, N.C.) (Washington, D.C.) This grant extends the school’s copy editing For a handbook to help newspapers and tel- Harvard University 50,000 training five years, links it with other Knight (Cambridge, Mass.) evision stations set up high school student editing programs, develops content for the media. For the Media and American Democracy Pro- web site and requires participants to pass ject to fully support participant tuition at five along what they have learned. A redesigned, Aspen Institute 160,000 university partner sites. one-week institute will attract more appli- (Washington, D.C.) cants for the 18 openings available every To bring together media CEOs and news Mayo Foundation 50,000 year. Classes and discussions will focus on (Rochester, Minn.) leaders to discuss journalism quality and headline writing, cutline writing, photo edit- economics and to publish a report and web For outreach and training for health care ing, page design, and legal and ethical issues. site on the role of journalism in society. writers. World Affairs Council 250,000 Radio and Television News 150,000 The National Press Foundation 50,000 (Washington, D.C.) (Washington, D.C.) Directors Foundation This project targets America’s community (Washington, D.C.) To train journalists from developing nations press for international outreach. From 10 to For the Educator in the Newsroom program to better cover AIDS issues. 12 daily newspaper journalists will be select- to place college journalism teachers in broad- ed each year for the World Affairs Journalism Subtotal: 24 grants $13,295,000 cast newsrooms. Fellowships, mostly from smaller newspa- pers that do not have the means to send a Duke University 135,000 reporter abroad. Each journalist will pro- (Durham, N.C.) (over two years) pose a research topic or project that would To formally launch the North Carolina Center be carried out over three weeks of reporting on Actual Innocence. and travel in a foreign country. 2002 ANNUAL REPORT 25
  23. 23. JOURNALISM: GRANTS PRESS FREEDOM Harvard University 420,000 National Security Archive Fund 150,000 (Cambridge, Mass.) (Washington, D.C.) The grant supports two Nieman fellows from To complete an audit of federal Freedom of University of Texas at Austin $2,000,000 Latin America at the university. The two Information Act policy since the terrorist (Austin, Texas) Knight Latin American Fellows are among the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. This grant creates the Knight Center for Jour- 24 journalists selected each year as Nieman nalism in the Americas, and expands jour- Crimes of War Education Project 145,000 Fellows. The Latin American Fellows audit nalism training in Latin America. The cen- (Washington, D.C.) courses at Harvard, engage in seminars ter’s main goal will be to train Latin Ameri- To train journalists in the Americas about and workshops with Harvard faculty and in can journalists and to help organize fee-sup- the international laws of war. discussions about journalism, and partici- ported journalism training in Mexico and pate in other Nieman activities throughout Brazil. The center will organize training sem- National Freedom of Information 62,000 the nine-month academic year. This will inars each year for novice and midcareer Coalition expose leading Latin American journalists journalists in Latin America; assist Latin (Dallas, Texas) to all that one of America’s greatest univer- American journalists who want to create self- To reorganize the National Freedom of Infor- sities has to offer. sustaining institutions to defend press free- mation Coalition. dom and promote high standards of profes- World Press Institute 250,000 sional journalism; hold annual international The Reporters Committee for 40,000 (St. Paul, Minn.) forums at the University of Texas at Austin Freedom of the Press This grant provides general support to expand to develop solutions to issues of interest to (Arlington, Va.) operations in Latin America and on the World journalists in the Americas; and develop To detail how the war on terrorism has limit- Wide Web. The World Press Institute will distance learning models on the Internet in ed access to information and the public’s bring 10 international journalists to the Spanish, Portuguese and English. right to know. United States over the next two years, while at the same time launch several projects to Committee to Protect Journalists 700,000 Florida International University 23,000 increase the impact of those visits. The (Washington, D.C.) (over four years) (Miami, Fla.) journalists will participate in the institute’s The Committee to Protect Journalists will To study the creation of a fee-based journal- news bureau, contribute to the ethics section extend the Senior Research Fellows Program ism training center in Peru. on its web site and produce a reporter’s guide- for international journalists. book. The institute also will sponsor semi- Subtotal: 12 grants $4,372,000 nars in Latin America with the Investiga- tive Reporters and Editors. The Century Foundation 200,000 (New York, N.Y.) (over two years) To study how new homeland security meas- ures affect freedom of information and fed- eral government reporting. International Center for Journalists 200,000 (Washington, D.C.) (over two years) To enhance coverage of Latin American issues on the web site of the International Center for Journalists network. World Press Freedom Committee 182,000 (Reston, Va.) To support and modernize the operations of the World Press Freedom Committee. JOHN S. JAMES L. KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND 26

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