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  • Note:
    Spanish America divided into four viceroyalties:
    New Spain: independent as Mexico, 1821; five central American states later secede
    New Granada: Independent as Grand Columbia, 1811; Venezuela and Ecuador independent 1830; Panama 1903
    Peru: Chile independent, 1818; Peru, 1821
    Rio de la Plata: Argentina independent 1816; Uruguay, 1828; Paraguay, 1835

Transcript

  • 1. POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 2. OUTLINE •Integrationist nationalism •Colonial nationalism •Separatist nationalism •Common features POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 3. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM nation A state A+ state A state C state B Small states combine to form a larger one, purportedly corresponding with the “nation” POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 4. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM • • • • THE PROTOTYPE? REVOLUTIONARY FRANCE: Pre-1789 France as a mixture of –Territories ruled directly from Paris –Territories with substantial autonomy or under external influence Revolution: territorial centralisation Identification with French culture Powerful impact of “jacobin” model elsewhere POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 5. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM EXAMPLE: FRANCE IN 1789 POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 6. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM EXAMPLE: FRANCE AFTER 1790 (DEPARTEMENTS) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 7. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM OTHER EXAMPLES: •Germany (-1871) •Italy (-1870) •United States (-1787, and later) •Switzerland (-1848) In all cases, but in varying degrees: elites seek to (1) neutralise outside influences and (2) build internal unity Commonly occurring development: later authoritarian phase (“purification” of national territory) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 8. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM EXAMPLE: GERMANY TO 1871 POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 9. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM EXAMPLE: ITALY IN IN THE 1840s POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 10. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM EXAMPLE: ITALY, 1870 POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 11. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM CULTURAL INTEGRATION: • Commonly follows process of political unification, or achievement of political independence • Rests on notions of: –Centralised state (no local autonomy) –Single culture –Major exceptions to first of these (USA, Germany) • May find extreme expression in authoritarian nationalism, fascism, etc. POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 12. INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM IRREDENTISM: • Extension of “national territory” to include all areas that “rightfully” belong • Many examples: –Germany in 1930s –Ireland (Northern Ireland, to 1998) –India (Azad Kashmir), Pakistan (Jammu and Kashmir) • In general, weakens over time (impact of borders on language and culture) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 13. COLONIAL NATIONALISM GENERAL FORM: • Movement for independence of colonial population (“creoles”) • Depends on mechanics of relationship with metropolitan power (eg Virginia etc. v Britain; New Spain v. Spain; Brazil v. Portugal) • Depends also on capacity of colonial population to control indigenous population POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 14. COLONIAL NATIONALISM SOME EARLY EXAMPLES: • North America –Colonies rebel against Great Britain (1775-83) –Later unify as USA (1787) • Spanish America –Colonies rebel against Spain (1810-) –Establish independence (Argentina etc.) –Further secessions (Uruguay, Paraguay etc.) • Ireland –“Grattan’s Parliament”, 1782 (but different pattern to the other cases) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 15. COLONIAL NATIONALISM INDIGENOUS ISSUE: • Sizeable indigenous population survives (Peru, Bolivia), or large mestizo population (rest of Spanish America, except Chile, Argentina, Uruguay): continuing issue (eg election of Morales in Bolivia) • Moderate indigenous population survives (Maori in New Zealand): strong culture and legal position • Indigenous population now insignificant (USA, Canada, Australia)—but apologies by Rudd and Harper, 2008 POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 16. COLONIAL NATIONALISM “CREOLE” DIVISIONS: • White population of South Africa divided between Afrikaners and English speakers (but overall small minority) • European-origin population of Canada divided between English speakers and French speakers; division strengthens (negligible