Wear metal analysis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Wear metal analysis

on

  • 643 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
643
Views on SlideShare
640
Embed Views
3

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0

1 Embed 3

http://www.filtermagindustrial.com 3

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Wear metal analysis Wear metal analysis Document Transcript

  • MAINLUBE SUPERIOR MAINTENANCE LUBRICANTS PTY. LTD. 14 Underwood Avenue, Botany NSW 2019, Sydney, Australia Ph +61-2-9700-0880, Fax +61-2-9700-0881 Wear Particle Analysis The Wear particle Analysis is a Pro-active Predictive Maintenance System. Wear Metals Particles are extracted from an oil sample then magnified up to a 1000X for wear mode identification.Wear mode identification is possible when viewing; > What the particles are, > The particle’s size, > How the metal particle was removed, > Temperature of removal. The above information can determine the machine’s past, and therefore future Wear Mode. Pro-Active Maintenance uses the Wear Mode information to correct and prevent future reocurrence.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 1 of 17
  • Wear Modes in MachineryNormal Rubbing Wear is when the machine’s normal operation lightly defoliatesthe wear surface.Normal Rubbing Wear Particles depending on the machine, are 0-10 micronssized platelets. In a gearbox situation Normal Rubbing Wear could register0-60 ppm of wear metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer.This is a visual example of Normal Rubbing Wear Particles@ 600X Sized 5-10 microns.The images below are from machines that appear to be in an“exaggerated” Normal Rubbing Wear Mode. If the wear mode is building,then it’s not normal. (Scuffing Wear)They are the end result of other larger wear modes being milled down asthey are forced through the load zone by the lubricant flow. They appear,as a heavy concentration of Normal Rubbing Wear Particles.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 2 of 17
  • Three Body Contact is the cause of most damage.Below shows the normal “Lubricating Film Thickness” in each application in operating conditions.Particles larger than the “lubrication film thickness” become Three Body Contact Contaminate Particlesas the lubricant flow forces them through the load zone, easily penetrating the lubricating film,continually damaging load bearing surfaces Roller Bearings 0.4 to 1 Micron Ball Bearings 0.4 to 0.7 Micron Journal Bearings 0.5 to 25 Microns Hydrostatic Bearings 5 to 100 Microns Gears 0.1 to 1 Micron Dynamic Seal 0.05 to 0.5 Micron Gear Pump, Tooth to side plate 0.5 to 5 Microns Gear Pump, Tooth tip to case 0.5 to 5 Microns Vane Pump, Sides 5 to 13 Microns Vane Pump, tip 0.5 to 1 Micron Piston Pump, piston to bore 5 to 40 Microns Piston Pump, Valve plate to cylinder 0.5 to 5 Microns Servo Valves, Orifice 130 to 450 Microns Servo Valves, Flapper Wall 18 to 63 Microns Servo Valves, Spool to Sleeve 1 to 4 Microns Actuators 130 to 450 Microns Human Hair 70 to 100 Microns© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 3 of 17 View slide
  • 3 body Fatigue, Spheres, Laminar, Dark Metallo and Black Oxide Wear Metal Particles are made possible by Fluid Contamination.Abrasion Three-body sliding contact ploughs and cuts away material from component surface, leading to loss of load bearing surface, misalignment and leakage.Fatigue Three-body rolling contact roughens and microdents surfaces, fracturing load bearing surfaces.Erosion Particles suspended in high velocity fluid impact against surface, cutting and wearing away load bearing surfaces.Striction Particles lodged between machine components during the down periods cause slip stick and jamming when machines restarted.Fouling Of nozzles, flow passages, oil galleries, feed lines, heat exchangers.Corrosion Attack by water or aggressive chemicals such as organic Acids formed during oxidation of fluids.Fluid Breakdown Involves diverse mechanisms such as contaminate catalysed reactions, precipitation of additives by foreign chemicals or water, and depleting anti-wear additives by particle induced wear.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 4 of 17 View slide
  • Spherical Particles sized 4-5 microns are generated in 2 and 3 BodyFatigue cracks on rolling bearing wear surfaces.As the lubricant flow forces wear metals through rolling bearing tracks, 2 and 3Body Fatigue cracks trap the wear metal debris, the rotation rolls the debris overand, building the Sphere until it is large enough to escape. Research has shown,as the bearing is failing, one to two million spheres will be released, pre-warningan up and coming bearing failure. Other Spheres are generated in gears,these Spheres are usually 10 microns or larger. The images below showSpherical Wear Metal Particles from gears and bearings.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 5 of 17
