A Reporter's Guide to Medical Decision Making
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A Reporter's Guide to Medical Decision Making

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Michael's presentation to attendees at Health Journalism 2012 panel session.

Michael's presentation to attendees at Health Journalism 2012 panel session.

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A Reporter's Guide to Medical Decision Making A Reporter's Guide to Medical Decision Making Presentation Transcript

  • A REPORTER’S GUIDE TO MEDICAL DECISION MAKING H E A LT H J O U R N A L I S M 2 0 1 2 Michael J Barry, MD President April 20, 2012
  • FOUNDATION MISSION• The mission of the Foundation is to inform and amplify the patient’s voice in health care decisions 2
  • WE BELIEVE PATIENTS SHOULD BE: Supported & encouraged to participate in their health care decisions Fully informed with accurate, unbiased & understandable information Respected by having their goals & concerns honored 3
  • THE FOUNDATION AND HEALTH DIALOG• The Foundation has a licensing agreement with Health Dialog • Provides royalties and contract funding to develop and maintain decision support materials• Strict conflict-of-interest policy • Staff and Medical Editors are prohibited from financial support from the drug and device industries 4
  • IS INFORMED CONSENT “REAL?”• In a survey of consecutive patients scheduled for an elective coronary revascularization procedure at Yale New Haven Hospital in 1997-1998: • 75% believed PCI would help prevent an MI. • 71% believed PCI would help them live longer. Holmboe ES. JGIM. 2000; 15:362 5
  • IS INFORMED CONSENT “REAL?” • While even through the latest meta-analysis in 2009 (61 trials and 25,388 patients): • “Sequential innovations in catheter-based treatment for non-acute coronary artery disease showed no evidence of an effect on death or myocardial infarction when compared to medical therapy.”Trikalinos TA. Lancet. 2009; 373:911 6
  • IS INFORMED CONSENT “REAL?” • In a survey of consecutive patients consented for an elective coronary angiogram and possible percutaneous coronary intervention at Baystate Medical Center in 2007-2008: • 88% believed PCI would help prevent an MI. • 76% believed PCI would help them live longer.Rothberg MB. Annals Intern Med. 2010; 153:307. 7
  • WHAT IS GOOD MEDICAL CARE?• It is not just about doing things right• It is also about doing the right thing• Proven effective care: For some medical problems, there is one best way to proceed• Preference-sensitive care: For many and perhaps most medical problems, there is more than one reasonable option 8
  • HOW DO WE KNOW IF WE’VE HELPED PATIENTS MAKE A GOOD DECISION? 9
  • EVIDENCE OF THE PROBLEM Medical Practice Variation The DECISIONS Study 40 Years of Research A Portrait of How Americans MakeDocumenting Inconsistent Care Common Medical Decisions 10
  • HOW MUCH DID PATIENTS KNOW?• Clinical experts identified 4-5 facts a person should know, for example, common side effects of medications or surgery• Respondents were asked the knowledge questions related to their decision• For 8 out of 10 decisions, fewer than half of respondents could get more than one knowledge question right 11
  • “DIAGNOSIS” OF PATIENT PREFERENCES 12
  • FORCES SUSTAINING UNWANTED PRACTICE VARIATION Patients: Clinicians:Making Decisions Poorly in the Face of “Diagnosing” Avoidable Patients’ Ignorance Preferences Poor Decision Quality Unwanted Practice Variation 13
  • SHARED DECISION MAKING MODEL• Key characteristics: • At least two participants (clinician & patient) are involved • Both parties share information • Both parties take steps to build a consensus about the preferred treatment • An agreement is reached on the treatment to implement Charles C. Soc Sci Med. 1997; 44:681 14
  • PATIENT DECISION AIDS CAN HELP!• Tools designed to help people participate in decision-making• Provide information on the options• Help patients clarify and communicate the values they associate with different features of the options The International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration http://ipdas.ohri.ca/ 15
  • COCHRANE REVIEW OF DECISION AIDS • In 86 trials in 6 countries of 34 different decisions, use has led to: • Greater knowledge • More accurate risk perceptions • Lower decision conflict • Greater participation in decision-making • Fewer people remaining undecidedStacey et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011,Issue 10. Art. No.: CD001431. 16
  • COCHRANE REVIEW OF DECISION AIDS • Use of pDAs resulted in: • Reduced choice of major elective surgery by 20% (N=11 trials) • Reduced choice of PSA screening by 15% (N=7 trials)Stacey et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011,Issue 10. Art. No.: CD001431. 17
  • SHARED DECISION MAKING TRENDS 18
  • SDM: IMPLEMENTATION NEEDS• Patients interested in being informed and activated• Practical protocols for routine use of decision support tools• Health care systems with incentives for good “decision quality” rather than simply “more is better”• Clinicians and hospitals receptive to patient participation 19
  • Foundation Demonstration Sites Demonstration Sites Primary Care Specialty CareMassachusetts General Hospital* XUniversity of North Carolina XMaineHealth XMercy Clinics Inc. XStillwater Medical Group* XOregon Rural Practice-based Research Network* XPalo Alto Medical Research Foundation* XPeace Health* XPA FQHCs* XDartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center X XGroup Health Cooperative* X XUniversity of Washington X XAllegheny General Hospital – Breast Cancer XUniversity of California San Francisco – Breast Cancer X 20
  • THANK YOU!M B A R R Y @ I M D F O U N D AT I O N . O R G