indigenous threat) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 17. SEPARATIST NATIONALISM state A nation A state B nation B nation B Peripheral regions secede from larger states POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 18. SEPARATIST NATIONALISM NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE • • • • EUROPEAN EXAMPLES: Ottoman empire: secession of –Greece (1822), Serbia (1878), Romania (1878), Bulgaria (1908) Habsburg monarchy: break-up in 1918 –Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia United Kingdom: secession of –Ireland (1922) Post-communist collapse in 1990s: –USSR, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 19. SEPARATIST NATIONALISM EXAMPLE: AUSTRIAHUNGARY POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 20. SEPARATIST NATIONALISM POLAND CZ-SLOV. AUSTRIA EXAMPLE: AUSTROHUNGARIAN NATIONALITIES HUNGARY ROMANIA YUGOSLAVIA POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 21. SEPARATIST NATIONALISM • • • • SMALLER EUROPEAN NATIONS: In the case of certain smaller European nations, national movement followed a distinctive path (Miroslav Hroch, 1985) In these cases, the “nation” had an “incomplete social structure” (nobility and landed classes belonged to another nation) These nations were also sometimes described as “historyless”, “ethnic trash” (Engels) Examples: Czech, Lithuanian, Estonian, Finnish, Norwegian, Flemish and Slovak nationalism POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 22. SEPARATIST NATIONALISM SMALLER EUROPEAN NATIONS: NATIONALIST PHASES • Phase A (pre-industrial): elements within elites develop interest in local history, folklore • Phase B (transitional): middle class leadership of nation emerges, makes political demands • Phase C (modern): mass nationalism: leadership mobilises followers behind nationalist demands (Hroch, 1985) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 23. SEPARATIST NATIONALISM ANTI-COLONIAL FORM: • Asia –Indian independence (1947), etc. –Further secessions, eg Pakistan (1947), Bangladesh (1971) • Africa –Nigeria (1960), etc. (indigenous population) –South Africa: complex path POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 24. SEPARATIST NATIONALISM “CREOLE” ISSUE: • South Africa, Rhodesia: significant white populations survive, fight rearguard action • India: Anglo-Indian population loses significance • Europe: different patterns –Estonia, Latvia, Czechoslovakia (disappearance of Germans) –Ireland, Finland (remainder of former privileged ruling group survives) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 25. SEPARATIST NATIONALISM AUTHENTICITY OF INDIGENOUS CULTURE • Widespread willingness to accept metropolitan language in Asia and especially Africa • Insistence on indigenous language in Europe, except e.g. Ireland (some other examples) • Occasional struggles over language norms (eg Norway (Bokmål v Nynorsk), Greece (Katharevousa v. Dimotiki) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 26. COMMON FEATURES NATIONALIST ACTORS: • Three identifiable in principle: –Metropolitan power (remote: e.g. imperial capital in Europe; or adjacent: capital of local state) –Regional centre (economically, socially and politically privileged; “high” culture) –Regional periphery (economically, socially and politically marginal; separate culture) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 27. COMMON FEATURES NATIONALIST ACTORS: • Variable significance of three actors: –Metropolitan power encounters very little opposition (integrationist nationalism) –Regional centre the major victor, but two other actors relevant (colonial nationalism) –Regional periphery the victor, but two other actors relevant (separatist nationalism) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 28. COMMON FEATURES EXAMPLE: SMALLER EUROPEAN NATIONS: 19th c. Estonia Nobility (German) alliance Townsfolk (German) Peasants (Estonian) conflict conflict POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION Metropole (Russia)
  • 29. COMMON FEATURES EXAMPLE: LATIN AMERICA Spaniards Creoles Mestizos alliance conflict conflicts Indians, Blacks POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION Metropole (Spain)
  • 30. COMMON FEATURES NATIONALIST PROGRAMME: • Nation as an entity whose distinctiveness is to be preserved, and whose mission to humanity is to be promoted • Nation as a community with a shared past, perhaps with a common descent and racial background, and with a homeland of its own • Political ambition to secure the unity of the nation in relation to potentially disruptive forces within its own borders, and to establish its independence in relation to external rivals. POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
  • 31. THE END … NEXT: EXPLAINING NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 9. NATIONALIST MOBILISATION