  • Sliding Wear occurs when the lubricants film strength has been insufficient inproviding separation between two wear surfaces, allowing metal to metal contact.It’s like the glacier sliding down the hill, it bulldozers along the surfacetearing everything off in it’s path. Severe sliding wear generates extreme heat,in some cases over 1000°C in the load zone. How many times you have seena large gearbox showing gear case temperatures above 100°C?How much energy would it take to heat the gearbox to this temperature?How much energy is being wasted by tearing off metal, which could beturned into production?To generate this heat, the machine is tearing off of 50 to 200 micronchunks of metal and releasing them into the lubricant flow. This forcesthe metal chunks through the rolling elements of the machine causingsecondary wear. Gear faces subject to high temperatures over time,anneal the gear tooth surfaces, softening them promoting further wear.Here are examples of Sliding Wear Particles 500X-600X Sized 40-200 Microns.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 6 of 17
  • Cutting Wear Particles are caused by hard contamination, usuallySilica (Sand), or other hard contaminants, or an acute angle ofmetal to metal contact that has occurred between the machine’s components.The distinctive curled swarf, shapes of Cutting Wear Particles, show a hardcontaminate has penetrated the lubricating film, gouging out the metal.Cutting Wear is an abnormal wear mode. Cutting Wear Particles resultsin machinery damage and should corrected as soon as possible.Filtergram Analysis identifies all wear mode types present, then recommendschanges and monitors the immediate effect of the changes to ensure success.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 7 of 17
  • 2 Body Fatigue Wear chunks occur when the machines cyclic applicationof the stress, is in excess of the design value.The machine has been overloaded, past the capabilities of the metals surface,slightly collapsing the metals sub-surface creating a crack or dent.Repetitive bruising in this area further fractures the metals sub-surface causingthe area to eventually spall out. This creates the familiar deep pitting and scaringdamage observed on load bearing surfaces. Spheres are usually generated inthese areas.2 Body Fatigue Wear Particles are flat platelets with a major dimension tothickness ratio of approximately 10:1, a smooth surface and a randomirregularly shaped circumference.These spalling metal particles are carried by the oil flow through other loadzones, snowballing the effect and further damaging load-bearing surfaces.Damage will continue to this machine until the contamination is completelyremovedFiltergram Analysis identifies all wear mode types present, then recommendschanges and monitors the immediate effect of the changes to ensure success.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 8 of 17
  • 3 Body Fatigue Wear Chunks are wear metal Particles that began whena foreign body was forced through the load zone creating a micro crack or dent.Repetitive bruising in this area fractures the metals surface, causing the area toeventually spall out. This creates the familiar loss of hardened surface, scaringand light pitting damage observed on load bearing surfaces.These spalling metal particles are carried by the oil flow through other loadzones, snowballing the effect and further damaging load-bearing surfaces.Damage will continue to this machine until the contamination is completelyremoved.Filtergram Analysis identifies all wear mode types present, then recommendschanges and monitors the immediate effect of the changes to ensure success. Ifnot corrected this wear mode will escalate in Scuffing Wear and eventual failure.Three Body WearScuffing Wear© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Page 9 of 17
  • Scuffing Wear Typical of “Running In” mode.New machinery must be “run in” to allow load-carrying surfaces to “bed in”.When the components of a machine are new, especially after an overhaul,bearings and gears can be sourced from may different places. There are hillsand valleys present that must be smoothed out to achieve the correct “lightdefoliation” of the wear surface to settle the machine down into Normal RubbingWear mode.After a machine has “bedded in” the machine must be flushed and refilled withfresh lubricant. If left, scuffing wear will be carried by the oil flow through otherload zones, snowballing the effect generating 3 Body Fatigue Wear, then on toLaminar Wear and further damaging the new load bearing surfaces.Damage will continue to this machine until the contamination is completelyremoved.Filtergram Analysis identifies all wear mode types present then recommendschanges and monitors the immediate effect of the changes to ensure success.The images below are from a large reduction box that has been freshlyoverhauled and run for 100 hours and benchmarked.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Page 10 of 17
  • Red Iron Oxide Particles are easily formed when water is present in thesystem, or has been in the system in the past.If heavy amounts of large Red Iron Oxide Particles are found in the sample, thiswill indicate the presents of water in the system.Red Iron Oxide particles vary in colour and size with the amount of water present.The presence of other minerals, in the water and the size of the crystals, all havean effect on the way the Red Oxide Particles form. Below are several differentforms of Red Iron Oxide Particles, the effect of the formation of these particleson the metal surfaces causes severe surface corrosion damage and subsequentloss of load carrying surface area, this is catalysed by the formation of the RedIron Oxide Particles.Filtergram Analysis identifies all wear mode types present then recommendschanges and monitors the immediate effect of the changes to ensure success.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 11 of 15
