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Polnat04(3)
 

Polnat04(3)

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    Polnat04(3) Polnat04(3) Presentation Transcript

    • POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • OUTLINE Look at relationship between religion and nationalism: • Religion as a source of division • Religion, society and politics • Religion and national identity POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • NATURE OF RELIGION Definition: Religion: “a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden—beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them” (Durkheim) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • NATURE OF RELIGION Implications of definition: Religion embodies beliefs and practices (or rituals): • Beliefs: ideological component, may have political implications (e.g. about matters of public policy) • Rituals: external expressions of belief, typically non-political, but may have political implications (e.g. public displays, processions) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • NATURE OF RELIGION Differences between religion and language as source of differentiation: • Commitment to religion is qualitative, not categorical (so partial membership, or non-membership, is possible) • Religion does not imply territorial concentration, or critical mass (so no intrinsic drive towards assimilation) • Religion always has social (and possibly political) implications (so membership implies political position?) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • NATURE OF RELIGION Examples of religious divisions: NORTH. IRELAND, 1961 (%) Catholic 35 Presbyterian 29 Church of I. 24 Other 12 NETHERLANDS, 1970 (%) Catholic 40 Dutch Reformed 24 Orthodox Ref. 9 Other 3 JAPAN, 1969 (%) Buddhist 75 Shinto 67 Christian 1 Other 5 Total Total Total 100 76 POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM 148
    • NATURE OF RELIGION World breakdown by religion, 2006 (very crude estimates): • Christians: 2,156m. (Catholic 52%;Protestant 38%;Orthodox 10%) • Muslims: 1,334m. (Sunni 85%; Shia 15%) • Hindus: 878m. • Buddhists: 382m. • Others, none: 1,713m. POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • CLASSIFICATION OF RELIGION Criterion 1: descent: • Religions of Semitic origin – Modern Judaism – Christianity – Islam • Religions of South Asian origin – Modern Hinduism – Buddhism – Sikhism POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • CLASSIFICATION OF RELIGION Criterion 2: broad orientation: • Universalistic – Christianity – Islam • Ethnic / particularistic – Judaism – Hinduism – Sikhism – Shinto POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND SOCIETY Sociopolitical implications of religion • • • • Impact on educational system and values Effect on language development Ritual and ceremonial aspects Ideological and policy consequences POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND SOCIETY Religion and educational development Inculcation of religious values requires a minimum level of teaching Implies existence of at least a rudimentary educational system (perhaps church-based) May imply the cultivation of special skills (e.g. basic literacy) Certain religions more demanding than others (e.g. emphasis in Protestantism on need for everyone to read the Bible)  Significant consequences for social development POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND SOCIETY Religion and language development Clerical elites (and possibly all church members) require medium of wider communication Ancient language sometimes adopted (Latin, Old Church Slavonic, Sanskrit, Hebrew) Vernacular language sometimes cultivated (impact of Protestantism on language development)  Significant consequences for language development and wider communication POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND SOCIETY Religion, ritual and ceremonial Religions tend to share common rituals which facilitate cross-cultural communication (ceremonies of worship, prayer rituals, pilgrimages)  Significant consequences for community building POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND SOCIETY Religion and politics Different religions may have different implications for public policy: –Protestant emphasis on sabbatarianism, prohibition –Catholic emphasis on sexual morality, family — and on Catholic schools and medical services Raises prospect of conflict with secular state, or between religions  Significant consequences for political mobilisation POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONAL IDENTITY Formation of national identity • May be greatly facilitated by social impact of religion (building of broad community) • But universalist religions are inclusive (promote notion of bonds between all humans) • Nevertheless, may have implications for defining narrower patterns of identity – Impact of “ethnic” religions – Effect of organisational structures – Religious labels as ethnonational labels POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONAL IDENTITY “Ethnic” religion and national identity Community is defined as a collectivity unified, and distinguished from others, by shared beliefs and rituals (e.g. Shinto, Judaism) Religious writings, tracts and ceremonials may be those of an ethnonational community (they document history of a people, not just of a religion; e.g. Old Testament and Israel) But: ethnic religion may sometimes be divisive (e.g. tribal / local religions) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONAL IDENTITY Religious organisation and national identity Church structure may mirror state structure (and thus reinforce sense of collective identity) Church structure may follow boundaries that later become “national” ones (e.g. church in Ireland) Schism or doctrinal revolt may follow “national” lines (e.g. Reformation) Church reorganisation may follow “national” lines •Lutheran monarchies, Anglicanism •Autocephalous Orthodox churches (Balkans) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONAL IDENTITY Religious labelling and national identity Religious affiliation may be an indicator of origin, and imply national identity • Northern Ireland (Catholic Irish, Protestant British) • Poland (esp. in the past): Masurians (Protestant) • Lithuania (inter-war): Memellanders (Protestant) • Bulgaria: Pomaks (Muslim) Note impact of historical divisions on (1) religion and (2) identity; beware causation! POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONALISM RELIGION AND NATIONAL IDENTITY: EXAMPLE 1: NORTHERN IRELAND, 2004 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Protestant British Catholic Ulster Other Northern Irish Irish POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONALISM RELIGION AND NATIONAL IDENTITY: EXAMPLE 2: SRI LANKA, 1981 LANGUAGE: Sinhala Tamil RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION: Buddhist Hindu Muslim Sinhalese (72%) SL Tamil (11%) Moors (7%) Indian Tamil (9%) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONALISM RELIGION AND NATIONAL IDENTITY: EXAMPLE 3: FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, 1991 LANGUAGE: SerboCroatian TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION: Orthodox Catholic Muslim Serbian (36%) Ethnic Muslim (10%) Montenegrin (2%) Slovene Slovenian (7%) Macedonian Albanian Croatian (20%) Macedonian (7%) Albanian (9%) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONALISM RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND “NATION” : COMPARISON WITH LANGUAGE 1. “Nation” contains several religions 2. Religion contains several “nations” 3. “Nation” and religious community coincide 4. “Nation” is linked to ancestral religion POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONALISM nation A 1. “nation” contains several religions Rel. A Rel. C Rel. B Common pattern today (e.g Germany, Netherlands); now unproblematic POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONALISM Religion A 2. Religious community contains several “nations” nation A nation C nation B Very common pattern (universalist religions); unproblematic POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONALISM nation A lang. A 3. “nation” and religious community coincide Ethnic religions (e.g Judaism, Sikhism); exceptional POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • RELIGION AND NATIONALISM nation A 4. “nation” is linked to ancestral religion Rel. A Unusual (component in Irish identity?); Sustainability? POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
    • THE END … NEXT: HISTORICAL IMAGES AND NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 4. RELIGION AND NATIONALISM