  • Dark Metallo & Black Oxide Particles are formed when machine is being overdriven beyond the capability of the lubricant. The heat and pressure generatedcauses lubricant starvation. When Red Iron Oxide (rust), is forced through theload zone it polymerises and forms Dark Metallo-Oxide and Black OxideParticles. Water is not present when Black Oxide Particles and Dark Metallo-Oxides are formed. There are many forms of Iron Oxides FeO, Fe2O3 andFe3O4.To rectify this wear mode the lubricant should be up graded to a product moresuitable to the machines operating environment. It is not unusual to see particlesoxidised to varying degrees of colour , from straw through to blue purple.Filtergram Analysis identifies all wear mode types present then recommendschanges and monitors the immediate effect of the changes to ensure success.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 12 of 15
  • Laminar Wear is a secondary wear mode, which is the end result of all wearmodes being forced through the load zone by the lubricant flow. Their passagedamages load bearing surfaces, forming large “rolled out” particles that containall wear modes created earlier. The machine’s rolling elements roll the abnormalWear Metal Particles flat, to the distinctive length to thickness 30:1 ratio.Typical operating lubrication film clearance in Industrial Ball Bearing, RollerBearing and Meshing Gear Sets are of 0.1 to 1-Micron clearance. When spalls orbreakages occur, or foreign contaminates are introduced to the lubricationsystem, the foreign particles could be 100’s of microns in size, the human hair is60 to 100 microns in diameter. The lubricant flow forces these huge foreignparticles, through the machine’s rolling gears and bearings causing extensivedamage to the machines running surfaces.As these chunks of metal, up to 500 microns in size, are forced through thebearings and gears, with a maximum clearance of 1 micron, they crush and milldown forming the 0 to 15 microns sized abnormal wear metals that register whenan Atomic Absorption Spectrometer test is preformed. Most people havetrended the wear rate using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer from thelocal Caterpillar Agent or Fuel Company. The problem with this type ofanalysis is wear particles are required to be milled down by themachine’s rolling elements to the small size of 0-10 microns before theyregister in the test. Particles bigger than 10-micron increase the particlecount but cannot be identified. This means this the Atomic AbsorptionSpectrometer often only registers the introduction of a contaminant 2 to 3months after the event. Undetected contaminates cause extensive damage tothe machine’s wear surfaces, shortening their life by cracking and denting thesurface in the end forming other abnormal wear metals shown ahead. FiltergramAnalysis identifies all wear mode types present, then recommends changes andmonitors the immediate effect of the changes to ensure success.Damage will continue to the machine until the contamination is completelyremoved.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 13 of 17
  • Here are examples of Laminar Wear Particles 500X-600X Sized 40-200Microns.Note: See how as the time extends the particles are broken up smaller.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Page 14 of 17
  • ISO SOLID CONTAMINANT CODE ISO 4406 Range Number Chart Range Number 24 indicates 80,000 to 160,000 particles per ml of oil Range Number 23 indicates 40,000 to 80,000 particles per ml of oil Range Number 22 indicates 20,000 to 40,000 particles per ml of oil Range Number 21 indicates 10,000 to 20,000 particles per ml of oil Range Number 20 indicates 5,000 to 10,000 particles per ml of oil Range Number 19 indicates 2,500 to 5,000 particles per ml of oil Range Number 18 indicates 1,300 to 2,500 particles per ml of oil Range Number 17 indicates 640 to1,300 particles per ml of oil Range Number 16 indicates 320 to 640 particles per ml of oil Range Number 15 indicates 160 to 320 particles per ml of oil Range Number 14 indicates 80 to 160 particles per ml of oil Range Number 13 indicates 40 to 80 particles per ml of oil Range Number 12 indicates 20 to 40 particles per ml of oil Range Number 11 indicates 10 to 20 particles per ml of oil Range Number 10 indicates 5 to 10 particles per ml of oil Range Number 9 indicates 2.5 to 5 particles per ml of oil Range Number 8 indicates 1.3 to 2.5 particles per ml of oil Range Number 7 indicates 0.64 to 1.3 particles per ml of oil Range Number 6 indicates 0.32 to 0.64 particles per ml of oil Range Number 5 indicates 0.16 to 0.32 particles per ml of oil Range Number 4 indicates 0.08 to 0.16 particles per ml of oil Range Number 3 indicates 0.04 to 0.08 particles per ml of oil Range Number 2 indicates 0.02 to 0.04 particles per ml of oil Range Number 1 indicates 0.01 to 0.02 particles per ml of oil© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 15of 17
  • ISO SOLID CONTAMINANT CODE ISO 4406The ISO Solid Contaminant Code ISO 4406 is the single most wide spread system for representing contaminantlevels in Hydraulic or Lube Oil Systems.ISO 4406 uses 2 range numbers, the first one representing particle counts above 5 microns and the second onerepresent particles counts above 15 microns.The first range number is separated for the second range number by a slash, (eg 15/12) From the chart, the particlecount ranges correspond to each adjacent range.A typical ISO Code for a hydraulic system is ISO 16/13.By checking the Range Chart we can see thatRange Number 16 means there are between 320 and 640 particles per ml of oil bigger than 5 microns.AndRange Number 13 means there are between 40 and 80 particles per ml of oil bigger than 15 microns included in thisfirst total of between 320 and 640 particles per ml of oil.This equates to approximately I milligram of dirt per litre of fluid or 1 ppm.A Vickers Chart of Recommended Cleanliness Codes uses the Pal or Vickers System, same as this ISO 4406System’s Range Numbers. Vickers being a leading Hydraulic Equipment Manufacturer developed this system toprevent unnecessary wear in hydraulic systems.The difference between the Vickers System and ISO 4406 is that Vickers also consider particles 2 microns andgreater, this range is recorded by adding another set of numbers in front for the number of particles greater than 2microns. eg 18/15/12, or;(1300 to 2500 particles >2 microns/ 160 to 320 particles >5 microns/ 20 to 40 particles >15 microns).At all times the first Range Number will indicate the total number of particles of all sizes per ml of lubricant, thesubsequent Range Numbers indicate the sizing of the particles in this first totalBoth systems without the previous page’s chart offer limited information until the system has been learnt andunderstood. Once this is accomplished the user will notice any unusual Range Number changes and be very accuratewith early detection and correction of abnormal wear modes.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 16 of 17
  • Mainlube Lubricant’s Analysis Requesting Sheet Test No.Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd, PO Box 353, Botany NSW 145514 Underwood Avenue, Botany NSW 2019 Ph.02-9700-0880, Fax 9700-0881, E-mail: info@mainlube.com.auToday’s Date: ___/___/___ Sample Received: ___/___/___Lab Sent: ___/___/___ Test Results: ___/___/___ NOTE: TO ENSURE PROCESSING OF THIS SAMPLE ALL APPLICATION DETAILS MUST BE COMPLETED CUSTOMER NAME, ADDRESS, PH & FAX.___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Attention : Phone : Fax : NOTE: TO ENSURE PROCESSING OF THIS SAMPLE ALL APPLICATION DETAILS MUST BE COMPLETED APPLICATION DETAILSUnit, Vehicle, Plant, Rego,Id, Number, Name, etc:______________________________________ Equipment Make :_________________________Equipm ent Model:____________________ Total Machine Hours/Kms:_____________ Hours/Kms on Oil:______________ Lubricant Brand,Machine Location :___________________________ Type, & SAE :___________________________________________ Filter Changed: Yes / No. Fuel Type: Diesel/Petrol/Electric/Gas Other ___________________Top Up Ltrs : ______________. Oil Changed: Yes / No. OIL QUANTITY _________Litres HP/kW _______________Sample Taken From: θ Engine; θ Hydraulics; θ Reduction Gearbox; Type:_____________ θ Manual Transmission; θ Auto Transmission; θ Front Axle; θ Rear Axle; θ Final Drive which? __________;θ Turbine; θ Bearing Housing & Type__________________ θ Air Compressor; θ Refrigeration Compressor; θ Vacuum Pump; θ Heat Transfer System; Other ___________________Metal Types expected in sample eg: Steel, Bronze etc:___________________________________________________________________________;How & Where Was Sample Taken: ___________________________________________________________________________________Any Recent repairsrepairs:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Please continue on back of form with further relevant observations on, Lubricant smell, visual appearance, type of environment, temperature etc, Information Important to Oil Test: θ θ Person Completing/Requesting Test, Print Name: ___________________________Signed: ________________________Date: ____/____/____ TEST TYPES REQUIRED:Wear Particle Analysis @ $85 per each normal to $140 on complex samples. Predicts future wear & machine life, checksmachine’s condition often providing several months warning of component failure allowing planned downtime.Wear Metal PPM Analysis @ $70 Per Sample. Used for evaluating past machine wear, provides PPM Wear MetalsSized 0-5 Microns, Particle Count, Water, Fuel, Soot, Oxidation.Lubricant Condition Analysis @ $70 Per Sample. Used for establishing lubricant condition, whetherlubricant should be changed and project remaining lubricant life.Please Note: Urgent Rush Wear Particle Analysis can be completed @ plus 100% rate, turn around approx 2 hours fromreceipt.Please do not completely fill the sample bottle as this can prevent correct agitation and subsequent testing. Please fill theMainlube sample bottle to between the 2 nd and 3rd rings, about ¾ full. For Wear Metal PPM Analysis also fill the Red Cap withthe same unused clean new oil as the sample. Affix the white Cap and fill out this sheet correctly and send with sample tothe above address. Photocopy this sheet and fill out to send with your sample and keep for your records.© Mainlube Superior Maintenance Lubricants Pty Ltd Page 17 of 17